МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ по дисциплине «Английский язык» для студентов II курса «История развития автомобилестроения»
Работа в классе +2
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов специальности «Техническое обслуживание и ремонт двигателей, систем и агрегатов автомобилей» по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)». В пособие включены технические тексты и тексты для дополнительного чтения. Материал представлен для изучения и закрепления специальной лексики будущих специалистов.
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ДЕПАРТАМЕНТ ЛЕСНОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА
Государственное бюджетное профессиональное
образовательное учреждение Нижегородской
«КРАСНОБАКОВСКИЙ ЛЕСНОЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ»
директора по УР
по дисциплине «Английский язык»
для студентов II курса
«История развития автомобилестроения»
для специальности 23.02.07 «Техническое
и ремонт двигателей, систем и агрегатов
общеобразовательных дисциплин ПРОТОКОЛ № от « » сентября 2019г.
Председатель ПЦК __________________
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для
студентов специальности «Техническое обслуживание и ремонт двигателей, систем и
агрегатов автомобилей» по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)». В пособие
включены технические тексты и тексты для дополнительного чтения. Материал
представлен для изучения и закрепления специальной лексики будущих
of the automobile ……………………………………………….…....
of the first cars……………………………………………………....
vehicles – обычное средство передвижения
exhaust – выхлоп
gallonoffuel – галлон топлива
(от 3,79 до 4,55 литра)
isdrawninto – вовлекать,
petroleum – нефть
alloys - сплавы
external - внешний
burner – камера сгорания
и переведите текст:
The history of the
automobile goes back several hundred years. One of the earliest attempts to
propela vehicle by mechanical power was suggested by sir Isaac
Newton about 1680. It was little more than a toy consisting of a steam
boiler supplying a steam jet turned to the rear.
credit for building the first self-propelled road vehicle must undoubtedly
go to the French military engineer, Nicholas Cugnot (Кюньо).
Between 1763 and 1769 two steam-driven carriages were built and tried.
In 1784 the
Russian inventor Kulibin built a three-wheeled carriage. In his vehicle
he used for the first time such new elements as brakes, rollers
and a gear-box. The first Englishman to build a full-size self-propelled
vehicle for use on the roads and to obtain practical results was Threvithick (Тревитик).
Between 1798-1800 he built several working models.
Up to 1860 most of
road vehicles were powered by steam engines which ran at slow speeds. In
1860 Lenior (Ленуар) of
Paris built an internal combustion engine which ran on city gas, the gas
being ignited by an electric spark. In 1866, Otto invented the
type of four-stroke cycle engine which is used today.
Slowly but surely
the auto industry is perfecting a number of alternatives to the conventional
engines found in almost all of today's passenger cars. Two prime factors
lie behind the search for different engines - the necessity to reduce air
pollution by requiring cleaner auto exhaust and the desire to produce
cars that will run farther on a gallonof fuel. While basic
research is continuing on electric and steam powered engines, the
diesel, turbine and Stirling are current industry favourites.
Diesels get better
mileage than gasoline engines, and the fuel is usually cheaper. In
1890's, Rudolf Diesel, invented the engine that bears his name. As air is
drawn into the engine and compressed internal temperatures rise, and pressures
reach two to three times those in a gasoline engine. The extreme pressures have
meant that diesels usually are much larger and heavier than gasoline engines of
the same power potential.
of diesels as passengers - car engines are slow performance, noise and smoke.
The turbine and
Stirling are multifuel engines, capable of running on any liquid that will
burn, including such exotic types as peanut oil and perfume. This would be a
major advantage if severe petroleum shortages develop.
The turbine cars
now operating are handbuilt models that cost more than 1 million dollars each. Alloys
of precious metals of high durability are still required for certain vital
turbine parts. Engineers believe that progress in ceramics hold the key to
making turbines practical alternatives to present-day engines.
concept, first offered more than 150 years ago by a Scottish clergyman,
involves external instead of internal combustion. In the new design, hydrogen
gas is heated by a burner, which can run on virtually all kinds of fuel.
Engineers point out that a Stirling engine would be quieter than an equivalent
internal combustion engine, would emit less toxic gases, and would use fuel
Yet, there is
still opinion in the auto industry that the conventional gasoline powered
engine - the type in almost universal use now - will continue to dominate until
or unless outside circumstances dictate otherwise.
Who made an attempt to propel a vehicle?
Who built the first self-propelled road vehicle?
What kind of carriage did the Russian inventor Kulibin build in 1784?
What did Kulibin use in his vehicle for the first time?
What were all road vehicles up to 1860 powered by?
What did Lenoir built in 1860?
How did an internal combustion engine run on?
When was the four-stroke cycle engine invented?
What are the main factors that are important search for different engines?
Why are these factors very important?
What are the disadvantages of diesel?
When was the Stirling engine invented?
Will electric cars replace the conventional vehicles?
What kind of engine will dominate in the near future?
предложения где говорится:
o первых попытках использовать механическую энергию для приведения в движение
об основных требованиях, предъявляемых к автомобилю.
утверждения, соответствующие содержанию текста.
The history of the automobile goes back...
a hundred years;
a thousand years;
several hundred years.
Diesels are usually much larger and heavier than...
The disadvantages of diesels are...
noise and smoke;
The turbine and Stirling are multifuel engines, capable of running on...
peanut oil and perfume;
текст еще раз, обращая внимание на даты, цифры и связанные с ними факты.
Выпишите эти предложения.
7. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и словосочетания:
vehicle, mechanical power, self-propelled,
was constructed, a steam-driven carriages, wheels, passengers, motor cars,
issued, prosecuted, of gasoline engines, introduced the four-stroke cycle of
operation, two-seated cars, efficient, international combustion engine,
abolition, automobile industry, collect antique cars, advertisements.
1) In … the Russian inventor Kulibin built
a three-wheeled carriage.
2) Diesels get better … than gasoline
engines, and the fuel is usually cheaper.
3) Alloys of precious metals of high
durability are still required for certain …
4) In the new design, … gas is heated by a
5) One of the earliest attempts to propel
a vehicle by … was suggested by sir Isaac Newton.
об истории автомобилестроения, используя следующие выражения и глаголы:
the history of the automobile mechanical
power, a steam boiler, selfpropelled, vehicle steam-driven carriages, brakes,
gear-box, steam engines, internal-combustion engine, air-pollution, diesel
engines, turbine cars, Stirling engine;
go back, to propel, to build, to use, to obtain, to be powered by, to invent, to
reduce, to produce, to offer, to involve, to dominate.
10. Подберите к слову его описание.
2. to design
10. to combust
a. to make or draw
plans for something, for example clothes or buildings
b. damage caused
to water, air, etc. by harmful substances or waste
c. a road vehicle
with an engine, four wheels, and seats for a small number of people
d. to start to
e. a substance
that is used to provide heat or power, usually by being burned
f. the process of
making or growing goods to be sold
g. a vehicle with
four wheels that is usually pulled by horses and was used mainly in the past
h. a machine that
uses the energy from liquid fuel or steam to produce movement
i. a person whose
job is to repair or control machines, engines, or electrical equipment
j. a machine,
usually with wheels and an engine, used for transporting people or goods on
land, especially on roads
History of the automobile
Ford Model T (foreground) and Volkswagen Beetle (background) are among the most
mass-produced car models in history.
The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number
of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. Later periods were defined
by trends in exterior styling, size, and utility preferences.
In 1769 the first steam-powered automobile capable of human
transportation was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot.
In 1808, François Isaac de Rivaz designed
the first car powered by an internal combustion engine fueled by hydrogen.
In 1870 Siegfried Marcus built
the first gasoline powered combustion engine, which he placed on a pushcart,
building four progressively sophisticated combustion-engine cars over a
10-to-15-year span that influenced later cars. Marcus created the two-cycle
combustion engine. The car's second incarnation in 1880 introduced a
four-cycle, gasoline-powered engine, an ingenious carburetor design and magneto
ignition. He created an additional two models
further refining his design with steering, a clutch and a brake.
The four-stroke petrol (gasoline) internal combustion engine that
still constitutes the most prevalent form of modern automotive propulsion was
patented by Nikolaus Otto. The similar four-stroke diesel engine was invented
by Rudolf Diesel. The hydrogen fuel cell, one of the technologies hailed as a
replacement for gasoline as an energy source for cars, was discovered in
principle by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838. The battery electric
car owes its beginnings to Ányos Jedlik, one of the inventors of the
electric motor, and Gaston Planté, who invented the lead–acid battery in
In 1885, Karl Benz developed a petrol or gasoline powered
automobile. This is also considered to be the first "production"
vehicle as Benz made several other identical copies. The automobile was powered
by a single cylinder four-stroke engine.
In 1913, the Ford Model T, created by the Ford Motor Company five
years prior, became the first automobile to be mass-produced on a moving assembly
line. By 1927, Ford had produced over 15,000,000 Model T automobiles.
At the turn of the 20th century electrically powered automobiles became
a popular alternative method of automobile propulsion.
INVENTORS OF THE FIRST CARS
Задание 1. Выпишите новые
слова и словосочетания:
candle, candle light
свет от свечи
code, Morse code
design, to design
internal combustion engine
run on fuel
rubber, rubber solution
to succeed in
и переведите текст:
centuries, man’s way of life was changed by a relatively small number of
discoveries and inventions. But changes have come more and more often
since the steam engine was invented in 1765 by James Watt. In just two hundred
years, man advanced from horsepower and candle light to aeroplanes and neon
lams. Our ideas about travel have changed completely since Gottlieb Daimler and
Charles Benz built their first petrol engine in 1885 and the Wright Brothers
made the first flight in 1903.
In 1897 Rudolf
Diesel invented a new internal combustion engine. It is known as a diesel and
it began a transport revolution in cars, lorries, trains and ships. The main
advantage of diesels is that they run on rather cheap fuel.
Charles Rolls was
a British aristocrat and businessman, who was especially interested in cars.
Once he met another enthusiast of cars Henry Royce, a famous car engineer. They
decided to design the most comfortable and reliable car. At the beginning of
the 20th century it seemed to be a fantasy. But in 1907 they managed
to create the world – famous Rolls – Royce car. It was so comfortable and
reliable that one of the models “Silver ghost” hadn’t changed greatly for 20
years since 1907.
Samuel Colt, who
was an American, designed and patented a pistol in 1836. It had a revolving
barrel and could fire 6 bullets one after the other. It was the first pistol of
its kind. Later there came many other pistols with 6 bullets.
Morse was a portrait painter, who became an inventor. For 12 years he tried to
perfect the telegraph and succeeded in inventing the telegraphic dot - and –
dash alphabet, now known as Morse code. Though there were some other codes in
America in the 19th century, Morse code is used nowadays all over
was a chemist by profession. He worked in a textile industry and in 1823 he
developed a rubber solution used for raincoat production. Raincoats with this
rubber solution didn’t allow water to penetrate. These raincoats were called
makintoshes and people use them in rainy weather.
Some people say we
live in the age of computers; but it is also correctly described as the atomic
age or the space age. Today, a journey from London to Cairo takes hours. Only
a hundred years ago it took weeks. Today, men think seriously of going to Mars.
50 years ago they only dreamt about it. Today we produce energy by splitting
the atom. A century ago, no one believed it could be split. Due to inventions,
technology has advanced so quickly that cars and televisions are out of date
only a few years after they were made.
Задание 3. Соедините части
1. A steam engine …
a. very popular even nowadays
2. A new internal
b. was the most comfortable and reliable
3. The main advantage of diesels is…
c. was invented by Rudolf Diesel.
4. The world famous Rolls Royce car…
d. was invented by James Watt.
5. All the cars produced by the firm
e. was a car engineer by profession.
6. Henry Royce….
f. were called “Mercedes-Benz”.
7. A German engineer
g. made his famous invention in 1897.
8. Morse code is…
h. that they run on rather cheap fuel.
in the man’s way of life have become more evident since
discovery of a pistol with 6 bullets;
birth of Edison, one of the greatest inventors;
first patented invention was registered.
case of finding something which existed before but was not known to people. It
is often a place or a scientific fact;
b)a difficulty that
needs attention and thought in order to solve it;
that is finished or gained through skill or hard work;
d)a useful thing or
idea which is produced by scientists for the first time.
“Silver Ghost” model was
for its reliability and comfort;
b)created by Wright
the best racing cars at the beginning of the 20th century.
d)named after its
creator Tom Silver.
the development of a rubber solution
were called makintoshes;
production of waterproof raincoats was quite successful;
5. Поставьте предложения в хронологическом порядке.
two inventors managed to design the most reliable and comfortable car for the
beginning of the last century.
invented the first gun with 6 bullets.
invention got its name after the inventor and is used in rainy weather.
invention of this engine gave birth to a large number of other discoveries and
invention is used nowadays all over the world though there were some other
inventions on analogy in the 19th century.
century was remarkable for the introduction of the laser, the proliferation of
calculators and computers and a revolution in the telecommunication industry
main advantage of that invention was that it used rather cheap fuel.
предложения, используя текст:
have come more and more often since…
main advantages of diesels is …
Rolls was a British aristocrat and businessman…
people say we live ….
men think ….
to inventions ….
7. Напишите, что изобрели эти люди:
8. Заполните пропуски, изменив слова справа
could not be used to protect tall buildings during a storm.
______ became very popular because it gave off much heat.
persuaded the _______ to try locomotives.
______ of the colliery bought some engines and began to experiment for
Morse was the pioneer of the most widely used electrical _____ in the world
he needed was a _____ lamp.
_____ about natural phenomena can be observed from his boyhood.
that time people were _____ afraid of lightning.
day he brought a new _______ to the laboratory.
слова из обоих столбцов, чтобы получились словосочетания, переведите их:
10. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выпишите выделенные слова с переводом.
Inventors on both
sides of the Atlantic discovered during the 1880s that technologies for
making self-propelled carriages and wagons had progressed dramatically. Soon
sundry vehicles powered by steam, internal combustion engines, and electricity
were rolling across Germany, France, and the United States.
practical internal combustion engine was built by Etienne Lenoir, a Belgian
living in France. Patented in 1860, his water-cooled contraption burned coal
gas and was noisy and inefficient; even so, for two decades it
had many buyers. Lenoir's engine was a clear proof of concept to other
inventors, especially in Europe.
Nikolaus Otto, a
German, was one of many inspired by Lenoir's technical and commercial
success. Mechanically gifted, Otto sought to improve the Lenoir engine, and in
the late 1870s he did. Otto's four-cycle design embodied features that
would become standard in gasoline automobile engines.
The cars of that
time were very small, two-seated cars with no roof, driven by an engine placed
under the seat. Motorists had to carry large cans of fuel and separate spare
parts, for there were no repair or filling stations to serve them.
The Otto engine and
the many clones it spawned, though intended to replace small steam engines in
industry, inaugurated the era of the gasoline-powered automobile. Clearly,
the compact internal combustion engine was a most suitable technology for the
Karl Benz, also a
German, employed his own Otto-type engine to power a three-wheel carriage in
1885. These tri-wheelers, with a one-cylinder engine that developed 0.8 hp, were
put on the market in 1887, perhaps the earliest commercial automobiles.
In 1891 Benz added
a four-wheel motorized carriage to his company's offerings. These automobiles
sold well and were widely imitated. In the early 1890s, for example, Planhardet
Levassoras well as Pfeugeot in France were peddling cars to the public. Henry
Ford, however, was still a long way from building automobiles.
11. Найдите в тексте синонимы словаvehicle.
12. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, в соответствии с содержанием текста и
1. Inventors on both sides of the Atlantic
… during the 1880s that technologies … had progressed dramatically.
2. Patented in 1860, his water-cooled
contraption … and was … and … .
3. Otto's four-cycle design … that would
become standard in … engines.
4. Motorists had to carry … and separate …
, for there were no … or … to serve them.
5. The compact internal combustion engine
was a most … for the … .
6. Karl Benz … his own Otto-type engine … a
three-wheel carriage in 1885.
на вопросы и перескажите текст
built the first practical internal combustion engine?
improved the Lenoir engine?
era did the Otto engine inaugurate?
introduced the First commercial automobile?
Karl Benz and
Benz, Karl (1844 —
1929) was a German inventor of the automobile, who devoted his life to making a
horseless vehicle. When Benz's three-wheeled engine-driven machine (the first
"car") appeared on I lie streets in 1885, people couldn't believe that
it moved without the aid of horses. It was a great triumph to him because Benz
built a new engine that was lighter and more powerful than any other. He put it
onto a chassis and got power from the engine to the wheels. Benz's first car
was a great achievement for him. Everything — the engine, fuel transmission,
controls — had been developed and designed by him. The wheels were driven by means
of a chain, and there were two speeds.
In his early days
the speed limits were 12 kilometers an hour outside the city, six - inside.
Benz realized that he would never be able to improve his cars if this rule were
not changed. He thought up a plan. He invited the Minister to ride in his car
and agreed with a milkman that the latter would wait with his horse for them on
a certain place. When Benz, with the Minister in his car, passed the milkman,
the latter started off, passed the car at a good speed and laughed at them. The
plan worked perfectly. The Minister ordered to go faster. But Benz referred to
speed limit. "Never mind", said the Minister. Thus Benz won the day.
Nicolaus Otto (June
14, 1832 – January 26, 1891) – one of the most important landmarks in engine
design comes from Nicolaus Otto who in 1876 invented an effective gas motor
engine—the first practical alternative to the steam engine. Otto built the
first practical four-stroke internal combustion engine called the "Otto
Cycle Engine," and when he completed his engine, he built it into a
1876, Nicolaus Otto built the first practical four-stroke piston
cycle internal combustion engine. He continued to develop his four-stroke
engine after 1876 and he considered his work finished after his invention of
the first magneto ignition system for low voltage ignition in 1884. Otto's
patent was overturned in 1886 in favor of the patent granted
to Alphonse Beau de Roaches for his four-stroke engine. However, Otto
built a working engine while Roaches' design stayed on paper. On October 23,
1877, another patent for a gas motor engine was issued to Nicolaus Otto, and
Francis and William Crossley.
In all, Otto built
the following engines:
copy of Lenoir's atmospheric engine
four-cycle compressed charge engine (prior to Rochas's patent) which failed as
it broke almost immediately
·1864 The first
successful atmospheric engine
The four-stroke compressed charge engine which is acknowledged as the
"Otto" cycle engine. The term Otto cycle is applied to all compressed
charge, four cycle engines.
Cugnot (26 February 1725 – 2 October 1804) was a French inventor. He is
believed to have built the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle.
engineer designed and built the world's first true automobile, a huge, heavy,
After serving in
the Austro-Hungarian army in the Seven Years' War, Cugnot returned to Paris in
1763 to devote his time to writing military treatises and tinkering with a
number of inventions he had conceived while campaigning.
He built two
steam-propelled tractors for hauling artillery, the first in 1769, the second
in 1770. The second alone survived and is preserved in the National
Conservatory of Arts and Crafts, Paris.
two-piston steam engine was designed independently of Thomas Newcomen and James
Watt and was based directly on the theoretical descriptions of the French
physicist Denis Papin. The engine in it was the first to employ high-pressure
steam expansively without condensation. The carriage was tricycle-mounted, with
the single front wheel performing both steering and driving functions. The
problems of water supply and maintaining pressure severely handicapped the
vehicle, which nevertheless proved the feasibility of steam-powered traction.
Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir
Étienne Lenoir, (born Jan. 12,
1822, Mussy-la-Ville, Belg.—died Aug. 4, 1900, La Varenne-Saint-Hilaire, Fr.),
Belgian inventor who devised the first commercially successful
Lenoir’s engine was a converted
double-acting steam engine with slide valves to admit the air-fuel mixture and
to discharge exhaust products. A two-stroke cycle engine, it used a mixture of
coal gas and air. Though only about 4 percent efficient in fuel consumption, it
was a smooth-running and durable machine (some machines were in perfect
condition after 20 years of continuous operation), and by 1865 more than 400
were in use in France and 1,000 in Britain, used for such low-power jobs as
pumping and printing.
In 1862 Lenoir built the first automobile
with an internal-combustion engine. He had adapted his engine to run on liquid
fuel and with his vehicle made a 6-mile (10-kilometre) trip that required two
to three hours. His other inventions include an electric brake for trains
(1855), a motorboat using his engine (1886), and a method of tanning leather
in full Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler, (born March 17, 1834, Schorndorf,
Württemberg [Germany]—died March 6, 1900, Cannstatt, near Stuttgart),
German mechanical engineer who was a major figure in the early history of the
engineering at the Stuttgart polytechnic institute and then worked in various
German engineering firms, gaining experience with engines. In 1872 he became
technical director in the firm of Nikolaus A. Otto, the man who had invented
the four-stroke internal-combustion engine. In 1882 Daimler and his coworker
Wilhelm Maybach left Otto’s firm and started their own engine-building shop.
They patented one of the first successful high-speed internal-combustion
engines (1885) and developed a carburetor that made possible the use of
gasoline as fuel. The two used their early gasoline engines on a bicycle (1885;
perhaps the first motorcycle in the world), a four-wheeled (originally horse-drawn)
carriage driven by a one-cylinder engine (1886), and a boat (1887). The two
men’s efforts culminated in a four-wheeled vehicle designed from the start as
an automobile (1889). This commercially feasible vehicle had a framework of
light tubing, a rear-mounted engine, belt-driven wheels, and four speeds. In
1890 Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft was founded at Cannstatt, and in 1899 the
firm built the first Mercedes car.
Charles Stewart Rolls
Rolls (27 August 1877 - 12 July 1910) was a motoring and aviation pioneer.
Together with Frederick Henry Royce he co-founded the Rolls-Royce car
manufacturing firm. He was the first Briton to be killed in a flying accident,
when the tail of his Wright Flyer broke off during a flying display near Bournemouth,
England. He was aged 32.
Rolls was born in
Berkeley Square, London, third son of the 1st Baron Llangattock. Despite his
London birth, he retained a strong family connection with his ancestral home of
The Hendre, near Monmouth, Wales. After attending Mortimer Vicarage Preparatory
School in Berkshire, he was educated at Eton College where his developing
interest in engines earned him the nickname dirty Rolls.
In 1894 he
attended a private crammer in Cambridge which helped him gain entry to Trinity
College, Cambridge where he studied Mechanical and Applied Science. In 1896, at
the age of 18, he travelled to Paris to buy his first car, a Peugeot Phaeton,
and joined the Automobile Club of France. His Peugeot is believed to have been
the first car based in Cambridge, and one of the first three cars owned in
Wales. An early motoring enthusiast, he joined the Self-Propelled Traffic
Association which campaigned against the restrictions imposed on motor vehicles
by the Locomotive Act, and became a founder member of the Automobile Club of
Great Britain with which it merged 1897.
1. Прочтите текст и переведите его письменно.
industry in our country has been developed since 1916. Before that time Russia
had no automobile industry at all, technical schools had no departments to
train specialists in automobile engineering. But in the history of the
automobile such names as Shamshurenkov, Blinov, Mamin and other Russian experts
in mechanics must be remembered.
automobile built by Shamshurenkov, a Russian inventor, was put into motion by
the pedalling of the driver himself. Blinov designed and constructed tractor
driven by steam engine. Mamin was one of the pioneers in Russian internal
automobiles are engineered and built in such a manner that they are able to
withstand heavy loads for long periods of operation. The modem automobile is
much more than a means of riding from one place to another. The passenger's
safety and comfort must be considered as much as the car's reliable performance
and ability to travel on the highways.
automobile must have a steel body and a steel roof and this roof must be
insulated against the summer's heat and winter's (old Ventilation is also of
great importance. The comfort and convenience of the driver must be taken into
consideration too. The automobile must have a heater with special defrosting
devices which insure clear vision to the driver. The automobile must have great
power for riding, have dependable clutch and brakes, have good riding
qualities, good lights, dependable starting and ignition systems, low fuel
consumption, as well as long service life.
Задание 2. Ответьтенавопросы
Since what time has the automobile industry been developed in our country?
Who are the most famous Russian experts in mechanics?
How was the first automobile put into motion?
How are Russian automobiles engineered and built today?
Fyodor Abramovich Blinov and Yakov
inventor-taught, a creator of the first in the world caterpillar tractor, F.A.
Blinov was born in 1827 in the village of Nikolskoye in the family of a serf.
In 1840 Blinov received his freedom and began to work on a ship. Soon he became
well-known on the Volga as an experienced master for the repairing of
equipment. By 1895 Blinov developed the world’s first tractor, in which was
installed steam machine. Fyodor Abramovich, the creator of the first in the
world tracked tractor was given the rank of “Honorary citizen of the city
Fyodor Abramovich Blinov and Yakov Mamin glorified Balakovo as the birthplace
of the world's first caterpillar tractor, wheel self-propelled gun and Russian
diesel engine; the plant of oil engines and tractors Yakov Mamin in 1915
produced 325 diesel engines, with a total capacity of 5100 horsepower.
Luk'yanovich Shamshurenkov(1687—1758) was a self-taught Russian
inventor of peasant origin, who designed a device for lifting the Tsar Bell onto
a bell-tower, constructed in 1752 the first self-propelling or self-running
carriage (may be regarded as precursor to both quadrocycle and automobile) and proposed
projects of an original odometer and
tracks, track assembly
In 1837, Russian army captain Dmitry Zagryazhsky came up with
drawings of a caterpillar drive and applied to the Ministry of Finance for a
patent for his invention of a “carriage with a flat chain mechanical
caterpillar”. He was granted a patent but his invention did not interest
manufacturers at that time and the patent was annulled in 1839. Much later, in
1877, Russian peasant and self-taught inventor Fyodor Blinov completed
Zagryazhsky’s unfinshed task and created a wagon that moved on caterpillars.
This invention gave the green light to production of tractors and,
subsequently, of tanks.
The invention of an electrically-powered railway wagon was a
precondition for the transport revolution that spurred the development of towns
and industrial centres. It all started in 1874-1876, when Fyodor Pirotsky
conducted a slew of experiments on transmitting electricity over a distance,
with one rail serving as a direct conductor and the other, as a reverse
conductor. An electric motor, located one kilometre from the power source,
worked. A few years later, he conducted an experiment at a railway spur near
Sestroretsk. There were 40 people in the wagon. The first electrified tram line
was opened as late as 1881 in a Berlin suburb on the basis of designs by the
Igor Sikorsky was another Russian inventor whose potential was
fully realized abroad. In 1910, he created the prototype of a rotor-driven
device, which successfully got off the ground. In 1912, he created the first
hydroplane in the world and then the first multiple-engine aircraft. After the
1917 Revolution in Russia, he had to emigrate to the US, where he established
his own company, Sikorsky Aero Engineering Company, using a contribution from
remarkable Russian composer Sergei Rachmaninoff. Sikorsky’s first experimental
helicopter designed in the United States got off the ground in September 1939.
The design of that machine, which has been considered a classic helicopter
design for more than fifty years now, has been used for almost 95% helicopters
built around the world. In 1942, Sikorsky created a two-seater
в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских слов и словосочетаний:
engineer а. долгийсрокслужбы
b. запустить в
cars с. подвергатьиспытаниям
to put into mass production d. плавноесцепление
е. отвечать современным требованиям
6.drivingsafetyf. иметь дело (с
up-to-date demands g. надежныетормозаирулевоеуправление
3. Прочтите текст и выполните следующие за ним упражнения:
1. Specialists in
automobile industry deal with designing and manufacturing cars, so they should
know that the production of the automobile comprises the following phases:
out the technology of manufacturing processes,
2. Why is it
necessary to know all these facts? It is important to know them as before the
automobile (car or truck) is put into mass production, it should be properly
designed and the automobile must meet up-to-date requirements.
3. What are these
requirements? The automobile must have high efficiency, long service life,
driving safety, ease of maintenance and pleasant appearance. In order to obtain
all these qualities engineers should develop up-to-date methods of designing
cars, using new types of resistant to corrosion light materials. Also it is
important to know computer science because it is intended to shorten the time
between designing and manufacturing. Computers offer quick and optimal
solutions of problems.
4. But before the
car is put into mass production all its units and mechanisms are subjected to
tests, first in the plant's laboratory, then the car undergoes a rigid quality
control in road tests. Only then the car is put into mass production. Why are
these tests required? What qualities are required of the automobile? The modern
automobile must be rapid in acceleration, must have smooth acting clutch,
silent gearbox, dependable brakes and steering system, as well as pleasant
appearance. Also it must be comfortable and have all conveniences.
5. Переведите на русский язык в письменной форме абзацы 3 и 4.
phases does the production of the automobile comprise?
requirements must the automobile meet?
are cars subjected to road tests?
qualities are required of the automobile?
is it important for the specialists in automobile industry to know computing
7. Закончите предложения, выбрав соответствующий вариант окончания:
The cars are subjected to road tests in order....
to shorten the time between designing and manufacturing
meet up-to-date requirements
work out new technological processes
2.The car must have the following
high efficiency, long service life, driving safety and pleasant appearance;
smooth acting clutch, silent gearbox dependable brakes and steering system.
The car must have the following qualities....
high efficiency, long service life, driving safety and pleasant appearance;
smooth acting clutch, silent gearbox dependable brakes and steering system.
Kavanagh. English for automobile industry. – Oxford Business English, 2016.
Л.Ф. Автомобиль: Учебное пособие на английском языке для студентов вузов,
обучающихся по специальностям: 150200 – Автомобили и автомобильное хозяйство;
240100 – Организация перевозок и управление на транспорте; 240400 – Организация
и безопасность движения. В 2 ч. – Омск: Изд-во СибАДИ, 2002.-205 с.
А. В. Современный автомобиль как мы его видим : учебник английского языка /
А.В. Гниненко. — М.: Астрель: ACT:
Транзиткнига, 2005. —461,  е.: ил.
А.В. Английский язык для студентов автомобилестроительных специальностей
средних профессиональных учебных заведений: Учеб. пособие/В.А. Шляхова. – М.:
Высшая школа, 2008. – 120 с.: илл.