1.Homologous series of carboxylic
acids. Isomerism. Nomenclature.
2.Physical and chemical properties
of carboxylic acids
3.Carboxylic acids, preparation and
acid molecule contains one or more carboxyl groups-СООНassociated with
a carbon radical.The General formula is СnH2nO2orCnH2n+1COOHCarboxylic acids are divided into saturated,
unsaturated and aromatic.
on the amount of the carboxyl group, it is divided into one base, two bases,
and a multi-base.
single-base carboxylic acid molecule contains a single carboxyl group.
– СН2 –
order to name the saturated base, carboxylic acid according to the system nomenclature,
the word "acid" is added to the name of saturated hydrocarbons.For
example: N-Coon-methanoic acid; CH3-Coon-ethanoic acid.
isomerism of saturated monobasic carboxylic acids is related to the
construction of a carbon chain, the isomer begins with the number of carbon
atoms above 4. C3H7COOH-two isomers; C4H9COOH-four isomers. HCOOH-formic
(methane) acid; CH3-Coon-acetic (ethanoic) acid; C2H5-Coon-propionic (propane)
acid; C3H7-Coon-fatty (butanoic) acid; CH3-CH(CH3) - Coon-isomay (2-methylpropanoic)
The acidic properties of carboxylic acids depend on
the carboxyl group.
СН3 - СООН « СН3-
СОО- + Н+ (1)
The electron clouds of the carbon atom are displaced
to the oxygen atom.
Therefore, the carbon atom was a positive charge, and
in the neighboring hydroxyl groupattracts the electron clouds of the oxygen
atom.Thus, the bond between oxygen and hydrogen in the
hydroxyl group is weakened, which means hydrogenleads
to ion separation, (1) as shown. Formic acid (KD
= 10-4 ) is stronger than other carboxylic acids, for other acids KD = 10-5 .
1.salt forms. Carboxylic
acids interact with metals, alkalis, carbonates, and form salts:
COOH + Mg → (RCOO)2 Mg + H2 ↑
R- COOH + NaOH → RCOONa + H2O
2R – COOH + Na2CO3 →
2RCOONa + CO2 ↑ + H2O
Мысалы: СН3СООН + Мg → (CH3COOH)2Mg
+ H2 ↑
complicated production of the ether. Carboxylic acids interact with alcohols,
esters and water concentrate are formed. sulfuric acid is involved.
a)when heated, ammonium salts of the
carboxylic acid amide is formed, water.
b) anhydrides of carboxylic acids in the interaction
with ammonia amides are formed.
СН3-СОСl + NH3 → CH3
– CОNH2 + HCl
C) carboxylic acid penetrates the ammonia through a
catalyst for pumping water, forming acidic amides
СН5-СООН + NH3 → CH3
– CОNH2 + H2О
Halogenation reaction. Carboxylic acid into the reaction of substitution of
halogen. The substitution reaction proceeds to a halogen atom close to the
5. formation of anhydrides.
Two carboxylic acid molecules are added, form anhydrides, and dehydrate the
6. the reaction of recovery. Under the action of
strong reduction (LiAIH4), carboxylic acids are reduced to alcohols.
Saturated monobasic carboxylic acids are found in
plants in the free state or in the complex essential state.
7. the reaction of oxidation. Monocarboxylic acids are
resistant to oxides, only formic acid forms and oxidizes carbon dioxide.
Depending on the structure of formic acid, they
exhibit reducing properties and give a "silver mirror" reaction
similar to aldehydes
Another distinctive property of formic acid is its
rupture when heated with concentrated sulfuric acid:
Monobasic acids, not saturated. Download.
Physical and chemical properties
General formula of the ethylene series of acids on a
single base unsaturated
метаакрил(a-метилакрил, метилпропен) қышқылы
СН3 – (СН2)7- СН=СН –
(СН2)7СООН - oleic acid
There are 2 General
methods for producing unsaturated acids:
1. introduces the carboxyl group into the primary
substance with a multiple bond
2. conversion of saturated
acids to unsaturated acids
СООН + 2КОН ® KCl + СН2 = СН-СООК + H2O
In contrast to saturated monobasic
acids in contrast to saturated monobasic acids: at high density and
dissociation constant. Unsaturated acids also form salts, anhydrides, halides,
amides, esters. Also, the multiple bond is used in the reaction of compounds,
oxidation, and polymerization.
Dibasic acids are unsaturated and saturated. Download.
Physical and chemical properties
of saturated dibasic acids CnH2n (COOH)2 .
НООС-СООН - acid Kumasawa
НООС-СН2-СООН – malonic acid
НООС-(СН2)2 -СООН - amber acid
Methods for obtaining dibasic acids, such as methods
for obtaining monobasic acids:
hydrolysis of Dinitriles (wash)):
3. the oxidation of oxides
СН2ОНСН2СООН + [О]® НООС-СН2-СООН
Dibasic acids are colorless, crystalline substances,
well soluble in water. The melting point in dibasic acids with paired carbon
atoms, like monobasic acids, is higher than the melting point of acids with odd
Dibasic acids are enhanced from monobasic acids, as
the interaction of carboxylates facilitates dissociation. Like monobasic acids
(under the same conditions), both basic acids give complete and incomplete acid
formation: neutral and acidic salts, such as potassium oxalate К2С2О4
, acidic potassium oxalate КНС2О4, esters that are
completely or incompletely complex, such as malonic acid diethyl ether С2Н5ООС-СН2
–СООС2Н5, malonic acid monoethyl ether НООС-СН2
–СООС2Н5 ,complete and incomplete amides.
acid diethyl ether
salt of cumic acid
monotropy cumic acid
However, group 2 of carboxyl in a single molecule is a
specific and chemical property. At
temperatures above the melting point, one group of carboxyl releases and loses
Succinic and glutaric acids
can form cyclic anhydrides:
Adipine and pimelic acids are separated from the pyrolysis of calcium or barium
CO2 salts and ketones are formed.
The most famous of the 2 unsaturated basic acids are
fumaric acid and maleic acid, one of CIS-one TRANS-acid, the formulas are the
Can be heated with acid acid apples in two:
НООС-СН2СНОН-СООН ® Н2О + НООС-СН=СН-СООН
These acids also form a salt
by carboxyl groups, esters, and amides.
Plan: 1. Homologous series of carboxylic acids
Carboxylic acids interact with alcohols, esters and water concentrate are formed
Saturated monobasic carboxylic acids are found in plants in the free state or in the complex essential state
Monobasic acids, not saturated
Dibasic acids are unsaturated and saturated
However, group 2 of carboxyl in a single molecule is a specific and chemical property