Amin of aliphatic range
amine series.Classification.Isomers . Nomenclature.
and chemical properties of amines
and use of amines.
Amines are considered to be compounds substituted for
alkyl (R-) groups of hydrogen atoms in ammonia. In the primary, secondary and
tertiary amines 1,2,3 hydrogen atoms are converted into radicals.
The isomerism of amines depends on the location of
the amine group in the carbon chain, their number and the structure of the
nitrogen atom and the bound radicals.
According to the system nomenclature, amines are named
by adding the amine suffix to the name of the radical.
Physical and chemical
Simple amines - methylamine, dimethylamine,
trimethylamine gases, soluble in water, smell like ammonia. Other lower amines
are ammonia-scented liquids. Complex amines are unpleasant (unpleasant)
High amines are solid, water-insoluble, odorless substances.
Its chemical properties are similar to ammonia.
1. Aqueous solutions of amines show the basic medium:
R- NН2 + НОН « [RNН3]+ + OН-
2. Amines react with mineral acids to form
R-NН2 + НСl → R – NН3+Сl-
– converted to alkyl
The basic properties of amines are higher than ammonia.
3. Primary and secondary amines also show weak acidic
properties, forming salts-alkyl or dialkylamides with alkali metals:
2R2NН + 2 Nа → 2R2N –
Nа + Н2
4Amines are alkylated: primary and secondary amines
convert hydrogen of the amine group into alkyls, through which the reaction
produces secondary and tertiary amines:
RNН2 + СН3І → R – NН –
СН3 + НІ, or R–NНСН3 . НІ
RNНСН3 + СН3І → RN(СН3)2
5 Amines can be acylated by reacting with acetic
anhydride or acetyl chloride:
С2Н5-NН2 + (СН3-СО)2О
→ С2Н5-NН-СО-СН3 + СН3СООН
Ethyl acetamide or
acid forms primary amines, nitrogen and alcohols, alkenes, esters, secondary
amines - nitrosamines
RNН2 + НОNО → R – ОН + N2
R2NН + НОNО → R2N – NО +
7. Primary amines are characterized by an isonitrile
reaction: in the presence of caustic potash (KOH) primary amines form
isocyanides with chloroform, have a very bad odor
R –NН2 + СНСl3 + 3КОН → RNС + 3КСl + 3Н2О
Secondary and tertiary amines do not give these reactions, so they
are used to reveal primary amines.
Production and use of amines
1. When alcohol and ammonia vapors are passed through
a catalyst (AI2O3; ThO2) at a temperature of 3000C, a mixture of amines
(primary, secondary, tertiary) is obtained:
2. When ammonia reacts with halogen derivatives, a mixture
of salts of different amines is obtained.
chloro methylamine methylamine
3. Acid amides lose their effect on hypobromite or
hypochlorite and give primary amines ( Hoffman reaction):
the presence of catalysts (Pt, Pd, Ni) nitro compounds are reduced:
5. Redoxes or catalysts in the presence of Pt, Pd, Ni
form primary amines with hydrogen and nitriles.
provide secondary amines:
R- NС + 2Н2 → R – NН – СН3
Amines are used as organic bases and in
amination reactions. Amines from sulfuric acid solutions are used to produce
uranium. Amines, such as the smell of fish, are used to fight steppe rodents.
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