МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ по дисциплине «Английский язык» для студентов II курса «Экологические проблемы автотранспортных предприятий»
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МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ по дисциплине «Английский язык» для студентов II курса «Экологические проблемы автотранспортных предприятий»

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МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ по дисциплине «Английский язык» для студентов II курса  «Экологические проблемы автотранспортных предприятий»
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов специальности «Техническое обслуживание и ремонт двигателей, систем и агрегатов автомобилей» по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)». В пособие включены технические тексты и тексты для дополнительного чтения. Материал представлен для изучения и закрепления специальной лексики будущих специалистов.
МУ 2 курс тема 3.docx

ДЕПАРТАМЕНТ ЛЕСНОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА НИЖЕГОРОДСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

Государственное бюджетное профессиональное

образовательное учреждение Нижегородской области

«КРАСНОБАКОВСКИЙ ЛЕСНОЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ»

 

 

Утверждаю

Зам. директора по УР

ГБПОУ НО «КБЛК»

_________О.Н. Спирин

 

 

 

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

по дисциплине «Английский язык»

для студентов II курса

тема 3

 «Экологические проблемы автотранспортных предприятий»

для специальности 23.02.07 «Техническое обслуживание

и ремонт двигателей, систем и агрегатов автомобилей»

https://img3.stockfresh.com/files/m/marekusz/m/87/1589388_stock-photo-words-describing-the-automotive-industry.jpg

 

 

РАССМОТРЕНО:

на заседании предметно-цикловой

комиссии общеобразовательных дисциплин ПРОТОКОЛ №   от «   » сентября 2019г. Председатель ПЦК __________________ 

Разработала:

преподаватель иностранных языков

Воронина М.В.

 

 

 

 

Красные Баки

2019

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов специальности «Техническое обслуживание и ремонт двигателей, систем и агрегатов автомобилей» по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)». В пособие включены технические тексты и тексты для дополнительного чтения. Материал представлен для изучения и закрепления специальной лексики будущих специалистов.

 


 

Оглавление

 

Vehicles air conditioning and environment…...………………………….…....

Environmentally friendly cars …………………………..…………………....

Traffic and Air Pollution………....…………...…………………….…….……

Список литературы …………………………………………………………...

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7

14

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VEHICLES AIR CONDITIONING AND ENVIRONMENT

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст

In the near future, there will be 1 billion vehicles on the world's roads. As this number grows, so does environmental concern over fuel usage, emissions, and end-of-life disposal.

Today's vehicles are composed of many systems, each affecting customer satisfaction and environmental impact. One of many such systems is airconditioning (A/C). Customers have come to expect the high level of comfort and safety current systems offer. As a result, A/C is now standard on most new vehicles in the U.S. while demand for it in Europe and Asia is rising.

The refrigerant used in current systems is HFC-134a, which is classified as a global warming gas and is under scrutiny for possible phase-out in Europe. Emissions of HFC-134a from vehicle A/C systems account for about 0.1% of total world emissions. While the automotive industry is improving HFC-134a systems, it is evaluating two replacement refrigerants: carbon dioxide (C02) and propane. The C02 system has higher operating pressures; if used, C02 would require all new A/C system components.

The use of propane requires only a modification of the existing HFC-134a system. In the secondary-loop propane system, a device in the engine compartment chills a coolant (water-glycol). This coolant, not propane, circulates through the passenger compartment.

Although these technical options are promising, cost-benefit analysis is needed to understand the environmental and consumer benefits they offer compared to other potential vehicle fuel-saving technologies.

The international impact of SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) documents on mobile A/C systems is far-reaching. SAE standards for system design, service equipment, and technician service procedures and training have been used throughout the world. Equipment based on SAE's refrigerant recycling standards is being used in both developed and developing countries to prevent unnecessary release of refrigerant to the atmosphere during service.

Vehicle makers will have to determine which systems need to be changed to best manage total vehicle emissions and then implement those changes.

 

Задание 2. Найдите в тексте синонимы слов release, coolant.

 

Задание 3. Заполните пропуски в предложениях в соответствии с содержанием текста и переведите предложения.

In the near future, there will be 1 ____ vehicles on the world's roads.

As this number grows, so does ___ concern over fuel usage, ______, and end of life _____.

Today's vehicles are ____ of many systems, each _____ customer satisfaction and environmental _____. One of many such systems is airconditioning (A/C).

Customers have come to expect the high level of comfort and ____ current systems offer. As a result, A/C is now standard on most new ____ in the U.S. while____ for it in Europe and Asia is rising.

Although the technical options are promising, ____ analysis is needed to understand the _____ and consumer benefits they offer compared to other potential vehicle _____-saving technologies.

Vehicle makers will have to _____ which systems need to be changed to best manage total _____ emissions and then _____ those changes.

 

Задание 4. Переведите вопросы. На основе ответов на вопросы кратко перескажите основное содержание текста на английском языке.

1.            How many vehicles will there be on the world's roads in the near future?

2.            What problems does environmental concern grow over?

3.            Does vehicle air-conditioning affect environment?

4.            Is A/C standard on most new vehicles in the U.S. now?

5.            What is needed to understand the environmental and consumer benefits?

6.            What will vehicle makers have to determine to manage total vehicle emissions?

 

Additional texts

Effects of Car Pollutants on the Environment

Car pollutants cause immediate and long-term effects on the environment. Car exhausts emit a wide range of gases and solid matter, causing global warming, acid rain, and harming the environment and human health. Engine noise and fuel spills also cause pollution. Cars, trucks and other forms of transportation are the single largest contributor to air pollution in the United States, but car owners can reduce their vehicle's effects on the environment.

Global Warming

Car pollution is one of the major causes of global warming. Cars and trucks emit carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which contribute one-fifth of the United States' total global warming pollution. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere, which causes worldwide temperatures to rise. Without greenhouse gases, the Earth would be covered in ice, but burning excessive amounts of fossil fuels, such as gasoline and diesel, has caused an increase of 0.6 degrees Celsius, or 1 degree F, in global temperatures since pre-industrial times, and this will continue to rise over the coming decades. Warmer global temperatures affect farming, wildlife, sea levels and natural landscapes.

 

Air, Soil and Water

The effects of car pollution are widespread, affecting air, soil and water quality. Nitrous oxide contributes to the depletion of the ozone layer, which shields the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide mix with rainwater to create acid rain, which damages crops, forests and other vegetation and buildings. Oil and fuel spills from cars and trucks seep into the soil near highways, and discarded fuel and particulates from vehicle emissions contaminate lakes, rivers and wetlands.

Human Health

Particulate matter, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and other car pollutants harm human health. Diesel engines emit high levels of particulate matter, which is airborne particles of soot and metal. These cause skin and eye irritation and allergies, and very fine particles lodge deep in lungs, where they cause respiratory problems. Hydrocarbons react with nitrogen dioxide and sunlight and form ozone, which is beneficial in the upper atmosphere but harmful at ground level. Ozone inflames lungs, causing chest pains and coughing and making it difficult to breathe. Carbon monoxide, another exhaust gas, is particularly dangerous to infants and people suffering from heart disease because it interferes with the blood's ability to transport oxygen. Other car pollutants that harm human health include sulfur dioxide, benzene and formaldehyde. Noise from cars is also harmful, damaging hearing and causing psychological ill-health.

 

Reducing Car Pollution

There are several ways that car and truck owners can reduce the effects of car pollutants on the environment. Old and poorly maintained vehicles cause most pollution from cars, but electric, hybrid and other clean, fuel-efficient cars have a reduced impact. When buying a new car, check the fuel economy and environment label. High ratings mean low pollution levels. Maximize fuel economy by removing all unneeded items, such as roof racks, and driving steadily, rather than accelerating quickly and braking hard. Keep your vehicle well-maintained, with regular tune-ups and tire checks, and leave the car at home whenever you can. Walk, bike or use public transportation when possible.

 

 


 

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CARS

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст

Many of the world’s cities lie under a permanent blanket of smog. People are concerned about global warming, and fuel prices just keep going up and up. In recent years car manufacturers have been put under pressure to invent a vehicle that is both cheaper to run and better for the environment.

One of the first ideas which car manufacturers tried, was to replace engines which run on fossil fuels with electric motors. Unfortunately, these vehicles had several drawbacks and they didn’t sell very well. The problems were that the batteries of these electric cars ran out very quickly and took a long time to recharge.

Car manufacturers have improved the concept so that environmentally friendly cars can now be efficient and economical as well. The hybrid car, which has both an electric motor and a traditional petrol engine, comes in. The electric motor never needs to be recharged and it is much better for the planet than a traditional car.

In a hybrid car, the engine is controlled by a computer which determines whether the car runs on petrol, electricity, or both. When the car needs maximum power, for example, if it is accelerating or climbing a steep hill, it uses all of its resources, whereas at steady speeds it runs only on petrol. When slowing down or braking, the electric motor recharges its batteries.

Hybrid cars are made using materials such as aluminium and carbon fibre (углеродное волокно), which makes them extremely light. Hybrid cars are better for the environment because they use far less petrol than normal cars, so they produce less pollution.

Of course, hybrid cars aren’t perfect; they still run on fossil fuel and so pollute the environment to some extent. However, they may be the first step along the road to cleaner, 'greener' cars. Car manufacturers are already working on vehicles which run on hydrogen (водород). The only emission from these cars is harmless water vapour. These are still some way in the future, though, as designers need to think of cheap and safe ways of producing, transporting and storing hydrogen, but at last, it looks like we might be heading in the right direction.

 

Задание 2. Ответьте на следующие вопросы

1.     Why are modern cars considered unfriendly to the environment?

2.     Do you know any models which could be called environmentally friendly?

3.     What are the drawbacks of electric cars?

4.     When does the hybrid car run only on fuel?

5.     Why do hybrid cars weigh less than a traditional car?

 

Задание 3. Подберите к английскому слову его перевод

a) environmentally friendly cars

b) global warming

c) keep going up and up

d) have been put under pressure

e) fossil fuel

f) electric motor

g) drawbacks

h) the hybrid car

 

i) never needs to be recharged

j) carbon fibre

k) hydrogen

l) harmless water vapour

1) водород

2) углеродное волокно

3) никогда не требуют перезарядки

4) ископаемое топливо

5) гибридный автомобиль

6) продолжают подниматься

7) были подвергнуты давлению

8) безвредные для окружающей среды автомобили

9) глобальное потепление

10) безопасный водяной пар

11) недостатки

12) электродвигатель

 

Задание 4. Переведите слова и словосочетания.

Работать на ископаемом топливе, длительное время для перезарядки, традиционный автомобиль, при замедлении движения или торможении, невероятно легкий, гораздо меньше бензина, до определенной степени, первый шаг на пути к.

 

Задание 5. Закончите предложения, выбрав правильный вариант

1. Car manufacturers are trying to invent a new vehicle because

a) today’s cars produce too much poisonous gas;

b) today's cars produce too much power;

c) today's cars moves too fast.

2. Vehicles which ran on electric motors

a) moved too slowly;

b) were not very popular;

c) had to have their engines replaced.

3. The electric motor in hybrid cars

a) doesn’t need to recharge its batteries;

b) has its own petrol engine;

c) takes a long time to be recharged.

4. The computer in a hybrid car

a) helps the car to go up hills;

b) keeps the car running at a steady speed;

c) decides how the car should be powered in any given time.

5. Hybrid cars are better for the planet because

a) they use different fuels;

b) the electric motor is smaller than a normal engine;

c) they produce less harmful gases.

6. Cars which run on hydrogen are not available yet because:

a) it is difficult to store hydrogen.

b) they produce too much water vapor.

c) there is no future for them.

 

Задание 6.

Tell about actions, which car mechanics should perform to make modern cars less harmful to the environment.

Example: Car mechanics should control the level of CO.

 

Задание 7. Найдите ошибки и напишите предложения правильно

1. Car manufacturers are trying invent a vehicle that is better for the enviroment.

2. One of a first ideas was to use electric motors.

3. Cars can now to be efficient and economical.

4. In hubrid cars engines are controlled from a computer.

5. Hybrid cars use far least petrol than traditional cars.

6. Cars with electric motors are harmlesser to the environment than traditional cars.

 

Задание 8. Напишите антонимы к следующим словам и словосочетаниям.

Example: cheaper to run more expensive to run.

a) better for the environment

b) fast

c) environmentally friendly cars

d) efficient and economical

e) light

f) use far less petrol

g) harmless

h) safe

 

Задание 9. Заполните таблицу

 

The type of

the engine/car

Advantages

Disadvantages

 

cars with traditional petrol engines

 

cars with electric motors

 

hybrid cars

 

cars which run on hydrogen

 

 

 

 

Additional texts

Read the text and discuss the importance of these devices with your partner.

Write your conclusions.

This year, Green Car Journal and the Washington Auto Show are changing that dynamic with the inaugural Green Car Technology Award™. Green Car Journal editors have identified 10 enabling technologies worthy of consideration for this recognition. These 10 finalists  – Green Car Journal’s ‘Top 10 Green Car Technologies for 2013′ – represent diverse automotive technologies ranging from efficient powerplants and components to systems engineered to promote driving efficiency. Qualifying technologies must be in use by vehicle models today.

The 2013 Green Car Technology Award nominees include:

Fiat MultiAir: This simple, low power requirement, and low-cost technology takes a unique approach to lowering engine emissions and fuel use while increasing horsepower.

Fisker Automotive EVer: A powerful extended range electric powertrain, EVer is well-suited to the needs of high-end sport sedan buyers who wish lower environmental impact.

Ford Auto Stop-Start:  Hybrids shut off when stopped and automatically restart to save fuel and emissions. Ford’s low-cost technology brings this function to average vehicles.

Ford EcoBoost: Direct injection and turbocharging enable EcoBoost technology to bring up to 20 percent better fuel economy to conventional gasoline engines.

Ford Energi: This technology evolves a conventional Ford hybrid into a plug-in hybrid, enabling electric and gas engines to work together or separately for maximum efficiency.

Honda Eco Assist: This system includes a driver-activated ECON feature that configures the engine and other energy-consuming systems to operate more efficiently to save fuel.

Mazda SkyACTIV: Focusing on more than just powerplants, Mazda’s SkyACTIV suite of technologies improves every part of a car to improve mpg while ensuring driving fun.

Nissan Easy-Fill Tire Alert: Low tire pressure robs mpg. This technology alerts a driver which tire is low and by how much. While a driver fills the tire, the horn chirps at proper inflation.

Tesla Powertrain: Fast and powerful, the all-electric propulsion system in Tesla’s Model S is a milestone for electric vehicles offering up to 265 miles of driving range.

Toyota RAV4 EV Powertrain: Developed with Tesla, the electric powerplant in Toyota’s new RAV4 EV provides this SUV a seamless and satisfying driving experience.

 

Identify the definitions/functions with the different devices in the cars.

 

 

a.   It alerts the driver when there is a problem with the tires.

b.  It warns the driver when there is danger ahead.

c.   Also known as a HUD – presents data without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints. 

d.  help increase driver awareness when it’s dark out, as they extend the perception of the driver beyond the limited reach of the headlights through the use of thermographic cameras, infrared lights, heads up displays, and other technologies. They can alert drivers to the presence of potential hazards before they become visible. They help prevent accidents.

e.   It helps the driver to see what is behind the car.

f.    When you are driving in a highway, it allows you to set the speed.

g.   This device helps the driver to change direction or park the car.

h.  It entertains the passengers that sit back.

i.     It helps the driver to find the right address, gas station, monument, etc.

j.    It opens the door when you say so.

k.  Set of instrumentation, including the speedometer, that is displayed with a digital readout rather than with the traditional analog gauges. Also known as digital instrument panel.

l.     The integrated use of telecommunications and informatics, for application in vehicles and with control of vehicles on the move.

m.    This device uses 2 multiple-beam radar modules, which identify when a vehicle enters the defined blind spot zone and illuminates an indicator light on the corresponding sideview mirror, providing a warning that a vehicle is approaching.

n.  It is a sophisticated sensor system that constantly measures the driver’s steering torque, adapts to changing road conditions and helps compensate for slight steering changes caused by different factors.

Sun Powers Cars.

Each day, millions of people across the world fill their cars with gas to make them move. But can you imagine running a car on just a thankful of sunshine? Some American students built cars for an unusual race called “Sun race USA”. The students had to drive their cars from Florida to Michigan, more than 1600 miles, in the fastest time. The only power their cars used was solar power, or energy from the Sun.

The outside of the solar cars was covered with rows of dark, shiny panels made of special materials. These panels caught the sun’s rays and turned sunshine into electricity that powered the cars’ motors. The panels also saved solar power in special batteries so the cars could run on cloudy days. The solar cars were much lighter than gas-powered cars. Their tires were as thin as bicycle tires. Some race cars had parts made of the plastic material used in drinking cups. The cars had to be light because their motors didn’t have as much power as cars with gas-powered motors. Each car ran on about the same amount of energy needed to run a hair dryer!

The cars were also built in strange shapes. One car looked like a giant pizza box with a bubble on top. Another was shaped like a teardrop. These shapes helped air pass smoothly over and around the cars so they could move easily along the road. Will people be able to buy solar cars soon? Most scientists so no. But they hope the race will help them learn new ways to build cars that are lighter in weight and use less fuel. Scientists also say that energy from the sun doesn’t pollute the air the way gas engine do. They hope the race will lead to new ways to use solar power in the future.

 

Задание 1. Ответить на вопросы.

1. What kind of cars did American students built?

2. How do solar-powered cars differ from gas-powered ones?

3. What amount of energy do solar-powered cars need?

4. What do these cars look like?

 

Задание 2. Выучить новые слова.

Boiler – котел

Combustible – горючие, сгораемые

Cost price – себестоимость

Thermal – тепловой

Burning – сгорание

Economizer – экономайзер

Ash – зола

Heat exchange – теплообмен

Aerodynamic – аэродинамический

 

Задание 3. Перевести на английский язык.

Котлы для сжигания измельченных растительных остатков.

       Использование отходов зерна, древесины и других горючих отходов позволяет многим предприятиям значительно снизить себестоимость тепловой энергии. Но котлы часто выходят из строя, так как котельный пучок и экономайзер быстро забиваются прочными отложениями золы. Из-за этого теплообмен в котлах резко снижается. Специалисты НПП «ЭКОЭНЕРГОМАШ» предложили решение этой проблемы – котлы с вихревыми топками. Благодаря аэродинамической схеме в них обеспечивается глубокое низкотемпературное выжигание горючих частиц и одновременное устранение внутритопочных и натрубных отложений.

 

Задание 4. Выучить диалог.

At the New Technology Exhibition.

A. Where have you been yesterday?

B. We went to the “New Technology Exhibition”. It is devoted to different developments in science.

A. Did you like it?

B. Sure. The most impressive of the exhibition were robots. They can cut metals, drill holes, compute and operate some metalworking processes.

A. Really? I know that robots memorize the instructions and then can hold as many as 70 programmes.

B. What is the purpose of the exhibition?

A. Practically all the equipment on display serves to improve the productivity. The exhibition programme provides for high increase in production of technologically perfect, top-quality and efficient types of machinery.

 

Задание 5. Выбрать правильный ответ в соответствии с содержанием текста.

1. By “New Technology Exhibition” is meant:

a) an exhibition in St. Petersburg;

b) a programme of science developments;

c) a documentary film.

2. The most impressive of the exhibits are:

a) display screens;

b) lathes;

c) robots.

3. All robots are the things of

a) the past;

b) the present;

c) the future.

4. The robot is used to operate:

a) some metalworking processes;

b) chemical processes;

c) turning processes.


 

TRAFFIC AND AIR POLLUTION

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст

Cars are wonderful, arent they? They free us from here and now, they open up routes into holiday weekends, and they turn difficulties of a journey into the pleasures of a trip. However, a continuous increase in the number of cars leads to serious congestion and escalates pollution caused by cars. Governments build new roads trying to improve the situation but this means that they cut down trees and destroy more of the countryside.

The car is one of the biggest polluters today. Exhaust fumes from cars are the main cause of bad air quality, which can make people feel ill and have difficulty in breathing. The problem is especially bad in some cities where on days, when there is not much wind, a brown layer of smog hangs in the air. The relatively inefficient combustion of fuel in a car engine causes many hydrocarbon fragments to be left unburned. These fragments help to form smog and are believed to be carcinogenic. The incomplete combustion of fuel produces also carbon monoxide (CO). It is poisonous and at moderate concentrations can cause drowsiness and impair mental and physical alertness.

Hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in vehicle exhausts combine with one another in sunlight to produce ozone. The ground level ozone is a major air pollutant. The photochemical smog is worst in traffic-congested cities on hot, dry summer days. It is especially common when the vehicle engines are old and poorly maintained, as often occurs in developing countries. In some overpopulated cities such as Mexico-City and San Paulo almost all children suffer from coughs and different forms of allergies. This is mainly due to the effects of ozone and other motor vehicle pollutants.

Air in large cities contains a great deal of dust – suspended in air minute solid particles. Some of them are toxic and can contain lead. The lead is emitted in tiny particles, which take a long time to settle and, if breathed in, can accumulate in the body and cause lead poisoning. Today more and more cars are made to run on unleaded gasoline.

The toxic emissions from car exhausts can be reduced considerably by installing catalytic converters on the engines. Other strategy to solve the problem is to use electric cars powered by storage batteries. However, the storage batteries currently available have very limited capacity and require frequent charging.

 

Задание 2. Выпишите из текста предложения с модальными глаголами и переведите их.

 

Задание 3.  Ответьте на вопросы

1)    What are the main sources of air pollution?

2)    What substances are major air pollutants?

3)    What dangerous substances do car exhausts contain?

4)    Which of them are the most dangerous?

5)    In what connection would you put bad health problems and poor air quality?

6)    What diseases can be caused by air pollution?

7)    What age group of population is especially vulnerable to air pollution?

8)    What can be done to reduce air pollution caused by cars?

 

 

Задание 4. Составьте диалог с помощью вопросов и ответов задания 3

 

Задание 5. Замените выделенные слова синонимами:

interact, damage, consists of, average, particles, need, suspends, work, primarily

1)    The relatively inefficient combustion of fuel in a car engine causes many hydrocarbon fragments to be left unburned.

2)    Governments build new roads but this means that they cut down trees and destroy more of the countryside.

3)    The problem is especially bad in some cities where on days, when there is not much wind, a brown layer of smog hangs in the air.

4)    It is poisonous and at moderate concentrations can cause drowsiness.

5)    Hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in vehicle exhausts combine with one another in sunlight to produce ozone.

6)    This is mainly due to the effects of ozone and other motor vehicle pollutants.

7)    Air in large cities contains a great deal of dust – suspended in air minute solid particles.

8)    Today more and more cars are made to run on unleaded gasoline.

9)    However, the storage batteries currently available have very limited capacity and require frequent charging.

 

Задание 6. Закончите предложения, используя текст

1)    The car is one …

2)    A continuous increase in the number of cars leads to …

3)    Exhaust fumes from cars are the main …

4)    The incomplete combustion of fuel …

5)    It is poisonous and at moderate concentrations …

6)    Hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in vehicle exhausts combine …

7)    The ground level ozone is …

8)    The photochemical smog is …

9)    In some overpopulated cities almost all children suffer …

10)    This is mainly due to the effects …

11)    Air in large cities contains …

12)    Some of them are toxic and …

13)    The lead is emitted in tiny particles, which can accumulate in the body and ...

14)    The toxic emissions from car exhausts can be reduced …

 

Задание 7. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1)    Постоянный рост количества автомобилей приводит к серьёзной загруженности на дорогах.

2)    На сегодняшний день автомобиль – один из самых больших загрязнителей.

3)    Выхлопные газы от автомобилей являются главной причиной плохого качества воздуха.

4)    Ситуация особенно ухудшается в городах, когда в безветренные дни бурый слой смога висит в воздухе.

5)    Относительно неэффективное сгорание топлива в двигателе автомобиля приводит к тому, что частицы углеводорода сгорают не полностью.

6)    Эти частицы способствуют образованию смога и считаются канцерогенными.

7)    Углеводороды и оксиды азота соединяются в выхлопных газах и под действием солнечного света образуют озон, который является главным загрязнителем воздуха.

8)    В некоторых перенаселённых странах почти все дети страдают от кашля и некоторых форм аллергии.

9)    Воздух в больших городах содержит огромное количество пыли – подвешенные в воздухе мельчайшие частицы.

10)    Некоторые из них токсичны и могут содержать свинец.

11)    Сегодня всё больше и больше автомобилей работает на бензине, не содержащем свинец.

12)    Токсичные выбросы от автомобилей могут быть значительно сокращены путём установки каталитических конверторов.

13)    Другим направлением решения проблемы является использование электромобилей, оснащённых аккумуляторными батареями.

 

Задание 8. Перескажите текст, используя фразы:

The text reports on…

The text touches upon…

A careful account is given to…

It is reported that…

Much attention is given to…

The text points out that…

The text deals with the problem of…

The text provides information on…

The text defines the phenomenon of…

The text covers such points as…

The effects of… on … are considered.

 

 

Задание 9. Работа в парах. Выразите своё мнение о следующих фактах, используя фразы:

I agree (don’t agree) that…

I think that …

In my opinion …

1)    A car is a wonder of our life.

2)    Smog is a relatively new phenomenon.

3)    Toxic emissions from cars can be reduced.

 

 

 

 

Список литературы

 

1.   Marie Kavanagh. English for automobile industry. – Oxford Business English, 2016.

2.   Бгашев В.Н., Долматовская Е.Ю. «Английский язык для студентов машиностроительных специальностей» М., «Астрель», «АСТ», 2002.

3.   Герасимова Л.Ф. Автомобиль: Учебное пособие на английском языке для студентов вузов, обучающихся по специальностям: 150200 – Автомобили и автомобильное хозяйство; 240100 – Организация перевозок и управление на транспорте; 240400 – Организация и безопасность движения. В 2 ч. – Омск: Изд-во СибАДИ, 2002.-205 с.

4.   Гниненко, А. В. Современный автомобиль как мы его видим : учебник английского языка / А.В. Гниненко. — М.: Астрель: ACT: Транзиткнига, 2005. —461с.: ил.

5.   Шляхова А.В. Английский язык для студентов автомобилестроительных специальностей средних профессиональных учебных заведений: Учеб. пособие/В.А. Шляхова. – М.: Высшая школа, 2008. – 120 с.: илл.

 


 

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Относительно неэффективное сгорание топлива в двигателе автомобиля приводит к тому, что частицы углеводорода сгорают не полностью

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Список литературы 1.

Список литературы 1.
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