Рабочая тетрадь Elementary
Оценка 4.7 (более 1000 оценок)

Рабочая тетрадь Elementary

Оценка 4.7 (более 1000 оценок)
Домашнее обучение +6
pdf
английский язык +1
5 кл—11 кл +1
26.04.2018
Рабочая тетрадь Elementary
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ответы.pdf


natural English


pp. 16-25 Ostening how to ... say hello natural Erglish saying hello listening people introducing themselves grammar be positive and  negative vocabulary jobs grammar a / an

wordbooster

countries and nationalities numbers (1)

reading questions, questions

grammar questions with be reading an e-mail natural how are you? vocabulary drinks natural EnglW1 Would you like . ?

help with pronunciation and listening

pronunciation sounds listening asking for help natural ErgHsh asking for help

test yourself!

revision and progress check

pp.26-33 reading have you got one?

vocabulary technology natural English thing(s) reading rhe tech shop grammar have got — have

natural English giving opinions (1)

wordbooster

personal things possessive •s adjectives (1)

listening how to . ask for things Can I .. . ?


grammar this, that, these, those listening classroom talk natural saying you aren't sure writing note writing

help with pronunciation and listening   

pronunciation word stress listening information words

test yourself!

revision and progress check

in unit one .

 

 

in unit two .

 

 

in unit three .

 

in unit four .

pp.34-41                              pp. 42—49

istening you and me

vocabulary noun groups 'ocabulary daily routines grammar present simple rammar present simple with natural a lot (of) frequency adverbs listening transport survey ading Who reads most? natural English get Where do people read?

grammar wh- questions òatural about an hour week wordbooster telling the time „wordbooster natural English asking the time days, months, and seasons leisure activities time phrases with prepositions reading how to ...  listening how to

talk about likes and       

talk about your family

dislikes

vocabulary families

natural English likes and dislikes                                                   

natural Engfish asking about

grammar present simple with

family

he / she

grammar my, your, etc.

reading Workers of the World

listening people talking about families natural English (do something) together writing about families

extended speakinghelp with pronunciation how active are you? and listening

collect ideas pronunciation sounds /ö/ and listen do an interview listening weak forms write a paragraph natural saying thank you

test yourself!                                  test yourself!

revision and progress check                        revision and progress check


one                                        two wordlist p.131                 three              p.132         four wordlist p.133

2

units one to ei ht

in unit five

 

 

 

in unit six .

 

 

in unit seven .

 

in unit ei

ht .


pp.50-57 ading breakfast time     

butary breakfast food ural EngW1 What do you have for... ?

mmar countable and uncountable nouns mar some / any

'reading Round the world at

8.00 a.m.

•ng write about breakfast time

'ordbooster

NturalEnghsh What kind of . ?

'djectives (2)

Qistening how to order food

grammar can / can't 4 verb listening ordering food natural English ordering food natural Enghsh asking for more

ended speaking hays on the menu?

Ilect ideas

test yourself!

revision and progress check

•sion

pp.58-65 reading a day out

vocabulary tourist places past simple was / were reading I'm a guide natural English both

wordbooster          

past time phrases verb + noun collocation listening how to talk about [ast weekend natural Engfish How was ... ? grammar past simple: regular and irregular verbs listening talking about the weekend natural English showing you are listening writing weblogs

help with pronunciation and listening

pronunciation sounds /o:/, /3:/, and ID/ listening prediction (1)

test yourself!

revision and progress check

pp.66-73 heading biographies

vocabulary life story grammar past simple: negatives reading Before she was famous.. natural •sh link words: then / a r that grammar past simple: questions

wordbooster

appearance      natural English quite and very character

listening how to talk about people you know

grammar object pronouns natural English What's he / she like ? listening people talking about their teachers natural English When did you last ... ?

extended speaking people from your past

collect ideas prepare an interview interview tell a story writing

test yourself!

revision and progress check

pp. 74-81 reading I got lost!

vocabulary getting around natural EngHsh way reading Excuse me, where's Paris? Excuse me, where's Bath? grammar•how much / many

wordbooster          

prepositions of place come and go; bring and take

listening how to ... get round a building

grammar there is / are listening asking for directions natural English asking for directions natural English well vocabulary directions

help with pronunciation and listening

pronunciation sounds /J/, /tJ/, and Ids/ listening prediction (2) natural English asking people to speak slowly / speak up

test yourself!

revision and progress check


five                                      six wordlist p. 135                  seven              p.136         eight wordlist p.137


in unit nine

pp.82-89                                pp.90-97

reading backpacking                     reading babies

vocabulary hotels

natural English giving opinions

natural English I (don't) think so

grammar something, anything,

listening booking hotel rooms

nothing, etc.

natural English Would you

listening offering help

prefer ?

natural English offering help writing explaining problems and offering help

extended speaking

help with pronunciation

my kind of hotel

and listening

grammar have to / don't have vocabulary action verbs to/ dol have to ?  natural English talking about can / can't (permission) ages reading Youth hostels: reading Watch your baby grow! frequently asked questions grammar can / can't (ability) natural English normally natural English quite / very well writing an e-mail wordbooster wordbooster parts of the body numbers (2) common phrases money listening how to listening how tooffer help book a room

 

collect ideas

pronunciation sounds and

invent a hotel

spelling /ao/, io:/, /A/, and /u/

natural English suggesting and responding role play

listening connected speech

test yourself!

test yourself!

revision and progress check

revision and progress check

nine            p.89

revision

nine                                       ten wordlist p.139

pp.98-105

grammar comparative adjectives -reading Quicker than a car?

natural            How long does it take? Ntural English agreeing and disagreeing wordbooster

shops and products natural   get buy) adjectives (3)


listening how to recommend natural English recommending: should + verb listening people talking about holiday places grammar superlative adjectives writing correcting a text

extended speaking town survey collect ideas

prepare a survey listen do the survey compare answers

test yourself!

revision and progress check

eleven               p.140

in unit ten .

 

in unit eleven .

 

in unit twelve .

pp.106-113

natural English How about you? reading The luncheon of the boating party grammar present continuous

wordbooster clothes telephoning

listening how to . use the phone natural English mostly grammar present simple vs continuous listening phoning friends natural English phoning a friend natural English telephone introductions writing a conversation and a message

help with pronunciation and listening

pronunciation consonant groups listening being an active listener natural English showing you (don't) understand

test yourself!

review p.113

activities

revision and progress check iwelve

revision twelve wordlist p.141


 nine to fourteen


in unit thirteen

in unit fourteen .

teacher pp.114-121   pp.122-129  development

           a new lifereading that's incredible!       chapters

Get a new life natural How many times . ? how to mmar be going to + verb;grammar present perfect use the board

Erghsh + verb What are you               reading breakersKing of the record   p. 146             natural English tonight?    -natural           reacting to      website ng filling in forms      surprising information      how towww.oup.com/elt/teacher/ grammar present perfect and           develop learner      naturalengtish rdbooster       past simple    independence Extra class activities and

 p.153 resources and links to the rb + preposition           student's site. English Do you ever P wordbooster how to .

•nds Of film                                 opposites                                                                             also available

natural English

test booklet

communicate with feelings           low-level learners

'listening how to invite someone listening how to p.160 igtural EngHsh inviting and say what you feel how to responding vocabulary fixed phrases select, organize, and listening people arranging to go natural English special greetings present vocabulary at to the cinema listening someone giving a lower levels


Mtural EngHsh making plans           birthday present together     writing greeting cards p.167

natural English have a + adj

+ noun

how to . 

test booklet

 

help low-level learners

Unit-by-unit tests for

 

with pronunciation

grammar, vocabulary, and

 

p.174

natural English plus seven skills tests. Common examstyle questions in 'exam focus' sections throughout.

reading writing

skills

 

 

 

Complements the natural

test yourself!

test yourself!

English reading and writing syllabuses.

revision and progress check

revision and progress check

— an extra reading lesson

utended speaking                 help with pronunciation         language reference key

  (s go out!                            and listening                           pp. 181-183

Ilect ideas   listening to a song 'invent information          pronunciation linking

bractice le play reading & writing skills resource book

for every unit of the

                 'teen review p.121fourteen review p.129                                                               student's book

                   •sion activitiesrevision activities                                                                  — material related to the

student's book by topic

— develops real life reading

Thirteen wordlist p.142                  fourteen wordlist p.143                                  and writing skills useful

for work or study

— advice on text types and skills


how we wrote this course

Before we established the language syllabus for the elementary level of natural EngHsh, we wanted to be sure that what we set out to teach learners corresponded to what they actually needed to learn at this stage in their language development. So, instead of starting with a prescribed syllabus, we began by planning a series of communicative activities with certain criteria:

— they would have to be engaging, purposeful. and achievable — they would need to stretch the limited resources of elementary learners

— they had to include different topics, and past and future time frames as well as the present

— they should cover a range of activity types (e.g. giving and exchanging information; service encounter role plays; sharing experiences; telling simple stories, etc.)

We then wrote the activities. Initially, we produced more than we needed, and after trialling, we eliminated those which did not work as well as we had hoped or overlapped with others which were richer in language or more successful. Those that remained became the activities which you will find in the extended speaking activities and it's your turn! sections in a much refined and reworked form, thanks to the learner data and feedback from teachers. Here are two examples from the

trialling and recording the activities


We asked teachers to use the material with their elementary classes, and record small groups doing the activities. We also piloted them ourselves with small groups. In all, we recorded over one hundred learners from at least a dozen different countries. In our earlier research (at intermediate and upperintermediate levels) we had done a limited amount of piloting of native speakers doing the relevant activities, but at this level we didn't think it would be of great benefit. However, following on from our experience at the higher levels, we did pilot the activities with learners above the target level, so we recorded pre-intermediate level students as well.

analysing the learner data

After transcribing the recordings, we had a considerable amount of data al elementary level, but also data at the level just above elementary. As with the previous levels, the comparisons were fascinating, and knowing what could be achieved just above the target level was very informative in helping us to identify the most useful, relevant and achievable target language for elementary learners. At that point we were able to start writing the student's book.

To summarize. the development of the course involved the following stages:

I devise the extended speaking activities / role plays for trialling

2      trial and record elementary and pre-intermediate learners

3      transcribe and analyse the data

4      select appropriate language for the syllabus

5      write the learning materials

what is natural English?

Throughout the course we have tried to identify language relevant to the needs of learners at each respective level. For the most part, that has meant the inclusion of high-frequency language used naturally by native speakers and proficient users of the language: if a word or phrase is used frequently, it is likely to be useful in a range of everyday communication.

However, not all language used naturally by native speakers is necessarily suitable for many foreign learners, and that includes some high-frequency language. Our own classroom experience has taught us that many learners find it difficult to incorporate highly idiomatic language into their own interlanguage, and a word or phrase which sounds very natural when used by a native speaker can have the opposite effect when used by an L2 learner — it sounds very unnatural. We have, therefore, tried 10 focus on language which is used naturally by native speakers or proficient speakers of the language, also sounds natural when used by L2 learners. So, at this elementary level for example, we want learners to use high-frequency and relatively informal ways of thanking people such as thanks and thanks a lot; but we have not introduced the more colloquial phrases such as cheers or ta.

the natural English syllabus

How does anyone decide exactly what language will fulfil these criteria? It is, of course, highly subjective. As yet, there isn't a readily available core lexicon of phrases and collocations to teach elementary learners on the basis of frequency, let alone taking into account the question of which phrases might be most 'suitable' for learners at this level. Our strategy has been to use our own classroom knowledge and experience to interpret our data of elementary and pre-intermediate level


language use, in conjunction with information from the Longman Grammar Of Spoken and Written English, a range Of ELT dictionaries and data from the British National Corpus and The Oxford Corpus Collection. In this way, we arrived at an appropriate language syllabus for elementary learners.

what else did we learn from the data?

These are some of the general findings to emerge from our data, which influenced the way we then produced the material.

level of confidence

Most learners at this level (but by no means all) lack the confidence to experiment with language. This showed up in the trialling with some learners treating communication activities as language drills. Of course, learners need controlled practice to help them to produce language accurately and more automatically, but they also need opportunities to use language freely — to develop fluency by thinking more about they are saying than they are saying it. For this reason, we felt that freer speaking activities were still relevant to this level, and we have included them throughout the book in it's your turn! at the end of every lesson, and extended speaking activities at the end of every unit (from unit three onwards).

When learners engage in genuine communication they will inevitably make mistakes. Throughout the notes in the teacher's book, we have tried to anticipate errors and minimize these, but at the same time we believe that mistakes are part of the learning process and should be viewed constructively in the classroom, i.e. what can we learn from them for future productive use?

length of turns

Throughout the data we saw evidence of very short turns (even shorter than at the pre-intermediate level). This is to be expected, but we have tried to extend utterances by building into activities a lot of planning and rehearsal time. In addition, we feel that structuring speaking activities is essential to ensure that learners have plenty to talk about. Listening models or teacher models which show students how they can develop topics are also instrumental in encouraging more output and longer turns.

listening and pronunciation

At this level, more than any other, we found that learners had difficulty understanding one another (particularly in multilingual classes). Apart from cultural misunderstandings, problems seemed to arise from two sources: poor comprehension skills on the part Of the listener, and / or lack Of intelligibility through poor pronunication on the speaker's part. We have addressed this issue throughout the elementary material, but with an extra focus (at the end of alternate units) in a new section called help with pronunciation and listening. See

grammar

Many elementary learners have 'studied' grammar such as the present and past simple, but it was clear that productive use is still exceedingly difficult. There was a lot of simplification throughout the data, and many learners at this level are only truly comfortable when operating in the present simple, and even then inaccurately. We also found that learners were uniformly poor at asking questions, and their use Of modal verbs was almost non-existent.

In response you will find considerable attention is paid to all of these areas.

vocabulary

The most obvious shortcoming was the lack of familiarity with high-frequency phrases in a number of everyday situations. For example, we found that learners weren't able to ask about people's weekend (How was your weekend?), order food in a restaurant (Could I have some more... / another.... please?), reassure people (don't worry), etc. The language in the natural English boxes is the most obvious way we have tackled this shortcoming, but you will find a number Of common lexical chunks throughout the wordboosters and other vocabulary development exercises.

how to use key features of natural English

                  natural EngfiTh boxes

                  wordbooster

                  staged listening

                  help with pronunciation and listening

                  test yourself!

                  language reference and practice exercises

                  reviews

                  workbook

                  teacher's book

                  skills resource book • test booklet natural English boxes

Most of the natural English boxes consist of natural English phrases. They normally occur four times in each unit, with one or two boxes in each main section, and often one in the wordbooster.

what do the natural English boxes contain?

These boxes focus on important aspects of everyday language, some of which fall outside the traditional grammatical / lexical syllabus. They include:

— familiar functional exponents, e.g. suggesting and responding

(We could go to the cinema. Yeah, that's a good idea.)

— communication strategies, e.g. asking for help (Sorry, can you repeat that, please?)  high-frequency words in spoken English, e.g. get, quite / very, mostly

— common features Of spoken English, e.g. vague language

(thing), qualifying (a bit)

— lexical chunks, e.g. Have a nice time, Anything else? What's the matter?

The language here is presented in chunks, with each box containing a limited number Of words Or phrases to avoid memory overload. The words / phrases are practised On the spot, and then learners have the opportunity to use them later in freer activities, e.g. in it's your turn! or the extended speaking activity.

how to    use the natural English boxes

These boxes have been positioned at a point within each cycle where they are going to be of immediate value, and most of the phrases are recorded to provide a pronunciation model. There is an instruction before each natural English box providing learners with a task to highlight the forms and / or focus on meaning, e.g. Listen and complete the questions or Match the questions and answers (in the box). Beneath each box there is a controlled practice exercise to focus on pronunciation and consolidate meaning. and in many cases this is followed by a personalized practice activity. In the classroom, you could vary the presentation of the language in the following ways:

— If the target phrases have been recorded, you could ask learners to listen to them first. They could do this with books shut and treat it as a dictation, then compare their answers with the student's book; or they could listen and follow in the student's book at the same time, and then repeat from the recording or the model that you give them yourself.

— You can read the phrases aloud for learners to repeat; alternatively, you can ask individual learners to read them out as a way of presenting them.

— You can ask learners to read the box silently, then answer any queries they have, before you get them to say the phrases.

— You could write the phrases on the board or OHP for everyone to focus on. Then ask learners about any problems they have with meaning and form of the examples before practice.

— You could sometimes elicit the phrases before learners read them. For instance, ask them how they could ask for directions. or what they would say when offering food or drink. Write their suggestions on the board, and then let learners compare with the natural English box. In some cases learners will know some important phrases, but they may not be very accurate or know the most natural way to express these concepts.

— Once learners have practised the phrases, you could ask them to shut their student's book and write down the phrases they remember.

*    If you have a weaker class, you might decide to focus on only one or two Of the phrases for productive practice; for a stronger group, you may want to add one or two phrases Of your own.

— For revision, you could tell learners they are going to be tested on the natural English boxes of the last two units you have done; they should revise them for homework. The next day, you can test them in a number of ways:

— give them an error-spotting test  fill gaps in phrases or give stimuli which learners respond to — ask them to write two-line dialogues in pairs

*    The workbook provides you with a number of consolidation and further practice exercises of natural English (and, of course, other language presented in the student's book — see below for more details).

— As the phrases are clearly very useful, you may want to put some of them on display in your classroom. You could also get learners to Start a natural and vocabulary notebook and record the phrases under headings as they learn them. You should decide together whether natural (rather than literal) translations would be a useful option for self-study.

wordbooster

Wordbooster is a section in each unit devoted to vocabulary development. It is almost always divided into two parts, each one focussing on a different lexical area: at least one is topicbased, the other may also be topic-based or focus on collocation, e.g. verb + preposition, or verb + noun.

why wordbooster?

Throughout the other sections in each unit, you will find vocabulary input which is practised within the section. The wordbooster sections have two main aims:

— they present much of the key vocabulary that learners will need in the how to... lesson. and I or the extended speaking activity at the end of the unit.

— they also cover topic areas and linguistic areas which sometimes go beyond the immediate requirements of the fourteen units and so help to provide a more comprehensive vocabulary syllabus. The wordbooster section is designed to have a different feel from the other more interactive sections in the course, and it provides a change of pace and activity type.

how to        use wordbooster

Each wordbooster will take approximately 30-45 minutes to complete, and it can be used flexibly.

 You don't need to do the whole wordbooster in one session. As it is divided into two sections, you can do one part in one lesson, and the other part in a later lesson. In other words, you can use this section to fit in with your own teaching timetable. For instance, if you have 15-20 minutes at the end of a lesson, you can do one of these sections.

— You can do some of it in class, and some of it can be done for homework.

— Encourage learners to record the language learnt in these sections in their natural Engfish and vocabulary notebooks.

staged listening

In the natural English course. listening is a very important component in all four levels. Much of the recorded material is improvised, unscripted and delivered at natural speed, and where practical, this approach has also been adopted at elementary level. At the same time, there is a balance of scripted material as learners at this level adjust to the demands of natural, spoken English.

As with other levels of the course, we have included a threephase listening section in each unit:

*       tune in: a short extract from the beginning of the main listening. This gives learners the opportunity to tune in to the voices of the speakers and the content of the listening passage with a simple accompanying task.

— listen carefully: the main listening passage. Students hear the introduction (tune in) again, and then the rest of the passage, with a more detailed task.

*       listening challenge: a further listening passage (cither a continuation of the main listening, or a parallel listening passage) in which the listening tasks are less guided and more open.

how to use staged listening

— As the listening material has been staged in order to ease learners gently into the main listening and build their confidence, it is important to use tune in and listen carefully as in the student's book. However, listening challenge can sometimes be used at a later stage if it is not a continuation of listen carefully, e.g. in unit 7 (T7.8).

*       At a certain point in the listening cycle, the student's book indicates the best point at which to go to the tapescript (p.146 — p. 156). Following the tape-script after one or two attempts at listening is a valuable way for learners to decode the parts they haven't understood; it is not only very useful, but also a popular activity. You could encourage learners to make a note of new vocabulary from tapescripts, especially as the recordings are a source of natural, spoken English.

help with pronunciation and listening

This is a new section for elementary level.

Pronunciation sections aim to help learners improve their ability to produce mainly sounds and word stress more accurately. In some cases, the sounds may be isolated for teaching purposes, but in the exercises, the sounds are contextualized in sentences. As learners work through the material, they build up a knowledge of phonemic symbols, which are gradually incorporated within the rest of the material in the phonemic transcriptions of new vocabulary items. The activities are all short and self-contained.

Each listening section aims to develop a particular listening subskill:

— asking for help if you don't understand

-   listening for key words

— recognising weak forms

-   predicting content

-   understanding features of connected speech - being an active listener

how to use help with pronunciation and listening

Each help with pronunciation and listening section will take approximately 30-45 minutes to complete.

-   You don't need to do all of it in one session. As it is divided into two sections, you can do one part in one lesson, and the other part in a later lesson. In other words (as with wordbooster), you can use this section to fit in with your own teaching timetable. For instance, if you have 15-20 minutes at the end of a lesson, you can do one of these sections.

— Both sections recycle previously taught language, so it is advisable to use them where they are positioned in the course, although in most cases, it is possible to reverse the order of the two sections.

— As the students build up a knowledge of phonemic symbols, try to incorporate them in your own teaching, e.g use them to highlight difficult sounds in new vocabulary items. You can refer learners regularly to the phonemic chart at the back of the student's book p.158 for further consolidation.

— At the beginnning of each listening section, there is a speech bubble which highlights the subskill learners are going to practise. These subskills have been described in very simple terms so that learners can understand them, and it is important to make them aware of the specific aim of each section.

test yourself!

Test yourself! is an end-of-unit test or revision activity enabling learners to assess their progress, and consider how they performed in the extended speaking activity. It is a short, easily administered test covering lexis, natural English phrases, and grammar from the unit in a standardized format:  producing items within categories

— gap-fill

— correcting errors how to use test yourself!

You can use it either before the extended speaking activity, for revision purposes, or as an end-of-unit lest. You may want to give learners time to prepare for it, e.g. read through the unit for homework, or make it a more casual and informal revision activity. Make it clear to learners that their answers in the test should only include new language from the unit.

The test can be used in different ways: — A formal test. Ask learners to complete it individually, and then collect in their answers to mark.

— An informal test. Ask learners to complete it individually, then go through the answers with the whole class.

— A more interactive test. Ask learners to complete it in pairs. Go through the answers with the class, or ask a pair to mark the answers of another pair.

— You could get learners to complete the test individually or in pairs, then they can check their answers by looking back through the unit. Asking learners to search for answers in this way may not give you as much feedback on their progress, but it may be more memorable for them as learners.

— You could give the test for homework. Learners can then use the unit material as they wish.

Refer learners back to the checklist of the language input at the beginning of the unit. They can then tick which areas they feel more confident in. This is an important way for you to discover which areas they feel they need to revise. You may still have language reference and practice exercises, workbook exercises, and review sections which you can use for this revision.

language reference and practice exercises

The language reference section contains more detailed explanations of the key grammar and lexical grammar in the units, plus a large bank of practice exercises, which have been included for two main reasons:

— they make the language reference much more engaging and interactive.

— they provide practice and consolidation which teachers and learners can use flexibly: within the lesson when the grammar is being taught, in a later lesson for revision purposes, or for self-study.

Most of the exercises are objective with a right-or-wrong answer, which makes them easy for you to administer.

how to     use the language reference and practice exercises

— Use them when the need arises. If you always tell learners to read the language reference and do all the practice exercises within the lesson. you may have problems with pace and variety. Rather, use them at your discretion. If, for instance, you find that the learners need a little more practice than is provided in a grammar section, select the appropriate exercise (e.g. unit one, be positive and negative: do exercises 1.1 and 1.2 in practice). Areas of grammar are not equally easy or difficult for all nationalities. The practice exercises provide additional practice on all areas; you can select the ones which are most relevant to your learners.

 The practice exercises are ideal for self-study. Learners can read the explanations on the left, then cover them while they do the exercises on the right. Finally, they can look again at the explanations if necessary. You can give them the answers to these practice exercises which are at the end of this teachers book pps.181-183.

— If learners write the answers in pencil or in a notebook, they will be able to re-use the exercises for revision. Some learners also benefit from writing their own language examples under the ones given in the language reference. They can also annotate. translate. etc.

reviews

Review sections occur at the end of every unit in the studenes book. These activities revise the main grammar, vocabulary and natural English. Some of them can be done individually, but there is an interactive element in most, which is designed to help learners to consolidate their understanding and ability to use the language productively. They have not been constructed as objective tests.

how to use the review

You have several options:

— you could use the review sections as they occur, i.e. review each unit when you have completed it.

— you could use individual activities within a review section at different times, e.g. use a review grammar activity after you have completed the grammar section in the unit, but possibly save the natural English review activity for a later lesson.

— you could do some activities in class and set others for homework.

In other words, the review sections have been designed so that you can use them flexibly to fit in with your teaching programme.

workbook

The workbook recycles and consolidates vocabulary, grammar, and natural Enghsh from the student's book. It also provides language extension sections called expand your grammar and expand your vocabulary for stronger or more confident learners. These present and practise new material that learners have not met in the student's book. Another important feature of the workbook is the say it! sections, which encourage learners to rehearse language through promoted oral responses. There are two other regular features: think back! (revision prompts) and write it! (prompts for writing tasks). You can use the workbook for extra practice in class or set exercises for learners to do out of class time. The with key version allows learners to use the workbook autonomously.

teacher's book

This teacher's book is the product of our own teaching and teacher training experience combined with extensive research carried out by Oxford University Press into how teacher's books are used.

lesson plans

The teaching notes are presented as flexible lesson plans, which are easy to dip into and use at a glance. We talk you through each lesson, offering classroom management tips (troubleshooting), anticipating problems (language point), giving additional cultural information (culture note), and suggesting alternative ways of using or extending the material (ideas plus). In addition, each lesson plan provides you with the exercise keys, a summary of the lesson contents, and the estimated length of the lesson.

At the end of each teacher's book, there's a photocopiable wordlist of natural Enghsh phrases and vocabulary items for each unit of the student's book. This is a useful reference for you, and a clear, concise record for the learners, which they can annotate with explanations, translation, pronunciation, etc. and use for their own revision.

teacher development chapters

You'll find the teacher development chapters after the lesson plans, starting on p.146. These practical chapters encourage reflection on teaching principles and techniques. At elementary level the areas covered are:

— how to use the board                                                      p.146

— how to develop learner independence                          p.153

— how to communicate with low-level learners             p.160

— how to select, organize, and present vocabulary

     at lower levels                                                                    p.167

— how to help low-level learners with pronunciation p.] 74

The chapters are regularly cross-referenced from the lesson plans, but you can read them at any time and in any order.

Each chapter contains the following features:

— think! tasks for the reader with accompanying answer keys

(see p.146)

— try it out boxes offering practical classroom ideas related to the topic of the chapter (p.151)  natural EngHsh student's book extracts to illustrate specific points (see p.165)  follow-up sections at the end of each chapter providing a short bibliography for further reading on the topic (see p.166).

This book also contains a photocopiable key to the student's book language reference section (pps.181—183).

For reference, a pronunciation chart on p.14 shows the pronunciation syllabus across the elementary student's book.

skills resource book

in the reading and writing skills resource book?

The 64-page photocopiable resource book contains 14 reading lessons and 14 writing lessons, i.e. one reading lesson and one writing lesson for each unit of the elementary student's book, on a similar theme. Each lesson lasts between 30 and 60 minutes and is accompanied by easy-to-use teacher's notes.

The reading lessons are based around a range of authentic texts from website and newspaper articles to e-mails, recipes. and letters. The aim is to expose students to a number of different and accessible text types whilst giving practice in •real world' reading skills. It includes the basic reading skills on a regular basis, but slightly more challenging ones are also introduced in the later units. Here are some of the skills you will find (the headings on the student's pages have been simplified for the level): - predicting

— activating background knowledge

— reading for gist

-    understanding the main points

-    reading for specific information

-    reading for details

— responding to the text

The writing lessons are based around model texts which students then analyse for relevant features of language and style. Students are helped with ideas and planning, and each lesson culminates in a writing task that can be done in class time or set for homework. Regular spell check boxes focus on key points as they arise in the model texts. The writing lessons are divided into the following areas:

-how to write personal information

—how to write short messages —how towrite about likes and dislikes

—how towrite about daily routines

—how towrite a restaurant review

—how towrite about a day out

—how to write about life events

-how to write directions

—how to .. write about places

- how to write about an experience

-how to write about transport in two places

-how to describe a picture

—how to write invitations

-how to write cards

In addition, students are encouraged to assess their own progress in reading and writing by using the self-assessment chart at the back of the book. There are also vocabulary diaries for students to keep a record of new words they have encountered in the reading and writing lessons.

The interleaved teachers notes are set out in a simple grid with answer keys and guidance notes clearly visible at a glance. There is advice on particular text types and how to help students develop their reading and writing skills. The ideas plus boxes give suggestions on how to exploit the material further.

how to     use the skills resource book

The reading and writing skills resource book is designed to be used in class to supplement the natural English elementary studenrs book. It can be used to build on and extend the reading and writing skills already covered in the student's book, or as a stand-alone reading and writing course. It is also intended that the elementary level will prepare students for the kinds of reading and writing skills that they may meet in the pre-intermediate, intermediate, and upper-intermediate skills resource books.

test booklet

The elementary test booklet provides photocopiable unit-byunit tests for the grammar, vocabulary, and natural Enghsh syllabus, and skills tests for every two units at the back of the book. The skills tests cover reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The listening tests re-use the student's book material but exploit it using different tasks. 'Live' dictations are also provided if you wish to use listening material which will be entirely new to the students.

The test booklet also contains exam-style question types in regular exam focus sections. These appear at the end Of each unit test and throughout the skills tests. The aim is to give students practice and confidence in tackling common exam-style questions. An answer key is provided at the back.




writing in natural English

student's book

•unit onepersonal information

unit two                      write a note

p.20

unit three            write about your partner

unit four                      write about a member of your

•unit fiveabout what you have for breakfast

unit six                        write a weblog

write about somebody from your past

unit eight                   write directions

it nine          write an e-mail about a hotel

unit ten                      write about a problem

eleven            write about a place

unit twelve               write a telephone message

p.100

nit thirteen             fill in a form

unit fourteencards

skills resource book

write personal information

messages

write about likes and dislikes

write about daily routines

write a restaurant review

write about a day out

life events

write directions

write about an experience

write about transport in two

write invitations

elementary

skills / tasks

read a letter, understand capital letters and full stops, complete a form, write about you, spell check writing task: a letter to a host family

think about the topic, understand requests, organize sentences, spell check, make requests writing task: a message to a flatmate

think about you, read an e-mail, understand and and but, use commas, write about you, spell check writing task: an e-mail to a classmate

think about the topic, spell check, write about daily routines, order sentences, order ideas, use your ideas writing task: an article about another person

think about the topic, read a review, understand adjectives, understand it, spell check, use because writing task: a restaurant review

think about the topic, read a narrative, understand because and so, spelt check, use punctuation writing task: an e-mail or letter to a friend about a day (or night) out think about the topic, spell éheck, understand an autobiography, order information, use articles writing task: a short autobiography

understand directions, use punctuation, use prepositions, spell check, write directions writing task: directions to your house or flat for a classmate

understand different texts, describe a place, use words that go together, use punctuation, spell check writing task: an e-mail to a friend describing two hotels

understand a story, understand time markers, order a story, spell check, check for mistakes, talk about the topic writing task: a story about a special experience

think about the topic, understand a description, understand they, spell check, make sentences, talk about the topic writing task: a short article describing and comparing transport in two places

talk about the topic, describe a picture, spell check, use articles, write about a picture writing task: a description of a picture or photo

talk about the topic, understand invitations, use prepositions, understand replies, write sentences,     spell check writing task: an invitation to a birthday celebration

understand what the text is for, understand style, use set phrases, spell check, talk about the topic writing task: a thank you or congratulations card


pronunciation in natural English                  elementary


book

stress p.g stress p.9 forms p.ll you ... ? lwod jai p.12

stress p.18 stress p.19

help with pronunciation and listening sections

(units: 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14) pronunciation listening

Sounds (the alphabet) p. 19  asking for help p.13 /el/, Ir./, and "e/       intonation p. 13

      word stress p.21                                                                     key words p.21

...? /dja/ p.24 stress p.26 stress p.34

/ta'geða/ p.36

spelling problems, e.g. sausages

p.39

W, /i•J, /er/, and /æ/ p.42 and can't /ka:nt/ p.43

p.44

p.51 tense endings with /ld/ p.51

p.64

p.67

you prefer?

prrf3:/ p.76

law, /er/, and /o:/ p. 79 spelling problems, e.g thumb /9Am/ p.82 and shall 1 ,'jalal/ p.84

/sm3:1a/ than /ðan/ p.87 stress p.90

/SUd/ p.91

p.92                                   

/maosli/ p.99

stress p.107  we? 'Jal wif p. 108

p.112

p. 113 stress and intonation p.115

      sounds /ð/, 19/ p.37                                                              weak forms p.37

     sounds /o:/, /3•J, and ID/ p.53                                           prediction (1) p.53

   sounds /J/, /tJ/, and Id3/ p.69                             prediction (2) p.69

        sounds and spelling /o:/, W, and 10/                            connected speech

    p.85                                                                     p.85

consonant groups p. 101 being an active listener p.101

    listening to a song p.117                                     linking p.117

student's

unit one                          word word weak would

unit two                       word sentence

/ð/ p.19

 unit three               do you word

unit four                word W p.35 together

       unit five                sound /

/'SDS1d31ZJ sounds can /kan/ I'll lad/

unit six                   intonation past

          unit seven                  word

unit eight               intonation linking

         unit nine                       Would

/wod ja

unit ten                        sounds sound / I'll

unit eleven            smaller word should silent t

          unit twelve                 mostly

unit thirteen        sentence Shall

unit fourteen         contractions intonation word

extended speaking

During the extended speaking activity at the end of each unit, note down examples of .

  good language use

  effective communication strategies

(turn-taking, interrupting. inviting others to speak, etc.)

  learner errors

(vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, etc.)

• particular communication problems

Make sure you allow time for feedback at the end of the lesson. You can use the notes you make above to praise effective language use and communication or, if necessary, to do some remedial work.

Photocopiabte @ Oxford University Press 2006


one

in unit one ...

listening how to ... say hello

p.16

wordbooster countries and nationalities numbers (1)

p.20

reading questions, questions

   to . . . say hello                 75—90 mins

lead-in

      If this is your first lesson with the class, you will probably start by introducing yourself and calling the register. The students won't remember many of the names (unless they already know each other), so the lead-in has a dual purpose: to present two natural ways of introducing oneself; and for students to find out the names of others in the group.

Ask the class to look at the pictures and make sure that they understand that 2 people are meeting at the college for the first time. play the recording for exercise 1. The task is very simple but students may not know hi. With a multilingual class, you can explain that hi is common in spoken English, especially among young people. If you have a monolingual group and you speak the learners' mother tongue, see the troubleshooting box on the right.

      Play the recording again (exercise 2) and elicit an accurate pronunciation model of meet you. Practise it before learners work with a partner. Students need to be aware at this very early stage that the way we say words in connected speech may be different from the way they are written down. See the language point on the right for ways of saying hello.

While the students mingle in exercise 3, move round and monitor. In the early stages of an elementary course some learners may feel quite nervous, so it's important to give lots of praise and encouragement.

listen to this

     Put the students in pairs. See troubleshooting on the right.

The students can probably deduce the answers to exercise 1 from the pictures, but don't confirm their answers yet. Play the first part of recording 1.2

(exercise 2) and elicit the answer. The purpose of this short initial listening is so that the students can tune in to the voices of the speakers with a simple task. If they can, they will feel more confident about the whole conversation, especially as it begins by replaying the first part. In other words, learners are not suddenly exposed to a long passage with unfamiliar voices and an unknown topic.

     When you are ready, move on to exercise 3. The answers to exercise 1 are not in the same order on the recording, so the students may need to listen twice.

     You will have to do recording 1.3 as the students need the information to talk about these people in the grammar section that follows. Before they listen, get them to read the sentences first. The names Tim and Jim may be unfamiliar, so show them how they are pronounced. Play the recording (exercise 4). Students can check in pairs while you monitor. If some answers are wrong, play the recording again. If not, go through them with the class.

The last stage involves playing the recording while students look at the tape-script. We wouldn't recommend this until you have already exploited the recording for comprehension, but many students enjoy listening to and reading the tapescript, and it can help them to realize that words they recognize when written down may sound different in spoken English.

help with pronunciation an listening pronunciation:

sounds the alphabet listening: asking for help


p.22

test yourself!

p.25

wordlist

p.130

listening how

-introduce yourse using natural EngHsh phrases

listen to two people meeting for the first Itime

'focus on be positive -and negative learn and practise jobs oyocabulary focus on a / an

(Calk to another stude

About yourself

'xercise 1

students

see tapescript p. 146 exercise 2 et you /'mi:t ju/

Gercise 2

Paris

•ercise 3

Harc is 21, a student, single.

is from Canada, a teacher, married. (exercise 4

3 university an English teacher 4 America

troubleshooting use of the mother tongue

During the course you wilt need to point out certain language as being either formal (generally used more in written English) or informal (generally used more in spoken English). Students need to be aware of this stylistic difference, and the words formal and informal. To explain this in English to elementary learners might be difficult, so this is an occasion when the use of the mother tongue is a sensible option. The difference between hello and hi is largely one of style — hi is more informal.

'Want to know more? GO to                                                                          learners p. 160

language point saying 'hello'

Even at elementary level, some learners may already know how do you do? or how are you? If so, you may need to explain that how do you do? is now reserved for quite formal situations. How are you? is the most common way of greeting people, but only when you already know them.

troubleshooting pair work in listening activities If your class is not used to pair and group work, you may need to explain the purpose of it, in the mother tongue if necessary.

Pair and group work can be used in many different types of activity, and for different purposes. In listening activities, it can be used:

-  before listening, e.g. to predict what might be said, to brainstorm vocabulary that might arise, to arouse interest in the topic through discussion or personalization, etc.

-  after listening. e.g. once students have listened to a recording, they compare answers to a task with a partner. This can give them confidence before they give their answers more publicly in open class. You can monitor this stage to assess how well individuals have understood the recording, which will indicate to you whether they need to hear it again. After that, pair / group work can be used to practise the content of the listening (dialogue practice or role play), to give opinions on the topic, etc.

Want to know more? Go to pre-intermediate teachefs book, how to do pair and groúóZL$ -work p.146


grammar be

      The students were exposed to he's (he is) in the previous exercise, but now they have to say it themselves in exercise 1. This is also their first exposure to phonemic script lhi:z/. Highlight the /i:/ sound and then model it in he's. You could then put the sentence on the board:

Marc's from France, and he's ???

Elicit a correct answer from the class then write it on the board. If you are confident the class understands, put them in pairs to write three more things about Marc, beginning he's . If not, elicit one more answer from the class before the pairwork.

      Repeat the procedure for she's in exercise 2, but let the students write down all four things about Jennifer in pairs. Check the answers — ask a number of students to pronounce the correct answers as you check — then go on to exercise 3.

As this is the first table for students to complete, you could do it from the board as a class. Use a different coloured pen (or chalk) for the different forms of be and elicit the answers from the class as you write it up. Collaborative work like this using the board is very good for class rapport.

Yant to know more? Go

      As you go through the table, point out that contracted forms are very common in spoken English, but say that contractions in positive short answers are not used           or ¥4&-s-ke4). For the alternative negative forms, see language point on the right.

      You could do exercise 4 round the class and then in pairs. It is important at this early stage that students are reinforcing correct answers when they work in pairs, and it will help their confidence to grow. For exercise 5, again model it first before the pairwork.

      Exercise 6 is a continuation of the previous exercise, but this time students have to write the questions, which provides a change of pace.

We have suggested two sentences for exercise 7, but you could increase it to four or five.

Finally there is the language reference section. This contains not only a fuller explanation of the grammar the students have just studied, but also additional exercises.

-want to know          Gou language'eferencea'eggi

vocabulary jobs

      There are certain gender issues with this vocabulary. See language point on the right.

Students can do exercise 1 individually, then you can check the answers with the class. Point out that we need the indefinite article with the names of jobs, and if any of your learners are likely to make this mistake, write correct and incorrect examples on the board:

The choice between a and an is in the next section, so don't worry about it at this stage.

      At the same time you can start to focus on the pronunciation. We have marked the stress on the first example. You can illustrate this by saying a word with the correct stress then saying it with the wrong stress. Make it absolutely clear which is right, then test your students to check they can hear the difference.

      Play the recording (exercise 2). At the end check the answers and drill the correct pronunciation. When they work in pairs in exercise 3, they have to put the words back into short sentences.

      Although the students haven't come to present simple questions yet, many will be familiar with the form, and you can teach the question What do you do? as a fixed phrase or vocabulary item. You can paraphrase the question as What's yourjob? If your students are still at school I college you could choose one student and ask him / her about the future. (Perhaps write a future year on the board.) Put a question mark by it and say doctor? teacher? what? Teach the question and answer What do you want to be? I want to be a (doctor). Some students will already know the name of their job in English; others will have to look them up in a bilingual dictionary or ask you for a translation.

      When they do exercise 4, it is possible that other students won't understand the name of the job they hear. What should the speaker do here? See troubleshooting on the right for a suggestion. At the end, you could add some of the new jobs to the board if you think they are useful.

 


Gercise 1

•Marc's from Paris, he's 21, he's a business student, and us single.

exercise 2 from Toronto, she's a business teacher, and §h€s married.

exercise 3

I'm a teacher                      I'm not a teacher

Hú a doctor

She's a student                   She isn't a student

exercise 4

Jennifer isn't Ottawa, she's from Toronto. She's a business teacher. She's from Canada. She isn't single, she's married.

Marc isn't from England, he's from France. He's a business student. Marc isn't married, he's single. He isn't 24, he's 21.

Tim's from America. Tim isn't a business teacher, he's an English teacher. He isn't from Toronto, he's from San Francisco.

exercise 5

 

 

.1 Yes, heis

3 No, he isn't

5 Yes, she is

No, she isn't

Gercise 1

4 No, she isn't

6 NO, he isn't

'1 a housewife

6 a journalist

     a shop assistant                       7 an office worker

   a waiter                            8 a police officer

     a lawyer                                      9 an engmeer

a businessman / woman 10 an actor

'exercise 2 engineer, office yorker, niter, layyer, Nice officer, businessman / woman, shop assistant, actor, ioucnalist

language point form problems with be

You need to highlight these forms very clearly as there are common problems from Ll transfer, e.g. omitting the pronoun (is-a—teachev) or omitting the verb (she teaehe¥). The other common error is mixing up the pronouns he and she. This error can persist for a tong time with some students, so you may need to correct it quite firmly.

The language reference on p.130 points out the two different ways of forming a negative in the third person (he / she isn't or he's / she's not). We have only included one form here, but you could highlight the alternative form. Both are common in spoken English.

language point gender in 'jobs'

Some jobs have the same word regardless of whether the job is performed by a man or woman, e.g. lawyer and journalist. Other jobs make a distinction between the sexes, e.g. waiter / waitress, businessman / businesswoman, or the more recent distinction between housewife and house husband. A third group have forms which may or may not denote the sex, e.g. an actor can be male or female but an actress can only be female; a firefighter can be male or female but fireman is only male. For the police there are three possibilities: policeman, policewoman, or police Officer.

We have given just one form in most cases — the most common form — but you may wish to discuss this with your class, particularly if you teach in a country where the 'less' common form is actually more frequent, e.g. if 'waitresses' are much more common than 'waiters'.

troubleshooting unknown lexis

If student B doesn't understand student A's job, tell student A to try to explain it using gesture or paraphrase. They may struggle to do this with some jobs, but most low-level students have to deal with this problem at some stage, so it's not a bad idea to present them with this kind of challenge. With a monolingual group, we would also suggest you allow the use of translation as a last resort if paraphrase and gesture don't work.


grammar a / an

      Draw your students' attention to the schwa la/ with a and an. Model the sound to show them how these words are usually pronounced.

Ask learners to do exercise 1. They may realize that the answer is already in the list of jobs vocabulary; if so, good for them. Check their understanding by asking for further examples (office worker and journalist are two from the list above, but they may come up with others, e.g. an artist, a doctor). This is a simplification of the rule governing the use of a / an. For more detail, see language point on the right. Do exercise 2 for students to test their understanding of the rule, and the exercises in the language reference if you want further practice.

speaking i€s your turn!

      While students complete exercise 1, monitor their writing to check their answers and spelling. Those still at school or university can put student in the 'job' category. You could also add a category about 'age'. Il's a sensitive issue, but if you are sure it won't cause offence, you could include it. The pair practice is there to build their confidence.

      Exercise 2 provides more practice but in a group Of three the dynamic changes, with potentially more shifts in turn-taking between the individuals. Finally, in exercise 3, students have to move from first to third person for another shift in the type of practice. Note that students need to say that's and not this is as they are pointing somebody out and not introducing them. Do the can you remember activity. See troubleshooting on the right.

             wordbooster                         30—45 mins

countries and nationalities

Learners could complete the middle column in exercise 1 in pairs, but tell them not to fill in the nationalities at this stage. Understanding is not usually a problem with the names of countries, but pronunciation is, so they can check by listening to recording 1.5 (exercise 2), which gives them a pronunciation model. Afterwards, give them a minute to repeat the words quietly to themselves (this is sometimes called a 'mumble drill'). You can move round and listen while they do this.

      They can do exercise 3 together. Check their answers, then play the recording (exercise 4). This time the students underline the main stress. Check the answers.

Vant to

      Finally they can do exercise 5. We have included two more useful chunks of language which they can learn as fixed phrases (1 don't know and I'm not sure); they may need them during the activity.

      For more work on the use of the definite article or zero article with the names of countries, see workbook, expand your grammar, p.6.

numbers (1)

At this level learners can never have too much practice with numbers. They need to know them and use them, but also process them when they are spoken quickly. In exercise 1 students have to do this with phone numbers, then practise them in exercise 2. For the pronunciation of O (zero), see language point on the right. The exercise also provides practice in contrastive stress as student B corrects a wrong number given by student A.

      The natural    box teaches another fixed phrase (What's your phone / mobile number?) along with the confirmation of the number (Yeah / Yes that's it.). This is very straightforward but learners are not always good at providing this type of response. After they complete the task (exercise 3), get them to stand up for exercise 4 and move round the class. If they can't remember their number (phone or mobile), tell them to invent one. Monitor and help I correct where necessary.

      You could turn exercise 5 into a race — the first pair to finish puts up their hands. The answers (exercise 6) are on a recording to provide further pronunciation models. For further practice see ideas plus on the right.


Uercise 1

Put an before words that begin a, e, i, o, u, e.g. actor, engineer

Put a before all other letters, e.g. zaiter, teacher

2

l a 3 an

              4 an             6 an

n you remember

7 an

 

     meet                      3 an

5

thirty

     from                       4 do

'exercises 1, 2, 3, and 4

6

isn't ('s not)

COUNTRY

NATIONALITY

'France

French

Germany

German

Japan

Japanese

Spain

Spanish

Argentina                 SA

Argentinian

China

Chinese

Italy

Italian

•Brail                       SA

Brazilian

Thailand

Thai

Eland

Polish

86tain exercise 5

British

She's Brazilian.

4 It's Chinese.

'2 It's British.

5 She's Japanese.

He's Italian.

6 Theyre Argentinian.

•exercise 1 tape-script p. 146 exercise 3 Re tapescript p. 146 •exercise 6 see tapescript p.145

stu ents

language point o / an

The choice between a and an depends on pronunciation rather than spelling. Thus:

— we can use an before a consonant if it is silent or pronounced as a vowel: an hour (silent 'h') an MP (the M is pronounced /em/)

— we can use a before 'u' when it is pronounced /ju:/, or 'o' when it is pronounced

a uniform a university student a one-week stay

troubleshooting recycling

We have included a short can you remember activity at various points in each unit because elementary learners are inevitably exposed to a lot of new input each lesson, and it is easy to forget things in an unfamiliar language. This is another form of recycling in addition to the extended speaking activities, and review and test yourself! sections. These activities occur either at the beginning or end of a lesson. They could therefore serve as a warmer or a way of winding down, but provide you and the Learners with a quick check on what they can remember from either the last lesson or the one just finished.

language point the number 'O'

The number O is usually pronounced /ao/ in phone numbers in British English but zero in American English. British speakers normally use zero when they are talking about temperature, e.g. ten degrees below zero. In mathematics, the number O is usually written as nought /no:t/, 0.7 (nought point seven). However, if someone used zero in all of these contexts, they would be clearly understood.

ideas plus maths

Put about fifteen numbers on the board, then teach + (and) and - (minus). Students can then give each other little maths tests using the numbers, e.g. What's fifteen and seven? Twenty-two.


reading

questions, questions                                     75-90 mins

grammar questions with be

Can you remember ? provides some quick revision, and also ensures that students don't have their heads in their books to start the lesson. Make sure they shut their books or cover the wordbooster page opposite. Elicit an example first. then give pairs one minute. Check the answers at the end.

Direct students to the first column of the table in exercise 1, and elicit the answer to the first question,

i.e. Are you a new student? Students can compare answers or work together on this exercise.

Play the recording to check the answers to exercise 2. Stop the tape after each one, elicit the missing words and write them on the board, or invite a stronger student who may appreciate the challenge, to ensure that the answers are absolutely clear to everyone. Encourage students to write the contractions for is; you could also remind them that contractions are normal in spoken English. However, we don't usually write the contraction for are.

Give students a minute to think about their answers in exercise 3. If necessary, pre-teach I don't know and I'm not sure: see troubleshooting on the right.

Before students work in pairs in exercise 4, see troubleshooting on the right. After exercise 4, do the language reference and practice exercises or set them for homework.

read on

      This first reading activity in the book is deliberately simple; students should be able to relate easily both to the content and the text type. For many learners (particularly those with Roman script). reading is more accessible than listening as they can process the text in their own time. Nevertheless, you don't want students to be reading in great detail, so the simple questions in exercise 1 do not rely on a detailed understanding of the text. Give them about two minutes, and make clear that they only need to answer those two questions at this stage.

      Exercise 2 focuses on word order in questions. Check answers as a class before students ask and answer in pairs. Check the answers to exercise 3 at the end.

      The context continues in exercise 4, in which students listen intensively to the short dialogue. The language is likely to be familiar, although students do not always know Fine, thanks at this level. Focus on the pronunciation in exercise 5 and drill the weak forms la/, land/, or use the tape as a model if you don't feel confident about your own pronunciation. Students can mingle for exercise 6 and practise the dialogue with lots of students, using their own names. See ideas plus on the right.

vocabulary drinks

      Go over the first example in exercise 1 with the class, then give students time to work individually, or in pairs. Either go over the answers yourself, or you can use the recording in exercise 2 both to check the answers and provide a pronunciation model. Make sure that students are stressing the phrases correctly, i.e. mineral water, not See ideas plus on the right.

The test your partner activity, which occurs throughout the course, gives you a chance to listen to pairs, monitor and correct, and gives them the opportunity to practise at their own pace. When students do it in pairs, make sure they both test and answer; don't let it go on too long.

      In exercise 3 the students' main difficulty is likely to be with the pronunciation of would you (see exercise 4). For the pronunciation of 'WI, get students to say 101, then IUd/, then round their lips at the beginning and say it. Please is not compulsory, but low-level learners will sound polite and friendly if they usc it. Practise the conversations in short, class drills before students practise in pairs.

speaking it's your turn!

• This final activity gives students the opportunity to use the language studied in this lesson and the wordbooster. Make the context clear in exercise 1, perhaps using the name of a local café. Work through the flowchart together as a class, eliciting examples of what students might say at each stage. When students are ready, put them in pairs for exercise 2. During this stage, monitor the pairs quickly to check that they are on the right lines, then go back and monitor more carefully, noting down good examples of language use and any breakdown in communication. For exercise 3, they could stand up, find a new partner, and try the conversation without the book. At the end, some pairs act out their dialogues. Give praise for good language, and a little correction of errors. See troubleshooting on the right.

revise countries and nationalities focus on questions and answers with be read an e-mail -practise asking how people are using natural Enghsh phrases

focus on drinks vocabulary offer and accept drinks 'role play a conversation about your class


can you remember see p.9 exercise 1 see tapescript p. 146

exercise 1 el her mother 2 Polly and Daniela exercise 2

1 Why's she here?

What level's her English?

How many students are in her Class?

Where are they from?

5 Who's her boyfriend? 6 Wherds he from?

exercise 4 see tapescript p. 146 exercise 5 bow are you? / and you /anju:/.

mercise 1 white wine (3) orange juice (2) mineral water (1) black coffee (5) tea with lemon (6) red wine (4) diet coke (7) hot chocolate (8) exercise 3 see tapescript p. 146 exercise 1 .%uld you /wudja/

can you remember

1 are; Fine / Very well

Would; please

Are; not

troubleshooting I don't know/ I'm not sure

Ask the class how many students there are in the school - they will probably answer I don't know. Reinforce this with a gesture — in many cultures, a shrug and upturned hands conveys the meaning. Then ask a question they are more likely to have some idea about, e.g. how many teachers are there in the school: 5,15, or 25? Someone will probably say 'five, I think'; you can then ask, Are you sure? to which the answer will be 'no'. That way you can teach I'm not sure. Some nationalities will understand I'm not certain if you write it on the board.

troubleshooting demonstrating pair activities

Tetl the class you are 'a new student' and let them ask you the questions. Invent your answers. Then students ask and answer in pairs. Tell them to swap so that they both ask the questions, and after the first time, suggest that the students answering the questions shut their books. After more practice, they can work with a new partner, and try again without their books.

ideas plus extending the natural Enghsh phrases

For some classes, the contents of the natural English box will be new, and they will have enough to work on. You may have a class who could be stretched further, in which case you could extend the phrases. You could ask students to think of different ways of saying some of the phrases and feed in new ones:

Hi / Hello;

How are you? / How are things?;

Fine / Great / I'm OK / Not bad;

And you? / How about you?; Very well / Excellent

ideas plus vocabulary notebooks

If you haven't done so already, you could suggest that students keep a notebook for vocabulary; a ring binder is useful because it allows new topics to be added or new vocabulary on existing topics. Allow time for students to copy down the drinks vocabulary, and add any extra information, e.g. a translation of new items, or highlighting the stressed syllables. You could highlight these on the board for the drinks vocabulary. You could suggest they start a new page for each topic, write a topic heading to make it easier to find, and leave space so that they can add new items as they learn them over time.

Want to know more? GO to how to                                       independence (record keeping) p. 1

troubleshooting changing the level of challenge

You can adapt this type of activity to make it easier or more challenging with a very low-level class. For example, you can do the flowchart as a dialogue build. Elicit each line of dialogue, drill it, then elicit the response, drill it, practise the question and answer, and then elicit the next question, and so on. This is very controlled, but it may help if learners need a lot of support. Another controlled approach is to elicit the dialogue onto the board, with students practising as you go. At the end, rub out several words from each line. Students practise it until very few prompts are left on the board. At the other extreme, with a strong group, you could elicit some of the questions plus one or two responses, then let the students loose.


help with pronunciation and listening 30—45 mins

pronunciation sounds (the alphabet)

    Most learners have problems with certain letters. To some extent, this depends on their mother tongue, but many learners confuse E / I and J / G, and have problems with the individual letters H, R, Q, W, X, Y, and Z. In addition, the alphabet isn't necessarily the same in all Roman script languages, e.g. Greek does not have some of the same letters. If your students aren't familiar with the alphabet, use the recording in exercise 1, and spend plenty of time on it. Alternatively, write the letters on the board, ask students to call out letters, and focus on the ones that they make mistakes with.

    Exercise 2 draws students' attention to the pronunciation of letters in same sound groups. Do an example together, e.g. fell, then put students in pairs to do the rest and monitor them.

    Exercise 3 is the first time phonemic script has been introduced, so if students are unfamiliar with it, make it clear that this is a pronunciation system, and demonstrate that letters and sounds are not always the same in English. Write on the board some words they know (especially where the spelling is different), e.g. lei/ say, Asia, Spain; /i:/ tea, coffee; /el engineer, boyfriend. Make sure students cover the coloured letters when they do the exercise. They will gradually learn the sounds during the course, and you can direct them to the alphabet with examples on p.159 for future reference.

    Begin exercise 4 by teaching and practising the question How do you spell ...?This will be essential classroom language in the future. Get different students to ask you the questions, then spell your answers while the class writes them down. At the end, write the answers on the board so that they can check their spelling. Then ask students to work in pairs on the same exercise. Make sure they only spell (and don't say the names first), and that they cannot see their partner's work. At the end, they both check the spellings. See ideas plus on the right for a spelling game.

Want to know more? Go how

listening asking for help

*        This section appears frequently in the student book, and aims to provide extra support: firstly to help learners with listening sub-skills, e.g. listening for key words in unit 2, p.21; secondly to help them with listening strategies, e.g. in this lesson, asking for help when they don't understand. Students often find listening very demanding, and it can help them tremendously to feel that they can ask to play a recording or part of it again, and it is important to let students know that it is perfectly all right to ask for this. Of course, you don't want a situation to arise where one learner wants to hear recordings again and again while the rest of the class switches off, so if you sense that is happening, tell the student that they can listen again in the break.

*        Point out the 'Important!' comment: it explains the aim of the section, and contains useful advice. Once students have done the matching activity in exercise 1, use the recording to focus on can Ikan/ and intonation in exercises 2 and 3, and provide time for controlled practice. See ideas plus on the righ t.

*        Set the scene for the listening activity in exercises 4 and 5 by focusing on the photo of Susannah and the receptionist at the college, then refer them to the form. You can either play the tape and monitor how they get on, or pause the tape to allow them time to write, but either way, students will probably need I want to listen again, so encourage them to use the language in the natural English box.

*        Check the answers to exercise 4. Students can listen again at the end with the tapescript on p. 146. For extra speaking practice, students could practise a similar conversation as a little role play. They could try to remember the receptionist's questions and interview each other, using the form as a template, and writing down the answers they are given.

exercise 1 picture 1: Sorry, can you play that again, please?

exercise 2 /kan/ exercise 4

Suzannah Clarke; British; 27; 26, Cooper Rd, Oxford, OX4 6JQ; 565688

students

one review         45 mins ideas plus spelling game             Yant to kmw more? Go to the introduction on p. 10 for Ways of using the review section.


Before the lesson, write words on pieces of paper, one for each student; choose words they find hard to spell, or items you want to revise. In the lesson, put studenE into two teams, with half the board each and a board pen per team. Distribute the words, but don't let students say or show their word to anyone. Each team sends one student to the board (a scribe). One student spells a word for their scribe, who writes it up, then hands the pen to another team member.

You can make it a race to introduce a bit of fun.

When one team has spelled all the words correctly, they have won. You can do this with several teams with a large class, but put large sheets of paper on the wall.

ideas plus notice boards

Learners need quite a few survival phrases to help them with their learning in class.The phrases in the NturalEnghsh box are very useful, and it is worth keeping a record of language like this displayed in your room for students to refer to. You can add from this page 'How do you spell and you will also be able to teach and add other classroom language as time goes on:

How do you say              What does this word / X mean? Where's the stress?

I don't understand that. Could you explain it again? Encourage students to write the phrases in their vocabulary notebooks under •classroom language'. They can add more phrases as they learn them. test yourself!

Encourage learners to use test yourself! to think about their progress in a positive way as well as doing the test activities. At the end, tell them to look at the unit contents on p.6 and tick the language they can use. This will reinforce their sense of achievement.

toknow more? GO to the introduction on p.9 wa test yourself!

Qest your vocabulary any six of these: housewife, engineer, office worker, waiter, lawyer, policeman, businessman / woman, shop assistant, actor, journalist British, Japanese, Spanish, Polish, Brazilian, French black coffee, mineral water, orange juice, red wine gap-fill

t' meet                  2 isn't

Gor correction

3 How,• Fine 4 Would

I'm an engineer.

3 I'm not sure.

vocabulary countries and nationalities

If you taught more countries in the wordbooster section, add the first two letters to the ones in exercise 1; you could write the letter pairs on the board. Explain the activity with a couple of examples, then monitor as students write their countries and nationalities.

     Demonstrate what to do in exercise 2 by doing the activity with a student in front of the class. Monitor the pair work and correct any pronunciation errors.

vocabulary countries and nationalities

France / French, Japan / Japanese, Spain / Spanish, Argentina / Argentinian,

Britain / British, Thailand / Thai, China / Chinese, Germany / German, Poland / Polish, Italy / Italian

grammar be

     Go over the first example, then give students time to work alone or in pairs. Go over the answers. Alternatively, write the words for each sentence on cards, cut them up and give each pair a jumbled sentence to a) rearrange and b) add a verb. Set a time limit of thirty seconds, then all the pairs pass the jumbled cards to the next pair.

grammar be

1      How many people are in your class?

2      Are you a new student?

3      Is Catherine married to David?

4      1'm not from Germany.

5      The class isn't in room two.

6      What's your phone number?

natural English

All the natural EngfW1 exercises in the review sections are designed so that learners can check their answers by looking back at the natural English boxes in the unit. This encourages them to use their course book as a revision tool and resource.

• Exercise 1 is a very straightforward, gap-fill exercise, and when students have finished it, demonstrate how they can check their answers in exercise 2 by referring to the boxes on previous pages. Monitor the pair oral practice; students can try to memorize the dialogues together, then A can have their book open, read their part of the dialogue and B responds from memory.

numbers and the alphabet

• Before the lesson, write a list of random letters of the alphabet, and random numbers between 1 and 50. [n class, demonstrate on the board what to do: draw a similar grid, and fill in some numbers and letters. Many students know the game, but clarify for those that don't that they have to listen and try to cross out one line (horizontal or vertical). Demonstrate this on the board if necessary. For exercise 2, read your list aloud, alternating between numbers and letters, giving students time to check their cards.

Organize groups of four or five for exercise 3 and appoint a 'teacher' in each group. Students draw up new grids, with different numbers and letters. Meanwhile the •teacher' writes down the random numbers and letters as you did. Monitor the 'teachers' to check that they are pronouncing the letters correctly while playing the game.


What's your phone number? 4 Is he a teacher?


in unit two .

reading


reading have you got one?                     75-90 mins

          have you got one?focus on technology                             vocabulary technology

p. 26                                                                                     • You can go straight into exercise 1 or see ideas plus on the right. Some of the vocabulary is international, and the advert itself will guide learners to the meaning of any new items through the visuals and written features of each product. The advert is largely based on an authentic text, and students will

p. 28                                                                                     have to cope with some unknown vocabulary. However, most Of it is incidental and should not impede their ability to carry out the tasks.

listening Check the vocabulary answers, then focus more on the pronunciation (exercise how to 2). Highlight the pronunciation of abbreviations. The majority are pronounced for things letter by letter, with the main stress on the last letter, e.g. TY and DVQ.

p.30 read on

There are potentially one or two new words in the questions. We don't think they will create any difficulty for learners, but you could check the meaning,

e.g. using gesture to explain take a photo and a board drawing for TV screen. As exercise 1 involves scanning the text to find specific information, you could set a time limit to encourage students to do this rather than read word for word. With time limits, we feel the best strategy is to set a strict limit, e.g. two minutes, but then allow the limit to drift a little if nobody has quite finished. You can follow up the development of this skill with ideas plus on the right. p.33

   
Exercise 2 has been recorded in the dramatic style that you often find on television or radio. It provides practice in picking out key information. Play it again if students are struggling, as numbers can cause receptive problems.

    Exercises 3 and 4 focus on the word thing(s), which is one of the most common wordlist     nouns in English and invaluable to low-level learners as they can use it when

p.131                                                                                     they don't know the name Of something, e.g. Can you give me that thing? What's this thing?

grammar have got have)

     If your learners already know have, tell them that have means the same as have got. As an alternative to exercise 1, you could take in several pictures. Hold one up and say, I've got a (e.g. car), then hold up another and say, I haven't got a (e.g. boat). Repeat both sentences, then elicit them to the board. See language point on the right.

     Exercises 2 and 3 provide controlled practice in pairs and allow students to personalize the language. While students are writing their sentences for exercise 3, move round and help with any queries.

     Exercise 4 consolidates the different forms of have got. Students can work alone or in pairs while you monitor. At the end, highlight that you don't use got in short answers (Yes, I have / No I haven't H.

     Before exercise 5, teach make as a noun: you could write What make is it? on the board. Direct the students back to the advert on p. 16 and say:

This is a computer. What make is it? It's a SYNTAC. What make is this laptop? It's a . If you restrict the examples to electrical goods, you can avoid the subtle distinctions between make (e.g. of computer) and brand (e.g. of soap powder).

     When students have completed exercise 5. they can check their answers by listening to recording 2.3 (exercise 6), then practise in a controlled way before they personalize the language by talking about products they own in exercise

7. For this stage, do a quick example with one student.

thin s

exercise 1

ideas plus warmer

1 computer, 2 laptop, 3 printer, 4 digital camera,

If you prefer to start with a warmer, you could choose a different electrical item

5 mobile (phone), 6 CD player,

yourself and take it into class, e.g. an MP3 player. Ask the students if they know

7 DVD player, 8 TV

 

what it is; if not, tell them and say something about it, e.g. you can store

80 / 1,000 songs on it, you can play it for eight hours, you use it a lot (on the bus, at the beach, etc.). Don't expect students to understand every word, but doing this, you will be able to provide them with a little simple listening.

exercise 1

 

ideas plus extending reading skills

The Tech Shop

5 yes

The Internet is full of adverts similar to the one on p.16 of the student's book, so

2 €875

6 digital camera + mobile

if you wanted to provide more practice to develop the learners' ability to scan a

€800

7 66 cm

text, you could set similar tasks around selected pages from either of these

j4 no

8 CD player + TV

websites (both are well-known electrical retailers in Britain).

exercise 2

 

www.dixons.co.uk

 

1 printer - €100

4 CD player - €20

 

 

digital camera — €95

5 TV - €500

 

 

mobile (phone) - €95 exercise 4 see tapescript on p.147

6 DVD player — €60

 

 

leercise 1

 

 

language point have and have got

trve got; I haven't got

 

 

For the examples in this lesson you could use either

exercise 4

 

 

have or have got. We have chosen to focus on have got (rather than have) as it is the most common way

rye got                      I haven't got                      Have you got

of expressing possession and relationships in spoken

He / She's got           He / She hasn't got            Has he / she got

English, although this is not used in exactly the same

ewe / Thefve got  We / They haven't got    Have we / they got

way in American English.

•exercise 5 see tapescript p.147

speaking it's your turn!

     Students have just personalized the target language by talking about the things they own; now they have an opportunity to express their opinion. In exercise 1 they are introduced to the most common way of giving an opinion in English, i.e. using think. You may want to highlight the preposition in the question form, and the fact that we express the negative as I don't think it's rather than

. Once again, students are being exposed to present simple forms before they have studied the tense formally (it is the grammar focus of units 3 and 4), but we don't think it will cause any difficulty, and at this point learners can still learn the forms as items of vocabulary (not grammar). The plural form (laptops) is also used here. For more practice of plurals, see workbook, expand your grammar, p.n.

     After practising the sentences in exercise 2, give the students a couple of minutes to plan what to say. You could move round the class and help them. Put the students in small groups, and get one group to do a quick demonstration. If you are teaching a monolingual group and you speak their mother tongue, you could explain that this is an opportunity to exchange opinions and shouldn't just be viewed as a language exercise. In other words, students should feel free to express their opinions and disagree with others if they wish. While the groups are talking. move round and make notes for later feedback. Give lots of encouragement when you see learners really trying to experiment with the new language. They may find it difficult at this stage, but very satisfying if they feel able to express personal opinions in a new language.

                  wordbooster                      30—45 mins

personal things

       When you have checked the answers to exercise 1, you can focus on the pronunciation (exercise 2). You could pause the recording and get students to repeat, or just let them listen and repeat quietly to themselves before drilling some of the difficult items around the class.

       Exercise 3 provides controlled practice as well as recycling language from the previous lesson. For further practice see ideas plus on the right. For more office vocabulary, see workbook, expand your vocabulary p. 11.

possessive 's

The use of possessive 's sometimes falls within the grammar syllabus, but we have included it here as it can be practised very naturally. You will notice we have also included the most common mistake learners make with this structure. See troubleshooting on the right.

• Highlight the correct and incorrect forms on the board, drill the correct questions to practise the forms, and then let learners study the picture to find the answers to exercise 1. As they work in pairs in exercise 2, move round and monitor to make sure they are using the possessive 's correctly and pronouncing it clearly. For the memory game (exercise 3), make sure that students don't look back at

p. 18. At the end, see how many sentences each pair got right.

adjectives (I)

      When students have completed exercises 1 and 2, highlight the value of recording opposites together in their notebooks, and encourage them all to do it. In fact, they could make this a section in their notebooks where they record common opposites and synonyms — they can probably include one or two synonyms for great and terrible already.

      Students usually know a few colours at a very early stage, so exercise 3 checks some common ones, plus several more they may not have encountered, e.g. grey or pink. It is very easy to practise these in future lessons by asking students to identify colours in the classroom.

jexercise 1 see tapescript p. 147 On you remember?

Have; haven't

2

Has; has

3 think; think

'ercise 1

 

 

ideas plus Kim's game

bag

8

newspaper

For this you need some examples of many of the objects in exercise 1, plus a few

rubber

9

travel card

more objects that aren't there. Arrange them all on a large tray and put a cloth over

'3 dictionary

10

pencil

it. Remove the cloth in front of the students and let them study the objects on the

pen

11

piece of paper

tray for one minute. Then put the cloth back. Students then have a further minute

keys

12

coursebook

to write down the names of everything they can remember on the tray.

magazine notebook

13

14

lighter briefcase

Please bear in mind that there is a further memory game in the next section; you may not want to play two memory games in one lesson.

1

 

 

troubleshooting displaying errors

next to her dictionary

3

English

Some teachers are still uneasy at seeing errors on the page or on the board, even

yes

4

blue

when they are clearly crossed out. This may be a hangover from the behaviourist

approach of the 1970s when everything possible was done to prevent students from uttering incorrect English. However, we think it is valid to show errors which we know from experience are highly likely to occur; and this example the-pee-of-Peeb is definitely one of those. Anticipating likely errors often has a strong resonance for many learners; and seeing how the structure is expressed in their own language also gives them a clear guide to meaning.

•erase 2 tapescript p. 147 exercise 3


(1) black, (2) white, (3) grey, (4) blue, (5) red,

6) pink, (7) green, (8) brown, (9) yellow, (10) silver

listening how

jÞractise making requests using natural phrases

  to . . . ask for things                        60—75 mins

lead-in

• You can either do can you remember ? as suggested, or 100k at ideas plus on the right.

When we make requests, we either ask someone to do something, or we ask someone's permission to do something. You could begin by making one or two requests of students in the class, with gestures,

e.g. Emilio, can I look at your notebook, please? Then play the recording, and go over the answers.

Demonstrate the verb borrow by asking to borrow a student's pen. (At this stage avoid teaching lend.)

This is the first time students have focused on sentence stress, so in exercise 2, exaggerate the stress and highlight that can and at are weak. Drill the questions and answers.

Model and practise the pronunciation of the vocabulary items in the pictures in exercise 3 and demonstrate turn on / off using classroom objects. Then ask students to complete the gaps. Check their answers, then practise the questions and answers across the class.

Students extend their practice of requests using prompts in exercise 4. Do one or two with the class, then let them work in pairs, and monitor / correct them. Where possible, they should do the action,

e.g. hand over their rubber. You could teach other suitable requests, e.g. open I close the blind / curtain.

grammar this, that, these, those

      You could Start by acting out with a student in front Of the class. Stand next to him / her, point to his / her bag and ask, Is this your bag? (Yes.) Then point to something further away, and ask Is that (Miguel's) dictionary? (Yes.) Show with a gesture that this refers to something near you, and that something further away. Do the same for the plurals. Then go on to exercise 1.

      Check exercise 2 carefully, and drill the questions, focusing especially on this / and these /ör.z/.

      The table in exercise 4 checks the forms, and then students practise again as a check Of the concepts I forms in exercise 5. Monitor this pairwork carefully and correct any errors.

      For exercise 6, demonstrate what to do, reminding them about possessive 's. Make sure that there are enough things on the tables to talk about. See ideas plus on the right.

listen to this

The task in exercise 1 tests learners' ability to discriminate between similar-sounding sentences. These also form part of the longer passage in listen carefully, so learners are getting some support before they listen. Play recording 2.10 and let students compare their answers to exercise 2. Monitor and if you see any wrong answers, play it again.

• Exercise 3 is a further listening based round teacher talk, this time from the end Of the lesson. After checking the answer, let learners listen with the tapescript. As the listening task involves 'homework', this may be a good time to discuss the subject with the class. See troubleshooting on the right.

The natural Enghsh box contains four valuable high-frequency phrases which students can learn without analysing them grammatically. The focus Of exercise 4 is on the omission Of sounds in connected speech which can create listening problems. If learners aren't aware of the elision of the 't' here, they may not realize that the phrases are negative. It's not essential for learners to produce the same elision when they are speaking, but they will need to recognize it receptively. Play the recording several times so that learners can hear the phrases spoken naturally before practising them.

The game in exercise 5 should give learners an opportunity to use some of the natural Engh+ phrases. Monitor and make notes in the pairwork. A strong class could make up their own questions.

writing

The messages in this section revise language from this unit, and students also become familiar with a simple text type (messages) and proofreading. See ideas plus on the right. It provides a framework for a writing game. Tell students what to do in exercise 1 and monitor. Go over the answers on the board, as students may not pick up all the errors by listening to the feedback.

For exercise 2. students work alone. If you prefer, they can prepare different notes in pairs, and then swap them. You can extend the topics to include some general knowledge questions as practised in the listening challenge pairwork activity, or they can make any requests from earlier in the lesson. If they produce different types of message (e.g. Would you like a coffee after the lesson?), so much the better. Manage the time and ensure that everyone is either writing or responding to a note.


focus on grammar: this, that, these, those (listen to a teacher giving instructions to a glass

'Write notes to each other, making requests or asking for þnformation


Qanyou remember ? see p. 18 exercise 1 •see tapesaipt p. 147

exercise 3 rl fan •2 window / door

'exercise 1

A this     3 those that          4 these exercise 2 /51s/, /öæt/, /öi:z/, /ðaoz/

3                   radiator

4                   light ideas plus pictionary

For this activity, you could include vocabulary from the wordbooster and the electrical products from the first lesson. Divide the class into two teams, and say you are going to draw things on the board. Start to draw, and the first person to shout out the correct answer from either team gets a point. Draw two or three items quickly, e.g. a pencil, a lighter, a laptop, and don't spend more than five or ten seconds on each one. Students can shout out as soon as they think they know what it is. Don't worry if you aren't a great artist; it will show students that they can play the game without great ability.

Put students in small groups with a set of prompt cards face down (names of objects, or any other drawable items they know). Students take turns to take a card and draw the object; the student who guesses first (and pronounces it accurately) wins a point. Monitor to correct pronunciation and help where necessary.

ideas plus vocabulary extension

This might be a good point to feed in any new vocabulary items needed, e.g. folder, ruler, pencil sharpener, etc. Monitor and praise their efforts. An alternative would be to tell students to put several of their things in the middle of the room, and then everyone stands with a partner and tries to guess who owns each object.


exercise 4

this pen          these pens that phone      those phones

 

Gercise 1

troubleshooting homework

1 1 haven't got my book.  2 What page is it?                3 1 haven't got a pen.

The amount of homework that students do witl

exercise 2

depend on the type of class it is, the age of the

I Brazil                        2 Wha€s the capital of Brazil?                    3 yes                 4 27

students, the time available, and other factors too.

•exercise 3

We think learners can benefit hugely from studying

finish the questions in exercise 9. Read pages 45—55 on Argentina.

between Lessons, but you need to consult with the

exercise 4

 

 

group about the time they think they can devote to

Ino

 

 

homework as well as the type of homework they like doing. (It's a good idea to start with tasks your

exercise 5

 

 

students will enjoy.) If they are able to buy the workbook, this will provide them with a wide range

3 a computer

5

it depends

of relevant tasks to consolidate their learning, and in

2 Ukraine                           4 dictionary

6

things

some places to extend their learning.

To find out more about homework tasks, go to

     Lima                                            3 CD player

5

it depends

how to develop learner independence p.153.

     Poland                                      4 businessman

6

students

 

exercise 1

 

ideas plus proofreading

 

André

 

This writing activity is a first introduction to proofreading, focusing on punctuation

rve got some difficult French homework this weekend.

 

and capitalization. To encourage your learners to proofread their homework before

Can I borrow your French / English dictionary, please?

 

handing it in, give them two minutes alone to read their work and see if they can

•Thanks, Caroline

 

spot any errors. Proofreading can also be done in pairs (i.e. checking their partne(s

Olga

 

written work); this can be very productive, but it is wise to do this when students

the school phone number? I can't remember.

 

know each other quite well, and be careful that no one is too negative or takes

Yuri

 

offence. It helps to give students something concrete to look for, e.g. spelling,

can you remember

 

third person 's, punctuation, etc.

pese; those

help with pronunciation and listening 30—45 mins

pronunciation word stress

     For exercise 1, either use the recording or your own voice as a model to highlight the five different word stress patterns. If necessary, exaggerate the stressed syllables. Then. either go on to the sorting activity in exercise 2, or use the word stress game in ideas plus on the right. After the game, ask students to rearrange the words into the stress patterns as in the table.

     The vocabulary items are then practised in context in exercise 3. Either use the recording or your own voice, or if you prefer, see if students can produce the sentences naturally without a model. If you do this, you may need to correct or 'mould' their sentence until it sounds more natural; then other learners can repeat it. fry to use students who are close to the target sounds as models.

listening information words

     Begin by pointing out the •important!' comment, and demonstrate the meaning of louder, e.g. read the 'important' sentence, exaggerating the volume of the information words. You could do the same with one or two other sentences from earlier in the unit, e.g. in a Ntural Engfish box. Then give students lime to read the text in exercise 1. They should be able to guess what it is quite quickly from the contextual clues.

     Explain that the information words in the first paragraph have been underlined, and you could then play that part of the recording (exercise 2) so that students can hear that the underlined words are louder (i .e. more strongly emphasized). Then play the second part and tell students to underline the louder words. Go over the answers at the end: write up the sentences on the board and elicit which words should be underlined.

     Exercise 3 provides more practice in identifying key words. This time, a woman is talking about a different object and students have to listen and choose the words she uses. Play the recording two or three times if necessary, and monitor their answers as they listen and tick. Check the answers to this and exercise 4. It would be worth letting students listen again to the second recording with the tapescript as suggested; answer any queries at the end.


test yourself!

•st your vocabulary

1   TV, mobile (phone), printer, computer, CD player, laptop

2   rubber, newspaper, dictionary, briefcase, lighter, travel card, notebook easy, dangerous, tate, noisy, cheap

'gap-fill

•1 borrow                                          3 got

4 haven't

arrect the errors

I don't think it's necessary.

vocabulary adjectives (1)

      Pair students up for exercise 1, then tell them to look at their respective pages, but not look at each other's page. Give them a minute to write the opposites of their adjectives, then read their answers out: they will be able to check each other's answers.

      Demonstrate what to do for exercise 2. Each pair needs to look at both sets of adjectives and decide which they can use with the nouns, e.g.

film: interesting, boring, great, or terrible. Monitor the pairs as they work, then at the end, go over the answers with the class.

vocabulary adjectives

1      cheap / expensive; noisy / quiet; difficult / easy; safe / dangerous: hot / cold; early / late; interesting / boring; great / terrible

2     


possible answers interesting / boring / great / terrible film; hot / cold water; difficult / easy exercise; safe / dangerous / noisy / quiet street; cheap / expensive watch; interesting / boring / great / terrible book; noisy / quiet / great / terrible party; early / late train

grammar questions and answers

The dialogues in exercise 1 revise language from different parts of the unit: asking for things, have got, possessive 's, and vocabulary. The first part is a simple check of understanding: tell students to look at the pictures first, play the first dialogue and ask which picture it relates to. Then play the rest of the recording and check the answers at the end.

• Exercise 2 is a dictation. Play each dialogue, but pause it and allow enough time for students to write; replay the questions as necessary. They can compare with a partner after each dialogue, or at the end. Go over the answers, and then move on to exercise 3, which is a memory exercise. Students can check their answers in the tapescript p.147.


grammar questions and answers see tapescript p.147

natural English

• When students give the answers to exercise 1, listen out for pronunciation (e.g. weak forms) as well as word order problems.


ideas plus word stress game

Before the lesson, write all the vocabulary items in exercises 1 and 2 on separate flashcards. Stick them on the board randomly with blutak. Put learners into three teams, each with a different coloured boardpen. One member from each group goes to the board and marks the stress on any word (e.g. with a box above the stressed syllable), then hands the pen to the next member of their team to mark the stress on any other word. The winning team is the one who marks the stress correctly on the highest number of words. At the end, tell them if any words are incorrectly stressed, and see if the team can correct them.

       more? Go to how to use the board p.14b

                                                                    two review              45 mins

Want to more? Go to the introduction on p. 10 for ways of using the review section, vocabulary personal things

• Students should be able to complete this crossword quickly and by doing it with a partner they will get oral practice as well, e.g. asking each other how to spell words, or correcting spelling. Be ready to teach How do you spell / write ...?lf you like, set this up as a race: who can finish fastest?

vocabulary personal things

1       CD player       4 lighter           7 notebook       10 key

2       printer 5 magazine      8 bag

3      


briefcase         6 coursebook   9 camera

'2 David's book t3 1 don't remember.

f. Are these your keys?


three


in unit three .

you and me

focus on noun grou

vocabulary noun groups

p.34

-focus on present simple

You could start from the board. Write Towns and villages are places where we .

wordbooster

and wh- questions

and see if anyone can provide the correct verb to finish the sentence. Students

telling the time

listen to an interview

can them complete the rest of exercise 1 in pairs. For an alternative way of

leisure activities

about transport

doing the activity, see ideas plus on the right.

p.36

talk about your own

• The recording (exercise 2) allows students to check their answers but is largely

 

transport survey

there to provide a pronunciation model, as some of the words are difficult to

reading

 

pronounce, especially in the plural form, e.g. place Iplers/ and places l'plersrz/.

how to talk

 

For exercise 3, you could pause the recording after each key word and get the

about likes and dislikes

 

students to repeat it several times before test your partner.

p.38

 

grammar present simple

extended speakin how active are

 

The sentences in the table are very important: they illustrate the grammar,

you?

 

present a number of valuable lexical phrases, e.g. stay at home, take the bus, study

4

 

English at university, and are the basis for all the controlled practice in this section. Give students time to read through the list and ask you questions

test yourself!

 

before they do exercise 1. Note that a lot and a lot ofare previewed here but

p.41

 

highlighted more substantially in the natural English box that follows.

• Students will be studying the negative form later, so make it very Clear they

4

 

should only read 'true' sentences to their partner in exercise 2. You could demonstrate this by writing the first section about homes on the board, then

wordlist

 

ask one of the students to come out and tick the appropriate sentences as you

p. 132

 

say the ones that are true for you. While students work in pairs, move round and monitor.

listening


listening you and me                 75—90 mins


The listening in exercise 3 will familiarize the students even more with the list of sentences as well as providing listening practice.

After students have listened and completed the natural ErgHsh box for exercise 4, highlight the structure on the board: VERB + a lot a lot          NOUN

These Structures are not only very high frequency in spoken English, they also avoid the problem of whether the noun is uncountable or countable (with much and many).

Put the example of the negative form in exercise 5 on the board. If necessary, add a second example and practise the pronunciation with the class. Students could first say some of their negative sentences to the class and then tell a partner. See language point on the right.

The final part of this section focuses on questions. Play recording 3.4 (exercise 6) and elicit the pronunciation of do you. After some controlled practice, students can then consolidate the different grammar forms by completing the table in exercise 7.

Exercise 8 returns to the table once again as learners interview each other on the complete list of questions. fry to mix the pairs so that learners are with a partner they don't know very well. Demonstrate first with a confident student before the pairwork. If you want more controlled practice. you can go straight to the language reference and practice exercises, but we suggest you give learners a break from the grammar and return to it later. For an alternative activity see ideas plus on the right.


Gcises 1 and 2 see tapescript p. 148 exercise 3 I'v111d3tz/; /'plelsrz/; /'bnsrz/; /'Dfisrz/; /'fæktrrz/;

J/'haonz/

Gercise 3

Jonathan: live in a town, work in an office, drive to work, listen to music exercise 4 •see tapescript p. 148

exercise 6

/dju/

enrcise 7 PRESENT SIMPLE

 

negative

I / You speak Spanish.

I don't speak Japanese.

We/ They live in a town.

We don't live in a village.

DO you speak English?

Yes, I do.

Do they live in a flat?

No, they don't.

about ou

ideas plus words on card

Instead of using the book, put the words and phrases from exercise 1 on pieces of card - one colour for the individual words in columns 1 and 2, and another colour for the phrases in column 3. Make enough sets for students to work in pairs or groups Of three, then let them sort out the cards into correct sentences.

language point present simple

The need for the auxiliary do in the negative and interrogative forms of the present simple is a problem for a number of nationalities. These mistakes are common:

(spoken with rising intonation)

These errors can be quite persistent as a result of Ll transfer, and in the next lesson learners will also meet the third person forms.

ideas plus use of the mother tongue

This is only suitable with a monolingual group. put the students in pairs and ask them to write five sentences in the present simple, including affirmative, negative, and interrogative. For example:

I don't walk to school, I drive.

DO you work in the centre Of town?

The pairs then pass their sentences to another pair, who have to translate them into their mother tongue on a separate sheet of paper. This piece of paper is then passed to a third pair who have to translate them into English. The third pair then compare their sentences with the ones written by the first pair. Are they identical? If not, who has translated incorrectly?

This idea is based on one from Shelagh Deller and is quoted in full in the chapter how to communicate with low-level learners p.160.


listen to this

      First, look at troubleshooting on the right, then do exercise 1. Students will hear this first part again in listen carefully and this should help them with exercise 2.

      Exercise 3 is a continuation of the same interview. When students have answered the questions, they can listen with the tapescript, which will also help them with the natural Engfish box in exercise 4. This is the first time wc have focused on get (with the meaning to reach or arrive at a place), but you could point out that students will encounter it many times during the course with at least four or five different meanings. It is one of the most common verbs in spoken English, although far less common in more formal written English. You can also explain that learners have two possible and equally acceptable ways of answering the question, i.e. using a prepositional phrase (e.g. by car) or a verb (e.g. I drive).

      Let them mingle freely for exercise 5 to get as much practice as possible.

grammar wh- questions

      Students could complete exercise 1 individually then check in pairs. With a monolingual group you could test their understanding by asking for a translation of each question word.

      Exercise 2 provides controlled practice, which students will need as they are going to personalize the questions in a freer way later. Check they are forming the contraction of do you /d3a/ correctly. Use the language reference and practice exercises now, or set them for homework.

Learners can do exercise 3 in pairs. This is the basis for their own transport survey, so you could get them to make a grid in their notebooks where they can write in answers for different students.

speaking it's your turn!

      Students don't need to write their answers for exercise 1, but the next activity will work more effectively if they can reproduce the questions without constantly looking at their notes. You could, therefore, give them a couple of minutes to try and memorize the questions. Monitor exercise 2 and make notes for feedback. See ideas plus on the right.

— wordbooster                                 30—45 mins

telling the time

Some elementary students know how to tell the time in English, although some times are hard to say (any that occur after 'half past', and times with odd minutes, e.g. 10.07). See troubleshooting on the right.

      You could quickly revise the time on the board using digital times, e.g. 2.00; 3.15; 4.30, etc. to check what students know, or go straight into exercise 1 as a diagnostic activity, done alone or in pairs.

Go over the answers either yourself or using the recording in exercise 2, and practise the times. The natural English box in exercise 3, Have you got the time? is a polite way to ask a stranger the time. You can point out that Excuse me is the correct way to attract a stranger's attention (you could act this out as a mime). Many students think that it is more polite to say Sir? or Madam? to attract attention, but in British English the listener would find it strange. Drill the question and answer.

      In exercise 4 students cover the words and use them as prompts to practise the dialogues.

      For exercise 5, ask pairs to sit facing each other, and go to their respective pages. They first complete three clock faces alone, then they take turns dictating their six times to each other. Demonstrate an example with the class (i.e. you say a time, a student writes it down digitally — 4.50.) Monitor the pair work and correct where necessary. At the end, students check their answers together. leisure activities

      Any choice of activities is rather arbitrary, so when learners have completed exercises 1 and 2, elicit any other activities they do in their own country and put them on the board, e.g. baseball or flower arranging in Japan. This vocabulary is practised again the next lesson in the context of likes and dislikes. In the oral practice stage, check that students are saying the •ing form correctly.


rexercise 1 26, BA2 exercise 2 NAME:

ADDRESS:

WORK ADDRESS:

TRANSPORT: REASON:

DISTANCE:

LEAVE HOME AT GET TO WORK AT exercise 3

Andrew Roberts 26 Kipling Avenue, Bath, BA2 4PH history teacher King Edward School, North Road

buses are terrible three miles

8.00

8.15

troubleshooting preparing to listen

When low-level learners are listening, they shouldn't have to read very much at the same time, otherwise the demands of one skill will interfere with the other. For this reason, you need to make the context very clear, e.g. use the picture, and give them plenty of time to read the form and ask any questions they have about content. You should also point out the glossary. When they are really familiar with the categories and content, you can move into the listening.


yes. Saturday morning supermarket, Sunday morning football, cinema in the evening

•exercise 1

     What                                How far                    8 Why


     Where                             6 When

4 How                                   7 When

-exercise 3

Where do you live?

2 How do you get to school? 53 How far is it?

you remember live     3 take work          4 go

Gercise 1 tapescript p. 148

tapescript p. 148

Percise 1

ravelling          5 skiing   6 computer games cooking              8

4      When do you leave home?

5      When do you get to school?

6      Is transport cheap or expensive?

5

listen

You could put some of the results on the board, e.g. the most common way of

6

go

getting to class; the furthest distance anyone has to travel; the longest journey (in time); the cheapest / most expensive journey, etc. Do the results show that it is easy for most learners to get to class, or is it difficult?

troubleshooting teaching the time

If your students have never learnt how to tell the time in English, try to get a large clock (e.g. from a toy shop). A simple, step-by-step approach is as follows:

   teach and practise (one / two, etc.) o'clock teach quarter past; hatf past and practise with a range of hours teach five / ten / twenty / twenty-five past and practise with a range of hours start with quarter post six, and contrast it with quarter to seven — practise different times with Eve to O'clock quarter past and quarter to (bear in mind that twenty / quarter to the hour are more difficult) — past

   teach five / ten / twenty /               quarter to to      pa St quarter past twenty-five to

You can this with a board diagram: twenty to twenty-five half past

going to the gym

9 shopping

driving dancing

10 sightseeing

ideas plus

swimming

reading how to     talk about likes and dislikes    60—75 mins

talk aboûi likes a -dislikes using natural Engfish phrases grammar present simple with he/ she read a text about people who work for a sandwich company

talk about someone who works in another country

lead-in

     The natural          box in the lead-in introduces learners to two modifiers: really and quite. These will allow them to talk about their likes / dislikes in a more subtle way. You could start with the recording as suggested in exercise 1 or for more local colour, make up your own sentences using the names of cafés they know. Put the names on the board, and say something about each one, e.g. 1 really like Café Carlo, I quite like da Gianni, I don't like ..., etc. Intonation and facial expression can help with meaning, and you can add a •marking code' such as ticks or smiley faces to show the degree of likes / dislikes next to each one. Then ask if they can remember your sentences, and write them next to the prompts. Provide controlled practice and get students to give opinions.

     Before the practice activity in exercise 2, highlight the -ing forms in the examples by writing them on the board in a different colour or underlining them. During practice, correct errors with the verb form,

e.g. I quite like cook. DO some examples in class using the wordbooster pictures, then students can practise in pairs. For further practice, see ideas plus on the right.

grammar present simple with he / she

     TO introduce the third person singular, focus students on the sentences in exercise I. You could also use some examples from the previous activity and put these on the board, e.g. Markus likes swimming, but he doesn 't like going to the gym. Ask the same question: why likes / doesn 't like, not like / don 't like? Drill the sentences. and elicit a sentence about a female student, too. See troubleshooting on the right.

     Explain what to do in exercise 2, but don't tell the students the answers about yourself at this stage or you will remove the guessing element. Monitor the writing activity, correcting only grammatical errors. When pairs are ready, they can work with another pair (exercise 3).

For exercise 4. elicit questions so that students can check their anwers. You can then complete the table in exercise 5 together. It's worth checking that students have filled the table in correctly.

     Exercise 6 provides students with personalized practice in third person questions and short answers, so set it up carefully by eliciting some questions and answers from the group. Highlight the weak form of does /daz/ in the question form. If students go beyond the prompts in exercise 2, so much the better. At the end, leave a little time for students to check the answers to their questions. Remember to use the language reference and practice exercises p.133 now or later.

read on

     At the beginning. you could ask students if they would like to live and work in London or any Other city abroad. What job would they like to do? This would lead into the topic Of the text which is based on a large UK sandwich bar chain. Exercise 1 checks understanding of the introduction, reformulating the information in simpler syntax. Check the answers, then move on to the gist task in exercise 2.

     Exercise 3 provides further practice with the present simple, third person singular. When you go over the answers, you could write the full answers on the board, e.g. Suzette lives with herfamily. Rub out all the verbs, put students in pairs with their books shut and ask them to try and remember all the sentences. Exercise 4 simply focuses on the preposition in in time expressions.

speaking i€s your turn!

     Now it is the students' turn to talk about someone they know. Most people know someone (a friend, relation, etc.) who lives abroad, or in another city. You could describe someone you know (keeping it simple, of course) following the questions in exercise 1 as a model. Give students a couple of moments to think of someone, then ask for a show of hands to check that they have done so. If they haven't thought of anyone, don't worry. There should be enough people in the class to start the speaking activity.

     Ask for a volunteer to be interviewed by you, using the questions in exercise I. DO your best to encourage them to speak as much as possible, and ask simple follow-up questions to keep it going. Then get students on their feet talking about their friends. Monitor and encourage them to talk to different people.

     At the end, ask one or two students to say something to the class about their friend I family member (choose a strong student). Give students some positive feedback, and put a few language examples that you collected on the board for praise or correction. See ideas plus on the right.

exercise 1 see tapescript p.148

uercise 1

We say likes / doesn't like for the third person: he, she, or it.

exercise 5 present simple he / she / it

He / She speaks Thai.

He / She doesn't speak Thai. qgestiQns and short answers Does he / she speak Thai?

Yes, he / she does. No, he / she doesn't.

5 doesn't like

7 studies

6 wants

8 wants

exercise 1 29 c 17 exercise 2 Suzette Langland exercise 3

1 lives            3 doesn't work L2 makes   4 wants exercise 4

can you remember Do; Does; likes / hates; doesn't ideas plus further practice

Students are usually happy to talk about their likes and dislikes, and certainly need accuracy practice. For more practice (either at this point, or as a revision activity later) draw a table on the board with five categories: sport, free time, places, music, actors. Students copy the table, and then write two things in each category which they really like / quite like / don't like / hate. For example, under music, you could write playing the guitar and Celine Dion. Don't write or say what you think of these. Students complete their tables, then tell each other in small groups about their likes and dislikes, e.g. I really like playing the guitar. I don't like Celine Dion. Encourage them to say Me too! if they agree.

troubleshooting using the board

The present simple usually causes no problems of concept, but students do make a lot of mistakes with form. You can use your board to highlight form relationships


Highlight the s or es in a different colour so that students can see how it occurs throughout the third person forms.

ideas plus writing

Put students in groups of three or four. They invent a place where they all work together in an English-speaking country, e.g. a hotel in New York. Each person then writes a short personal profile for themselves, saying their name, why they are there, what they want to do (as in the sandwich bar text). Go round and help students as they write; pair up students from different groups to work together if you prefer. When they have finished, they look together at the other two or three profiles in their group and give feedback (e.g. what they like or think is funny). You could get them to turn their work into a noticeboard display for others to look at.


like this:

 

DQ you work in an office.

on Saturdays?

He / She works.

he work?

 

                                                                                              I don.:t work          on Sundays.

He doesntt work

  extended speaking how active are you?     45+ mins

collect ideas complete • It is important at the beginning of this activity to let learners read the boxes at the top of the page a questionnairewhich tell them what they are going to do in the lesson, or tell them yourself. This will enable them to get the whole picture. You should

           -listen to people talkingwhich appear in the unit.      also give them time to look back at the can you remember                      boxes

@bout the questionnaire íinterview a partner

íwrite about your partner        to it not active. Jump up and down and point to 'not active'. This is fairly simplistic but should be adequate to convey the basic message.

     While pairs are doing exercise 1, make sure they don't start filling in the final section at this point. Check the answers carefully as the questions are the basis for their later interview. then let students complete exercise 2 individually (using dictionaries if necessary) while you move round and help where necessary — some learners will need particular items of vocabulary.

     Exercise 3 is a •dry run' and should help to give learners confidence for the later interview.

listen

• Play recording 3.11 for exercise 4. Students should be able to answer the gist questions quite easily but might need to listen more carefully to complete exercise 5. At the end, students could look at the tapescript, which gives them a model of how to develop their interview.

interview

    The recording above should now help the students with exercise 6, but you could provide more examples on the board and move round and offer further assistance if necessary. Encourage learners to use a range of wh- question words: if they can think of more than one for each yes answer, so much the better.

    During the interview (exercise 7), help if necessary. but generally adopt a low profile and position yourself in the room where you can hear most of the pairs, then move to a different position. Make notes for later feedback, and give particular praise to students who really used the interview for genuine communication. At the end have a show of hands: who is very active, quite active, not very active?

writing

• There are exercises on link words in workbook, expand your grammar p. 18. They will help the students with this particular writing activity, as it involves linking together three or four pieces of information.

 bou ou three review      45 mins

grammar present simple

    Check the students all understand contraction before they do exercise 1. This exercise revises the present simple, have got and be. Monitor students as they work alone to help you assess their progress and to see who needs extra help or clarification. This will be useful when you go over the answers; use the board for extra clarity.

    Exercise 2 is a writing exercise as students have already talked about friends living in different places earlier in the unit. Encourage students to use the text as a model, and help with any queries they have. At the end, they could swap their pieces of writing and do some peercorrection

grammar present simple

1 've (have) 3 's / is 5 're 7 works 9 doesn't 6 live 8 wants 10 likes vocabulary noun groups and leisure activities

• You could do this activity as a race in pairs. Encourage students to think about their reasons in order to expand their speaking time and practice.

vocabulary noun groups and leisure activities a water is a drink.   d office is a building.

b transport is a topic. e house is a place where you live. c flat isn't a drink. f dancing isn't a game. natural English

• Students could write the sentences out, and then compare with the natural boxes.

telling the time

*      The recording puts the times in context, so students will need to listen selectively to the short conversations. Replay the recording in exercise 1 as necessary, and pause it to allow time for students to draw the times.

*      Exercise 2 is a 'test your partner' type drill. Demonstrate what to do test yourself!     with another student, then monitor the pair work.

test your vocabulary                                                              telling the time

1    office and factory (places where we work), rice and 2 nine thirty / half past nine 5 eleven fifteen / quarter past eleven bread (things we eat), bus and train (forms of  3 six thirty / half past six 6 quarter to eight / seven forty-five transport), flat and house (types of home).  4 quarter past seven / seven fifteen

2    six thirty / half past six,           eight fifteen / quarter past eight, nine forty-five / quarter to ten, ten fifty / ten to eleven

.3 shopping, swimming, skiing, travelling

gap-fill lot          2 at          3 does          4 really

Correct the errors

1 play a lot of football.

•2 How do you get to school?

Excuse me, have you got the time? Does he speak German?


four

in unit four . . .

reading habits

p.42

 wordbooster days, months, and seasons time phrases with prepositions

p. 44

listening how to     talk about your family

75—90 mins

vocabulary daily routines

     You could start by pre-teaching / checking the meaning of the items in the table, e.g. look at the pictures and match them with the phrases. Alternatively, you could mime some of the actions and elicit the phrases. Ask pairs to order the phrases in exercise 1. See language point on the right.

Some variations are possible in the answers, e.g. some people get up and read the paper; some have breakfast when they get to school / work, etc. Make it clear that different answers are acceptable.

     The listening activity provides consolidation of the vocabulary, but also leads into the grammar (frequency adverbs) in the next section. If necessary, replay the recording in exercise 2, pause it when checking the answers, and again when students have to listen and note the times in exercise 3.

     Exercise 4 provides oral practice of the vocabulary, but also revises times and the 3rd person singular. DO some practice with the whole class first, eliciting a range of sentences and correcting errors. Students can then work in pairs. You could make it clear that students should listen carefully to each other and check that they are using 3rd person s.

grammar present simple with frequency adverbs

      If students work in pairs on exercise l, they can 100k at one student'S tapescript and the other's exercise on page 32. Always and never are likely to be known already; the item students are unlikely to know is hardly ever almost never). In fact, it is a very high-frequency item and worth learning early. When you go over the answers, you could elicit and write them on the board in a context, like this:

100% always usually / often sometimes watch TV in the morning.

hardly ever

     0%                never

Practise the pronunciation of the items, especially usually l'ju:3ali/.

      Exercise 2 focuses on the problem of word order. At this stage it is important to keep it simple, so Stay with the affirmative forms. Write the basic two sentences in exercise 2 on the board, and use a flashcard with ALWAYS on it to show visually where the adverb goes in each sentence.

      Students can do exercise 3 alone or in pairs, then practise together at the end. For more practice go to the language reference and practice exercises, or see ideas plus on the right.

      Exercises 4 and 5 provide opportunities for more extended, personalized practice. Demonstrate what to do with exercise 4 with some examples Of your own, then monitor as students complete the table.

      If you want to make it challenging. tell students you want them to talk for one minute (or thirty seconds) and do it yourself as a model. You could give them a little time on their own to rehearse it in their heads before they tell their partner. If it goes well, tell them to do it again with a new partner. Monitor, noting down good language use and errors, and go over these at the end, being sure to praise any sustained speech.

Van-t to                  morež Goo how

m help with pronunciation and listening pronunciation: sounds /ö/ and /0 listening: weak forms

p. 46

test yourself!

p. 49

wordlist

p.133

reading habits

'focus oh daily routinè4:j vocabulary

focus on present simple; with frequency adverbs

read a survey of people's reading habits Aisten to some people describe their routine

talk about daily routines        

talk about their own reading habits and find ut who read; most

exercise 1 vpossible order:

getup, have breakfast, read the paper, leave home, get to school / university / work, have lunch, get home, have dinner, watch TV, go to bed exercise 2

Holly's day: get up, have breakfast, leave home, get to school / university / work, have lunch, get home, have dinner, watch TV, read the paper, go to bed aercise 3

She gets up at 6.30, leaves home at 7.30, gets to work at 8.15, has lunch between 1.00 and 2.00, gets home about 6.00, and goes to bed before 11.00

exercise 1 'always, usually / often, sometimes, hardly ever, never exercise 2

Put always, sometimes, never, etc. after the verb be. Put always, sometimes, never, etc. before most other verbs. exercise 3 see tapescript p.148

home life

language point zero and definite article

These very high-frequency phrases contain a number of pitfalls for learners:

- have breakfast / lunch / dinner: zero article in English, but many learners say

- get / go to school / work / bed: also zero article in English (compare: go to school

— the institution / to study, with go to the school — to the building)

- get / leave home: zero article, but we say leave the house

— read the paper: (the speaker and listener understand which one we mean: the daily paper)

Be prepared to highlight and correct errors with these forms.

ideas plus substitution drill

A good way to provide extra oral practice here would be a variable substitution drill. You begin with a basic sentence on the board, e.g. I never have dinner in a restaurant. Students repeat it, and then they have to change the sentence depending on the word you give them. So, if you say, Often, they say, I Often have dinner in a restaurant; you say lunch, they say I often have lunch in a restaurant. Here is a sequence that will work with the above sentence:

often — lunch — 1.00 — he — go out — hardly ever — in the evening — I — sometimes am tired — she

See pre-intermediate studenes book p.75 for a student-centred example of this activity type.


read on

      Exercise 1 is an opportunity for free speaking, and leads into the topic of the text. Set up the small groups, or do the activity as a mingling exercise. Don't worry about mistakes; let students say what they can. Keep the activity quite short, as students will be doing a survey about reading habits at the end of the lesson in speaking it's your turn!

      Students should be able to complete the table in the text (exercise 2) by reading the paragraph. Alternatively, you could preteach the jobs, write them on the board, and see if students can predict who reads most they read the text.

      Exercise 3 highlights useful phrases in the text, and students can write them in the spaces provided, under the pictures. Students can compare with a partner for exercise 4 before you go over the answers together.

The natural English box contains language from the article. For more information, see ideas plus on the right. A typical error here would be an    day or an hourF* day. You could do exercise 6 as question and answer practice in pairs.

speaking it's your turn!

      This activity gives students an opportunity to talk more fully about what they read, where they read, and how much they read. The table in exercise 1 is self-explanatory, so tell students to start writing some ideas. You could add some extra ideas, e.g. the books or magazines that you read, and where / when you read most. Monitor as they write and help where necessary.

      Exercise 2 can be done as a survey. See ideas plus on the right. The activity could be done as a mingling activity if you prefer. While students are talking, check that everyone is involved and note any examples of good language use or errors for correction.

      At the end, have a feedback stage. Students say who reads most in their group and why, and you can then praise them for what they managed to communicate, and go over some errors on the board at the end. However, make sure that students finish the lesson feeling confident about what they have contributed, rather than concerned about their mistakes.

 wordbooster                                              30—45 mins

days, months, and seasons

       We would expect learners to know some of these already, so this section is designed to fill the gaps and focus on pronunciation.

       When the pairs have completed exercise 1, you could drill the pronunciation of the more difficult items, e.g. January "'d3ænjuar1/, February l'februarl/, and Wednesday / •wenzdel/, plus any others which present particular problems for the nationalities you teach.

Go through the example for exercise 2, then play recording 4.3. Pause it each time and try to get the whole class to shout out the answer. You can replay the recording several times, pointing to a different student to answer each time, or asking for a different volunteer each time, but keep the pace lively. When students can answer quickly and accurately, let them play the game themselves in exercise 3. See also language point on the right.

time phrases with prepositions

     Many learners find prepositions notoriously difficult, but at least there are some rules with time prepositions. Check the answers to exercise 1 carefully. With a monolingual group, you can test understanding by asking for a mother tongue equivalent in each case.

     When learners have completed the table in exercise 2, use exercise 3 to test their knowledge, making sure they have covered exercises 1 and 2 first. They can compare answers with a partner.

For exercise 4, see culture note on the right. If some of the questions do not seem relevant to your class,

e.g. if skiing is not a popular activity, feel free to amend some of them so that they are relevant and will generate discussion. While students are writing their answers, move round and monitor. Give praise when they use prepositional phrases correctly, and point out any opportunities to include phrases they have not used.



exercise 2 accountants, secretaries, taxi drivers, lawyers, priests

exercise 3

 

1 in bed

4 on holiday

2 in the bath(room)

5 in work breaks

3 on the way to work exercise 4

6 in the living room

1 true

4 true

2    false

3    false

5 true

can you remember see article pps. 32—33

exercise 1

January, February, March, April, May, June, July,

August, September, October, November, December

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday,

Saturday, Sunday spring, summer, autumn, winter aercise 2

1 March

5 Tuesday

 

2 September

6 Saturday

 

3     June

4     Friday

exercise 1

7 winter

 

1 on

 

7 week

 

5 winter

8 moment

 

6 weekend

9 between

exercise 2 at a time, on a day, in a period

exercise 3 at the weekend, during the week, in the spring, in April, between 6.00 and 7.00, on January 2nd,

Monday, at 11.00 0'clock, at the moment

ideas plus text search

You will notice that both the listening and reading texts in this lesson are used for 'text search'. In grammar exercise 1, students have to identify examples of frequency adverbs from the tapescript and then plot them according to meaning; and in exercise 3, they have to check their answers to a grammar exercise with the tapescript. In the reading text, they have to find examples of the language in the natural English box, and also check their answers to can you remember in the article.

We feel that this approach is useful and adult, and we hope it will encourage students in the future to use texts to learn new language and find examples to consolidate their knowledge.

ideas plus survey

Put the students into small groups. You could provide each group with a photocopied grid, with columns for different students' names to be added. They can then note key information when they ask each other.

language point use of articles

Here and below you will notice the definite article is sometimes used. We don't use articles generally when talking about days or months (See you on Monday; I'm going in September), but we can use them with seasons of the year:

go skiing in (the) winter.                                It often rains in (the) spring.

There seems to be a free choice here.

culture note opening and closing times

Opening and closing times for shops can vary considerably from country to country. Your students may be interested to know the usual custom in Britain and how it may differ from their own country.

Traditionally, shops opened from 9-5.30. For religious reasons, they were closed on Sunday and many also closed one afternoon during the week (often Wednesday). That has all changed over the past thirty years. Few shops close one afternoon a week, and many are now open on Sunday - small convenience stores which sell a range of essential goods open all hours, while large shops have restricted opening hours (usually 10.00-4.00). Many large shops also stay open until much later at least one day of the week, e.g. until 8 p.m., and some supermarkets are now open 24 hours.

In the past, a few shops closed at lunchtime, but that is rarely the case now.


listening how

»cabula+ý fami

þsk about each other's families using natural phrases

   to . . . talk about your family           60—75 mins

vocabulary families

There is a wide range of lexical items here, but you can fill whatever gaps are necessary for your learners, e.g. partner, stepfather, etc. Before you start, see ideas plus on the right.

See how much the students either know or can deduce in exercise 1 without any pre-teaching. If students work in pairs there will be some discussion, in which case you can provide a pronunciation model for the more difficult words, e.g. niece Ini:s/, daughter I'do:ta/, nephew /'nefju:/, parents /'pearants/, and cousin

      Play recording 4.4 (exercise 2), then allow time for students to practise individually.

Exercise 3 reinforces the pronunciation and teaches students another phonemic sound: IA/.

      The natural English box revises have got. Students will sound more natural if they can link the words together like this:

Have you gotuany brothersvand sisters?

Move round and monitor while students write in exercise 5, and when they stand up to talk in exercise 6, encourage them to ask follow-up questions.

grammar my, your, etc.

• The grammar focus also makes use of the family tree, which should now be familiar. Check their answers to exercise 1 before they complete the table in exercise 2. The problem with possessives is not generally one of meaning but being able to use thern promptly and accurately, so the key is really practice. Exercise 3 begins this process while providing a check on meaning as well, but you can also use the language reference and practice exercises, or make use of the photos brought in.

listen to this

      The listening continues with the theme of Mandy's family. Students should now be able to spot the 'new' information easily in exercise 1

      For exercise 2, make sure students read through the sentences before they listen. Move round and monitor their answers and play the recording again if they are having problems.

      After exercise 3, students can listen with the tapescript. See ideas plus on the right.

      The natural EngHsh box (exercise 4) focuses on together. This is a useful high-frequency item, but one that low-level learners rarely know or use. While students are doing exercise 5, move round and monitor before the pairwork activity.

speaking iYs your turn!

     If your students require more support, see troubleshooting on the right.

     With confident students, give them a minute or two to think about questions they want to ask using the prompts in exercise 2. Make sure they listen carefully to the answers, as they will need the information in the next exercise.

Exercise 3 serves a dual purpose: it provides additional practice, but also makes additional use of the information that students gathered in exercise 2.

writing

• If you want to provide extra writing practice, you could get learners to write about a member Of their partner's family in class, then write about a member of their own family for homework. Use the example first to show them how they could structure the information in their paragraph. For more work on this, see natural English elementary reading and writing skills resource book p.30


(grammar: possessives  y, your, etc.

sten to Mandy

Aescribing her family

'talk about families about a member of your family

   exercise 1                                                                              ideas plus family photos

2          brother and sister       The whole lesson is based round a family tree and some family photos. If you have

3          girlfriend and boyfriend         a set of photos of your own family, bring them to class and ask the students to do

4          mother and daughter the same. This will give you the raw material for additional practice of all the

5          husband and wife language in the lesson at different stages (family vocabulary, possessives, have got, 5 aunt and niece and together), and is likely to be very motivating as it will be relevant to the 7 uncle and nephew      students' own lives.

8        grandmother and grandson

9        cousins 10 parents and children exercise 3 husband, uncle, mother, grandson, cousin, brQther, grandmQther exercise 4 see tapescript p.149

exercise 1

exercise 3

This is our sister, Susie, with her hus-baad boyfriend, Richard.

1 his girlfriend's name is Susie.

This is our GO-US$-A brother, Michael.

2 her children's names are Lucy and Mark.

exercise 2

3 his daughter's name is Lucy.

my sister

4 her tvän siste(s name is Carole and her husbands name is

he         his daughter

Damian.

she her brother we our father

5 their brothefs name is Michael, and their niece's name is Lug.

they their son

exercise 1                                                                                ideas plus using a tapescript

Susie is 25; Michael is 34. One of the reasons for using a tapescript of spontaneous English is that it will exercise 2 provide natural examples of vocabulary items that occur most frequently - or may 1 Mandy's got a lot of cousins. only occur - in spoken English. In recording 4.6 good examples are: loads and wow

2              Her husband is an actor.        (both informal), actually and away (for showing distance). You could write these

3              She works in a university.            words on the board, get students to underline them in the tapescript while they

4              She teaches computer studies. listen, then they can try to explain the meaning with a partner. With a monolingual 5 She sees her parents Monday to Friday. group, they could also write a translation equivalent if they cannot find a suitable exercise 3 English word or phrase. In this context, good answers would be:

1     yes            loads    lots), wow incredible), actually in fact), and away from here).

2     She teaches computer studies at the university.

can you remember possible answers troubleshooting providing extra support daughter, uncle, father, cousins, sister, wife, brother, On the board, write the name of someone in your family, then ask learners in pairs aunt to write questions to ask you using the prompts in exercise 2. Monitor their writing, then answer questions round the class so that all the pairs get an opportunity to hear a range of questions as well as your answers. At the end, write some of their questions on the board.

With the model you have provided and the questions they have written down, the students should be able to do the activity for themselves.

help with pronunciation and listening    30—45 mins

pronunciation sounds /ð/ and /9/

     Many learners have problems with these sounds, often producing Idl or 'z/ instead of /ðl, and Is/ or It/ instead of 101. Ordinal numbers (third, fourth, etc.) often contain these sounds, and although students' failure to produce the 191 correctly in a date is unlikely to affect intelligibility, it is worth encouraging students to incorporate these problematic sounds into their sound system.

     You could begin with a focus on the voiceless sound, 19/. Write some pairs of numbers, e.g. four / fourth, ten I tenth, six / sixth in two columns (A and B) on the board. Say one word in the pair, and they have to tell you which word you are saying. Then show how the 10/ sound is formed: stand with your profile to the class, and put your finger at right angles to your lips to show that your tongue can just touch your fingers, and get them to do the same. (See diagram on the right.) Provide plenty of controlled practice, and monitor and correct pairs working together on the words you write on the board.

     Explain what to do in exercise 1, then monitor the pair work. You can use the recording to check or elicit the answers in exercise 2.

     Focus on the voiced / voiceless pair distinction in exercise 3, using the recording Or your own voice if possible. To help students hear the difference between voiced and voiceless, you can tell them to touch their throat (it vibrates with a voiced sound).

    
Point out the difference between spoken and written English with dates, and then go on to the information gap activity in exercise 4. You can ask students to circle as many dates as you like. Sit the pairs facing each other, and make sure they don't look at each other's calendars when they dictate the dates they circled. It would also help if they circled the dates they hear in a different colour. Monitor the activity and bring it to an end before it loses momentum. See ideas plus on the right for another activity.

exercise 1 a sixth seventh d second third g nineteenth twentieth b fourth fifth e thirtieth thirty-first h first second c twelfth thirteenth f seventeenth eighteenth i third fourth listening weak forms

     This section focuses on a common listening problem for most learners: making sense of weak forms in connected speech. For more information on the schwa 'al, see language point on the right.

     Focus first on the examples in the speech bubbles, highlighting the pronunciation of the three weak forms, i.e. say 'Are la/ you English?' rather than 'Are la:' you English?' then focus on the questions in exercise 1 and play the first extract. Check the answers, then play the remaining dialogues..

     Exercise 2 focuses on the weak forms. Students should be able to complete most or all of the gaps, but monitor and see how they are coping; this will determine whether you will use the recording for students to check answers, or whether you will need to teach from the recording. Use the recording in exercise 3 to check and model the weak forms. Pause the recording and replay it as required so that students can identify the pronunciation of the weak forms.

     In the natural English box, Thank you (very much) is a little more formal than Thanks (a lot), but both are common in spoken English. practise in pairs.

exercise 1 1 3.15 exercise 2 see tapescript p.149

                                                                      four review             45 mins

grammar present simple with frequency adverbs


ideas plus important dates

Write a few dates on the board that are important to you, e.g. a family birthday / celebration, an anniversary, a day which is important for the country, the date of your next holiday. Don't write what the dates mean. Get the students to ask you about them,

e.g. Why is December 1st important? Explain your answers in simple language and teach new vocabulary items where necessary, e.g. birthday, wedding, holiday. Then tell the students to write down five or six important dates for them. Put them in small groups to ask each other about the dates they wrote.

language point schwa ,/a/

The schwa /a/ is the most common unstressed vowel sound in English. It occurs in many common grammar words, e.g. and, of, for, at, but, to, etc. as well as auxiliary verbs such as does, have, are, can, must. In connected speech, the cumulative effect of the schwa creates problems for many learners who are more familiar with the written form.

Few languages have a comparable sound, and some learners seem to think that the prevalance of the schwa in spoken English suggests incorrect or lazy speech. It is important to tell them, in their mother tongue if necessary, that even the most educated speakers use the schwa all the time.

test yourself!

test your vocabulary

1    niece, parents, grandson, wife, nephew, cousin, uncle

2    in, on, on, at, at

3    have lunch, read the paper, go to bed, leave home, watch TV

gap-fill 1 any   3 their 2 welcome 4 ever

error correction 1 She often goes to the cinema.

2      1 can see John and his wife.

3      He always has t-se lunch at 1.00.

4      1 watch TV for about two hours a night.

     This activity is the basis of an interview: students can find out what they do alone, with the family or with friends. First, ask students to do exercise 1: this will revise some vocabulary from the unit. Go over the answers, and ask them to fill in ideas of their own, helping if necessary.  Students should be able to complete their answers quickly. Put them with a partner for exercise 3, but first, demonstrate the activity with a student. Be sure to ask them why they do things alone I with particular people: this will make the activity more challenging and ensure that students don't treat it as a drill. Monitor the pair work and make notes for feedback on good language use and any specific problems.

     Bring the activity to a close, then let students compare in small groups. Who does most alone, with their family or with friends, and why? Do some quick feedback on language data you collected using the board.

vocabulary time phrases with prepositions

    



This activity is peer-corrected: both A and B sets of sentences are essentially the same, but different words are gapped for each pair. You can get A pairs to work together and B pairs to do the same if you want them to have some peer support in exercise 1.

     Pair up A and B students for exercise 2, and do the first example together so that they can see how they can check each other's answers. Make sure they are reading aloud rather than just looking at each other's answers: this will provide more listening practice.

vocabulary families

 Either use the activity as it is in exercise 1, or for fun, write the jumbled words on numbered flashcards. Put students in pairs, tell them the topic of the vocabulary, then give each pair a jumbled word card. They have fifteen seconds together to decipher the word and write it down. Clap your hands, and students have to pass on the word card, and so on. Check exercise 2 as a class.

natural English

    Deciding on the missing words (without possible answers in a box) is quite challenging. If exercise 1 is very hard, put the missing words randomly on the board.

    Normally students would be able to check their answers with the boxes in the unit (this is deliberate: it helps students use their course book for revision), but in this case, the examples are different from those in the boxes, so go over the answers before students ask and answer in pairs.

natural Engfish

 Do you work eight hours a day?

2 DO you watch TV ten hours a week?

 Have you got any brothers and sisters?

4 Do you sleep seven hours a night?

 Have your aunts and uncles got any children?

6 DO you and your parents live together?


five

in unit five .

reading breakfast time

p.50

wordbooster food adjectives (2)

p.52

listening how to ... order food

p. 54

breakfast time                            75-90 mins

vocabulary breakfast food

To start the lesson with a speaking activity, see ideas plus on the right.

Students will know some of the items in exercise 1 already. They can work in pairs, using dictionaries to check new items, or arrive at the meaning of some items by a process of elimination. Monitor and help with items they don't understand. Note that the picture does not include all the items.

As you check the answers together, focus on the pronunciation and practise them orally, or use the recording as a model in exercise 2. Certain items are quite difficult here: ham / jam are easily confused, cereals "al, sausages /rd31Z/, sugar 'J/, butter IA/, bacon lei/, and heney IA/. There are also four words with the /d3/ sound: sausages, orange, juice, and jam. Can students identify them? At the end. tell them to cover the words and test each other using the pictures. Exercise 3 is an 'odd one out' puzzle. Do the first example together, then put students in pairs to finish. They may struggle with the explanations, but let them try and express the ideas.

The natural English box in exercise 4 highlights have meaning eat / drink, this is actually more common than eat here. When students listen, focus on the underlined words which are stressed, and get them to copy the stress patterns. When students mingle in exercise 5, you could ask them to find one person who has a similar breakfast, and one who has a different kind of breakfast.

grammar countable and uncountable nouns

      Present the grammar as suggested in exercise 1, or see ideas plus on the right. Before students complete the phrases in exercise 1, you could test them on the concept: do we say a or some for jam, rice, milk, cornflakes, bread? Check students understand the concept, then ask them to do exercise alone or in pairs.

      Exercise 2 shows that although some items are uncountable, they can be expressed in a countable way through the phrases a cup / glass / piece of... Ask which phrase they would use for tea / cheese / coffee / apple, etc.

      Exercise 3 contextualizes the grammar in dialogue form. You could do a

'disappearing dialogue' practice activity. Write the dialogues on the board with the gaps filled in. Tell students to shut their books, and practise the dialogues from the board with a partner. Gradually rub off words from each dialogue; meanwhile students keep practising and have to remember the missing words. Keep going until you only have one or two words left in each line.

grammar some / any

      There is obviously a link between the two grammar sections. See language point on the right.

      You could elicit the answers to exercise 1 together and give students time to write them in. Point out that we usually use any in questions and negative sentences, and we use some with countable and uncountable positive statements. Ask students to finish your sentences with any other nouns, e.g.

   Teacher: I want some                     Student: coffee.             Teacher: Yes.

      Teacher: I haven't got any             Student.• oranges.           Teacher: Yes, etc.

      Students can work alone in exercise 2, then compare with a partner. Exercise 3 gives students the chance to use some and any in a personalized way. Feed in any other vocabulary they might need. At the end, ask a few students to tell the class what they want / don't want.

extended speaking on the

whats menu?

test yourself!

p.57

wordlist

p.134

reading

learn breakfast food vocabulary; students ask what people want using natural English phrases focus on countable and uncountable nouns; some and any

read about breakfast in o Madrid and Moscow interview a partner about breakfast time

•rite about their breakfast

exercise 1 1 coffee         6 tea

2     cornflakes / cereal sausages

3     rolls  8 orange juice

4     cake 9 bread

5     eggs exercise 3

Coffee, because you drink it, but you eat cornflakes and other cereals.

c Sugar, because it's sweet, and rolls and bread are both bread.

Toast, because butter and cheese are both made from milk.

Cake, because you eat cake, but you drink tea and orange juice.

Bacon, because honey and jam are sweet, but bacon isn't.

exercise I

 

 

 

 

1 some

some

5

some

some

exercise 3

4 an

 

8

some

1 piece

 

3

some; piece

 

2 glass

exercise 1

 

4

cup; some

 

singular: sandwich plural / countable: eggs uncountable: ham exercise 2

1 some                          3 an

 

5

some

 

2 any                           4 any

 

6 any

 

café culture

ideas plus speaking

Put some statements on the board for students to think about. Are they true for them? Why / why not? e.g.

I like breakfast. I haven 't got time for breakfast.               1 always have breakfast.

Tetl students about yourself, but don't go into any detail over food you eat at this stage. For example, I like breakfast at the weekend, because I've got a lot oftime. but on weekdays, I'm always late and tired, and I don 't really enjoy breakfast etc. Then get students on their feet to tell different people their feelings about breakfast. Praise any attempts at conversation, and don't worry about errors at this stage.

ideas plus using realia

Presenting and practising language using realia (i.e. real objects) is likely to be vely motivating and memorable for students. Even flashcard photos of food will bring the presentation to life. If possible, collect some empty packaging, e.g. plastic butter tubs, milk cartons, an egg box, etc. and a few simple food items such as apples, oranges, or biscuits.

Plan carefully how to use the realia to illustrate the rules: apples are good for countable nouns, sugar and rice are useful for uncountable nouns. Chocolate(s) and cake(s) can be both countable and uncountable, so are best avoided at this early stage. Tea and coffee are also tricky: e.g. I like coffee [U] vs I'd like a coffee [C] = a cup of coffee.

For extra work on this area, see workbook, expand your grammar countable and uncountable nouns p.26.

language point some / any

At this level, it is important to keep the presentation simple, so we suggest you keep to the rules in the table in exercise 1. However, it is worth remembering that it is possible to use some in questions:

offers, e.g. Do you want / Would you like some chocolate?

requests, e.g. Can I have some sugar, please?

We suggest you avoid confusing students with this information at this stage. In how to order food on p.43, requests with some are introduced functionally, e.g. Could I have some more water?


read on

Introduce students to the topic of the text with exercise 1. Then go on to the gist task in exercise 2. You could set a time limit of a minute so that students don't try to translate every word.

     Let them read more carefully to find the answers to exercise 3. They could compare with a partner, before you go over the answers. See culture note on the right.

     At the end, you could ask students to talk about their country. Is breakfast similar or different from breakfast in Madrid or Moscow? Ask them to talk about breakfast in general, otherwise it will overlap with the speaking activity in speaking it's your turn!

speaking it's your turn!

This stage (exercise 1) brings together various elements of the lesson in one speaking activity. Give students time to think through what they are going to say in English, and ask you about any vocabulary they may need. The better prepared they are to speak, the more confident they will feel.

     For exercise 2, start by getting students to ask you about your breakfast using the questions in exercise 1. Expand your answers, so that they will try and do the same themselves. Then get students to mingle and interview each other. Monitor and make notes on good language use and any communication problems. Bring the activity to a close while learners are still engaged, and do feedback on content and language. Praise good communication. See ideas plus on the right.

writing

   The text in exercise 1 is a model for the students' own writing in exercise 2. Focus on the questions in speaking it's your turn! before they read about Céline. Notice that there is a lot of recycled language in the text: the present tense, adverbs of frequency, time expressions, and vocabulary.

   Students can do exercise 2 for homework, or they can write in class (in which case you can monitor and assess their writing ability). At the end, ask them to proofread their work, perhaps with a partner. See ideas plus on p.31. Correct it using a simple marking scheme.

Yant to know more? Gotoÿe•intermediate teacher•sb0ókOw

wordbooster                                          30—45 mins

food

     Students can work alone or in pairs for exercise 1; let them use dictionaries if possible. In feedback, clarify and practise any pronunciation difficulties, e.g. onion See language point on the right.

     Exercise 2 ask students to think of logical prepared foods. Before they begin, make it clear that some words can be used more than once, e.g. a cheese sandwich or tart. See the possible answers on the right, but there may be different answers in your teaching context. For more on chips, see language point on

p.55.

     Exercises 3 and 4 focus on specific sounds and introduce some more phonemic symbols. Put these in four columns on the board and add the first example, i.e.   vanilla. Let students work together, then use the recording or elicit the answers and add them to the board. Do the oral practice at the end, highlight these sounds in the phonemic chart on p.159 of the student's book.

     The natural English box in exercise 5 focuses on a very common question which is in the extended speaking activity for this unit. You could extend the practice in exercise 6 so that students ask about meat, drinks, wines. etc. See also workbook, expand your vocabulary food groups p.28.

adjectives (2)

    Students will know some of the adjectives in exercise 1, so they should be able to deduce new items and match them accordingly. Focus on the categories too, as these contain useful lexis, e.g. service.

    Exercise 2 gives students a chance to memorize the items. During this stage, you could encourage them to mumble the words to themselves, while you monitor and help with pronunciation.

    Exercise 3 provides some natural listening practice. You can suggest that students look at the categories in the table and tick the ones talked about. Then they listen again and note down what they say. Avoid personalized practice at this point because students are going to do this in the how to lesson.


exercise 2

Andrés has breakfast in a café; Ekaterina has breakfast at home.

•exercise 3

 

 

1 Moscow

3 Moscow

5 Ekaterina

-2 Madrid

4 Madrid

6 doesn't have

exercise 1

Yes, she does.

can you remember ?

some sausages, some cereal, some tea, some coffee, a cup of coffee, a glass of / some juice, a piece of / some cake, some bread / a piece of bread, eggs,

exercise 1 cheese, chicken, onion, apple, mushroom, steak, bacon, fish, potato, ham, chocolate, tomato, peas, strawberry

exercise 2 possible answers: cheese / ham / bacon sandwich potato / mushroom / tomato / pea soup vanilla / chocolate / strawberry ice cream steak / chicken / fish and chips apple / strawberry / cheese tart exercise 4 see tapescript p.149. exercise 5 natural English see tapescript p. 149.

exercise 1 awful; dirty; uncomfortable; slow; expensive; unfriendly

exercise 3 see tapescript p. 149

a e cu ur

culture note breakfast

Traditionally British breakfasts are a significant meal (catted 'the full English / Scottish / Irish / Welsh breakfast'): cereals, fruit juice, tea or coffee, and a fried breakfast of egg, bacon, sausage, and tomato, with toast and marmalade. In practice, few people have time for this kind of breakfast these days, and most people tend to have cereal and / or toast / bread with jam / marmalade and tea or coffee (usually referred to as a 'continental breakfast' in hotels). Porridge has recently seen a revival, as a quick and nutritious breakfast meal.

ideas plus multilingual groups

With a multilingual group, students could make a mini presentation to the class of their national breakfast dish / dishes. Put students from the same country together to prepare the presentation; if a student is preparing a presentation alone, you could talk to them and help where necessary. Students find this very motivating as they want to show their country in a good light.

language point lexical selection

Food is a very broad lexical area, and it can be difficult to decide which items to select for elementary students. A key criterion is usefulness, which is a reason for teaching vanilla: ice cream is a popular food almost everywhere, and vanilla is probably the most common flavour, yet few students seem to know the word.

Some items need to be learnt because they are taboo: for example, many Muslim learners don't eat ham or bacon, so it's important that they recognize these words in order to avoid ordering them. Other items will be useful because students will need them for the extended speaking activity on p.45. We suggest you look ahead to this activity, and decide whether you need to present other food items which are likely to occur in a café menu in your teaching environment.

Want to know more? Go to how to select, organize. and present levels p.167


listening how

focus on can / can't

talk about bars and restaurants

              to . . . order food                                                                                60—75 mins

grammar can / can't + verb

   As the topic of the lesson is ordering food, can you remember      here is a timely way to lead in.

The task in exercise 1 should be very straightforward for learners from Europe or South America, but students from other cultures may find it more difficult. See culture note on the right.

Students could do exercise 2 individually or in pairs. Notice the use of you here to mean 'people in general'. We can also use one with this meaning, but it is more formal and sounds less natural. You could explain this to your students if you wish, or if anyone asks.

Exercise 3 is just a quick check, but it is important to clarify this meaning of can for general possibility, as learners will soon encounter can being used to express ability, e.g. 1 can swim but I can't drive.

If learners do exercise 4 in pairs then compare with another pair, they will be getting a lot of oral practice as well as consolidating their understanding. Move round and monitor this activity and focus on their pronunciation. Exercise 5 has been included because some nationalities have a problem producing the weak form in can Ikon/ and the long vowel in can't Ika:nt/. This can make it difficult to distinguish between can and can't and occasionally lead to a complete breakdovvn in understanding. Exercise 6 allows some freer personalized practice. Students could do this in pairs or groups while you listen. If you feel they have had enough practice, do the language reference and practice exercises later. Exercise 7 provides more practice of can but this time the topic is even more personalized and you can allow the conversation to move to wherever the students take it. Bear in mind they will be talking about the school café or one nearby in the extended speaking activity, so try to ensure that learners do not choose these places to talk about now.

listen to this

      The natural Erglish box (exercise 1) highlights a common use of will. See language point on the right. Learners also need to be familiar with the common question Anything else? as it is used in a wide range of service situations. The reply (No, that's all, thanks) is the type of response that you want your learners to be able to produce fluently and with confidence.

      Before students practise the dialogue in exercise 2, you could give them a quick discrimination exercise similar to that in grammar exercise 5 on the previous page. Write I have (A) and I'll have (B) on the board, then say four or five sentences using one or other of the constructions. Each time, the students must say which one they hear.

      When the students describe the pictures in exercise 3, you may have to clarify the difference between British and American English. See language point on the right.

      Play recording 5.8 (exercise 4). Check the answers, then replay the recording for exercise 5. These questions will form part of a later speaking activity, so make sure the students use them accurately.

      The second natural English box in this lesson highlights another language convention, this time asking for 'more of something' (languages often have their own special way of doing this). Students first listen and complete the questions in exercise 6, then analyse the difference in exercise 7. In fact, this recycles the distinction between countable and uncountable nouns that learners studied in the previous lesson, and is tested again in exercise 8.

      Listening again with the tapescript will consolidate the new language from the lesson and provide students with a model for the role play to follow.

speaking iYs your turn!

• Put students in pairs to prepare the waiter's questions together (exercise 1) as this is the more difficult role. You can move round and monitor at this point to make sure they are getting the questions right. Give students a minute to think about their roles for exercise 2, and warn them now that they will be swapping roles at the end so that each student has an opportunity to be both.

When the pairs have done the role play twice, you could mix the pairs so that it can be repeated. In our experience this is the type of role play that students are quite happy to repeat, as they recognize its value and relevance.

listen to someone ordering a meal practise ordering a meal using natural phrases

role play a restaurant situation

1 b

exercise 2 1 b

exercise 3

Opening times

Pubs used to have strict opening hours - they weren't allowed to open before 10.30 a.m. and weren't allowed to stay open after 11 p.m., except in special circumstances, e.g. New Yeats Eve. These laws were relaxed in Scotland some and the same        As a

can you remember culture note bars and restaurants see p.42 In Britain generally, the distinction between a café, a pub, and a restaurant is exercise 1 becoming less apparent. This is largely due to three factors:


You can = it's possible; you can't = Ys not possible

exercise 4

2     you can read a paper in a café;

3     you can't watch TV in a restaurant;

4     you can't have coffee in a restaurant without eating;

5     you can meet friends in a bar;

6     you can have dinner in a restaurant; 7 you can't drink wine in a café.

exercise 5 see tapescript p.149

exercise 1 see tapescript p. 149

exercise 4 The woman orders the meal in picture 3. exercise 5 1 Do you want 2 What would you like exercise 6 another; some more exercise 7

She says another because a glass is countable; she says some more because water is uncountable.

exercise 8

1 some more

3 some more

5 some more

2 another

4 another

6 another

years ago has recently happened in England. result pubs no longer all open and close at the same time, and some (especially in city centres) now open much longer hours.

2     Facilities

Many pubs now offer restaurant-quality food, and this has resulted in some pubs having the appearance of a restaurant rather than a traditional pub, where people used to drink but not have a meal.

3     Children

In the past, pubs were almost exclusively for adults, and children under 16 were not allowed in (or occasionally at the age of 14 if accompanied by an adult).

This too is changing. Some pub landlords are happy for accompanied children of all ages to go into pub gardens, and some are relaxed about children in the pub, especially at lunchtimes and in certain areas Of the pub, but is at the landlords' discretion. They are not allowed to drink alcohol and must leave by 9.00 p.m.

language point will

Unless they are taught otherwise, most learners use the present simple in this situation, and many also use the wrong verb, e.g. I-take or The use here of the modal verb will with the verb have may therefore require a lot of reinforcement. The meaning is essentially I would like, but students simply need to know that in English we use I'll + have when we are ordering food.

language point British and American English

You will have to point out the following difference: British English            American English chips          fries


can you remember

What would you like?

Would you like (X) or (Y) with that?

What would you like to drink? Anything else?

Can I have (steak)?

Can I have another (glass of wine)? Can I have some more (water)? cnsps            chips / potato chips

Unfortunately this difference is made more confusing by the fact that fries is now increasingly being used in British hotels and restaurants, and in Europe, many crisp packets have 'chips' written on them.

ideas plus revision

Before students do the extended speaking activity on p.45, you could do a vocabulary revision activity for homework. Devise a wordsquare containing food vocabulary items from the unit, and give them a copy for homework. Give them also a blank grid, and students invent their own wordsquare including different food items (about 6-10). In the next lesson, check the answers to the one you gave. Then students swap grids with another student and solve their puzzle. If anyone hasn't done it, they can pair up with someone who has.

Want to               more? Go to how to encourage learner independenOkGjtit vword review) p. 158

extended speaking what's on the menu?             45—60 mins

ideastatk about; café you know pare a menu for ur own café

'Ole play ordering and wing food in your

• It is important at the beginning of this activity to let learners read the boxes at the top of the page which tell them what they are going to do in the lesson, or tell them yourself. This will enable them to get the whole picture. You should also give them time to look back at the can you remember boxes which appear in the unit.

collect ideas

• Exercise 1 is just a warmer, but if you feel your students have spent enough time talking about local cafés and snack bars, you could omit it.

For the extended speaking activity we would suggest that your students use the local currency as they will be familiar with the prices in their own country. See language point on the right.

prepare a menu

Students could work in pairs or small groups for this activity. Go through the instructions carefully and suggest that students write out all their ideas on a separate piece of paper for exercise 2, and only complete their menu (exercise 3) when everything is finalized and they can produce a very neat copy, which everyone will be able to read. Remember that each student will need a copy of their menu for the role play later. You could supply them with some blank card or coloured paper and pens to help them produce an attractive menu.

• Give students plenty of time for exercises 2 and 3. Some pairs may need several minutes to establish a bit of momentum; if necessary you could intervene and give a bit of help. Generally though, just move round and monitor their discussion, and note down examples of good language use as well as important errors for later feedback.

role play

When you are ready for the role play (exercise 4), you could try to organize the room so that it resembles a restaurant. Seat all the customers and then get waiters to move round the room. Make sure the waiters have their menus available.

If you want to extend the role play, you could move round the customers and feed in a few complaints for them to make to the waiters, e.g. they have brought the wrong sandwich; the soup is cold; the beer is warm; the coffee tastes horrible, etc. You could also extend the role for the waiters by suggesting an extra item on the menu that they should tell the customers about, e.g. a different type of soup, a new type of sandwich, additional drinks, etc.

At a certain point students can swap roles (exercise 5) so that they all have the opportunity to be both customer and waiter.

You could bring the class together for exercise 6 with some general discussion about the different features of the café each customer visited.


café culture

                                                                      five review              45 mins

language point currencies and plurals

Some currencies take a plural 's' in English, e.g. one dollar / ten dollars; one pound / five pounds. When the euro was launched, it started with a capital letter and the official plural was Euro (no However, corpus evidence now indicates a clear preference for one euro / ten euros.

In parts of Asia and Eastern Europe we tend not to pluralize currencies, e.g. five yen (Japanese); ten baht (Thailand), twenty zloty (Poland). The Czech and Slovak Republics, Denmark, and Norway all have koruna / krone which we wouldn't pluralize unless we translate them as crowns (in which case we would). You may need to check whether the currency your students will be using takes a plural 's' in English.

Note also that we say five euros fifty (not five euros

vocabulary food

• Give each student five minutes to work on their part of the crossword individually (exercise 1). You could then pair up A students so that they can check their answers together. Then pair up A and B students for exercise 2. Make sure they read their clues to their partner, so that the partner has a chance to answer. Don't let them just look at each other's crossword.

vocabulary food across:       2 bacon           5 Jam  7 piece 8 chips

                                                                                                                                                               9 beer                        13 potato                14 meals                                                                                                                                                 15 cream

16 cup down:        1 apple            2 bread           3 cheap           4 mce

                                                                                                                       5 juice             6 mushroom 9 butter                                                                                                                        10 bill

11 up     12 menu grammar can / can't (possibility)

• You could do this as a competition with a three-minute time limit (use it flexibly), or you could do it in stages using the board or a flipchart:

write down two things you could do in a then add restaurant. Students have a minute before you add the next thing (bookshop), and so on.

grammar can / can't

1 in a restaurant, you can eat a meal and drink wine; in a bookshop, you can look at books and buy books; in a hotel, you can sleep and have a meal. In most classes, you can't smoke and you can't eat or drink, and in some classes, you can't speak your own language; on a plane, you can't smoke or use a mobile phone or take a pair of scissors.

natural English

• Students could do exercise 1 in pairs to make it more communicative.

natural English

line 2 a piece of cake        line 4 can I have          line 6   all line 3 What kind of cake? line 5 Anything else?

grammar countable and uncountable nouns

test yourself!                           • There are two ways you could do this. One is to follow the instructions

  in the student's book with pairs writing down the time it takes them to test your vocabulary  complete each section (the scoring system makes it clear the number of

1 vanilla ice cream, chicken soup, strawberry tart, answers they have to find in each section). Or use the ideal timings  chicken / steak / fish and chips, a ham / cheese, given in the book and see how much pairs can accomplish in the time etc. sandwich (you shout out when they have to move on to the next section).

2     dirty, slow, uncomfortable, excellent / great, unfriendly         grammar countable and uncountable nouns

3     butter, cheese, coffee, soup, bread, sugar, toast tea, juice, butter, sugar, toast, jam, ham, cheese, soup, a roll, a sandwich, an            egg, a sausage, an apple, honey, a tomato, a mushroom, an onion,

gap-fill

 

a strawberry, an omelette

1 any                     2 piece                 3 some

4 kind

2 uncountable nouns: tea, juice, butter, sugar, toast, jam, ham, cheese, soup, honey

error correction

 

3 an egg, an apple, an onion, an omelette

-1 rd like some cheese.

 

4 butter /'bnta/, honey /'hAni/, mushroom /'mAJrum/, onion /'Anjan/

2 What do you have for the breakfast?

 

5 sausage /'SDS1d3/, omelette /'Dm11t/

3     1'll have steak and chips, please.

4     Can I have another glass of water, please?


six in unit six ...


reading a day out                             75-90 mins


reading a day out

(QCarnLÇð&buta

vocabulary tourist places

p.58

about tourist places

As a lead-in to the lesson, you could ask learners to think about the best tourist

wordbooster

focus on was / were

place in their area / country. What is it, and why is it so good? Students can

past time phrases

read and talk about a

then talk in small groups.

verb + noun

text about a tour guide

• The vocabulary in exercise 1 is self-explanatory, but the items do cause

collocation

talk about people and

pronunciation difficulties: the letters which are not pronounced in chutch,

p.60

places using natural

castle, squate, and fountain; word stress in cathedral and palace, and the

 

English phrases

underlined sounds in statue ltJ/, museum li:/, and palace 111. Students can work

listening

 

together and use dictionaries to check new words. If there arc other useful

how to talk

01k about a day out

items relevant to the context you are working in, e.g. temple, shrine, zoo, art

about last weekend

the past

gallery, etc., teach them. Make sure students get plenty of practice and correct

p.62

 

their pronunciation mistakes.

elp wit

 

Students should be able to work together in pairs (or groups of three) to think

pronunciation an

 

of different places for exercise 2. Elicit one or two local ones, then monitor the

listening

 

group work. Don't worry if students are unable to produce eight examples. See

pronunciation:

 

language point on the right.

sounds /o:/, /3:/, and ID/'

 

• Rearrange pairs to listen to each other's examples.

listening: prediction

 

grammar past simple was / were

Start by looking at the picture of the bus tour and ask students if they know

test yourself!

 

where Brighton is. (You can explain it is a town by the sea in the south of

p. 65

 

England which has a lot of tourists and is very popular.) See if pairs can complete the speech bubbles in exercise 1 before they listen. They may not complete all the gaps in the same way as the recording, but it will focus them on the meaning. If they ask about the meaning of was / were, say these are the past tense of be, but don't get too involved in the grammar as this comes up in

wordlist

 

the next exercise.

p.135

 

• Students can compare answers to exercise 2, then work alone or in pairs on

exercise 3. See ideas plus on the right.

• Exercise 4 is a discrimination exercise, which has been included because the weak forms /wazl, Iwaznt/, /wa/, and the strong form Iwa:nt/ are quite difficult to distinguish in connected speech. You could do one example first. Write the following on the board:

2

The student was / wasn't in the lesson yesterday.

Say one of the sentences, ask the students which one you said, and then circle it. Use the recording for the rest of the exercise. If students are having problems, encourage them to ask you to play it again. (You could refer them to the natural English box on p.13: asking for help.) When you go over the answers, contrast the pronunciation of any examples they got wrong, i.e. say both sentences, then isolate the pronunciation of both forms, e.g. Irzl, Iwaz]. For extra practice, ask different students to read a sentence aloud; the class has to say which verb they used. Students can then play this game in small groups. • In exercise 5, students need to know the names of other students in the class. If you have a large class of students who have joined recently, let students ask the names of anyone they don't know, or quickly write all the students' names on the board. Monitor the pair work, and when they have finished, rearrange the students for exercise 6. At the end. elicit a few questions for all the class to answer, and let students ask each other the questions they couldn't answer.


exercise 1

DI church             5 cathedral            9 palace

2    castle          6 bridge          10 fountain

3    statue             museum 4 square           8 market

exercise 1 see tapescript p.150

exercise 2 was, wasn't, were exercise 3 1 be

2     was; were; He was late yesterday; We were at school last Monday.

3     was; wasn't; I was a tour guide for two years; We weren't happy with the food - it was terrible.

exercise 4 see tapescript p. 150 language point definite and zero article

We don't think it is necessary to worry learners at this stage about when the article is / isn't used with place names. However, here are a few guidelines:

-
use the for most museums, galleries, statues and individual landmarks, e.g. The British Museum, The Louvre, The Statue of Liberty, The Sphynx.

- no article is needed with most churches / cathedrals, squares or bridges, e.g. St Anne's Church, Milan Cathedral, Times Square, Charles Bridge.

- some places are less consistent, e.g. Buckingham Palace but The Palace of Versailles. Markets don't usually have the article when they have a specific name,

e.g. Portobello Market; but may require an article if the market only refers to the type of market it is, e.g. The Flower Market.

ideas plus an analytical approach to grammar

In exercises 2 and 3, learners are encouraged to think about grammar and work out the rules from the examples in exercise 1. To do this they have to make hypotheses about language and notice how the grammar is structured. It is an approach that many adult learners find challenging and more memorable, and in this case they also create a written record of the rules themselves.

If your learners are not used to working in this way, approach it gently, and go through the questions together. You can also put a table on the board for students to complete with was / were / wasn't / weren't:

negative

I / He /                                         I/ He /

She / It                                           late yesterday. She / It                                      there yesterday.


we / You / They

they late yesterday? he

teacher's book


We / You / They

Yes, they

/ No, they

Yes, he

/ No, he

read on

       Refer students to the picture of Matthew on the bus, teach tour guide, and ask where there are tour guides (in tourist buses or on excursions). Then check students understand the phrases, e.g. knows a lot (more common than the adjective knowledgable), looks nice and speaks useful languages. Funny is an essential word for this text because Matthew is funny, and this would be a good point to teach joke, which comes up in the article. Get students to compare answers with others.

       Although the answer to exercise 2 is subjective, he obviously fulfills the criteria in exercise 1. You could ask students to decide which criteria are true of Matthew. (The only one we don't know is whether he speaks different languages.)

Exercise 3 is a text search activity; students can compare answers on this.

       For exercise 4, which gives students a chance to react to the content, give them time to think. Monitor the group work, and make notes on any phrases you could teach / go over afterwards, e.g. you can / can't make a lot ofmoney, you meet people, it's not hard work, you learn a lot, etc.

       Both is a very high-frequency word and not one that learners pick up early in their learning. AL this stage, the word order with both is simple as students are only using examples with be in present and past forms. Play recording 6.4 in exercise 5, and focus on the pronunciation of both. Give oral practice.

       After the text search in exercise 6, move on to the puzzle in exercise 7. Students can do this orally or in writing. In feedback, check they are using the correct form of be. See ideas plus on the right.

speaking it's your turn!

       Students are being asked here to produce quite a long chunk of personalized language. This is challenging although the framework in exercise 1 will help them to produce a coherent and logicallyordered piece of discourse. Give them time to think of a day out, and if any are having difficulty, help them with some ideas, e.g. a day in town. See troubleshooting on the right.

       You could ask students to rehearse what they are going to say in their heads in English before they speak to a partner (exercise 2). This activity can be done in pairs as an interview, but it can also be done largely as a monologue, with the listener occasionally asking a question. Do it once in pairs as a rehearsal, then get students on their feet, talking to different people. You could ask them to listen and decide which is the best day out. Meanwhile, monitor and make notes for feedback at the end. Find out which weekend people liked best, and give praise for good language use.

wordbooster                                    30—45 mins

past time phrases

      Pairs can compare their answers to exercise 1. They will probably understand most of the phrases, but you may need to clarify the concept of ago = before now, e.g. (Saturday) was three days ago. Although they will recognize the phrases, most learners use them very inaccurately, so it is important to spend time on them. See also workbook, expand your grammar p.33. and six review on p.54. See ideas plus on the right.

      For exercise 2, give students thinking time. You could also do this as a mingling exercise. They ask each other, either to find someone with three similar answers, or someone with three different answers.

verb + noun collocation

Students can match the verbs and nouns in exercise 1, or you could prepare word cards for pairs to do the matching activity — this makes it more of a game. See language point on the right.

When you have checked the answers to exercises 1 and 2, tell pairs to cover the words and try to remember the phrases together using only the pictures. Or give them two minutes to memorize the phrases, then shut their books and, with a partner, write down as many phrases as they can remember. Less confident students can cover the right-hand column and try to remember the collocates from the verb prompts. Give examples of your own for exercise 3. Students can do this exercise orally or write some sentences. Monitor and correct errors, then put students in groups to exchange information.


exercise 2 yes

exercise 3

 

1 Matthew

4 Charlie Chaplin and Cary Grant

2 Ho Chi Minh

5 Queen Anne

3 Nelson and Napoleon

6 Clare

exercise 5 see tapescript p.150

exercise 7

Paul McCartney and John Lennon were both (in the) Beatles.

Halle Berry and Al Pacino are both American / actors.

Chianti and sake are both alcoholic drinks.

Pele and Maradona were both footballers / are both South American.

The Louvre and the Prado are both museums.

Stalin and Lenin were both Russian.

Nelson and Napoleon were both short.

Donald Duck and Mickey Mouse are both Disney cartoon characters.

ideas plus adapting the material

For many learners, the people and things in the wordpool will be familiar. However, if you think your students may struggle to produce sentences, you could give them some key words on the board, e.g. food / drinks / cartoon characters. You coutd also make up your own wordpool to produce items that will have local significance for your learners, e.g. use local actors / drinks / food, etc. Finally, as a revision activity, you could ask students to make up their own wordpools in pairs. Give them prompts: food, drinks, actors, places, sports people, and famous people from history (you need a few of these to practise were). Monitor as they produce their wordpools, making sure they spread the pairs randomly on a sheet of paper. Then each pair swaps with another pair, and has two minutes to write correct sentences. Return the sheets to the original pair for them to correct.


Spaghetti and lasagne are both food / pasta / Italian.

tan you remember vocabulary p. 47

exercise 1 yesterday morning / afternoon / evening last night / week / month / year a few days / a week / ten days ago in 1998 / 2005

exercise 1 and exercise 2 go for a walk (10); wash the car (7); go shopping (1); stay at home (3); do homework (4); go out with friends (11); play cards (6); meet a friend for a drink (5); clean the flat (8); go to a party (2); do nothing (9)

troubleshooting making notes

Many students like to make a few notes: it focuses their thoughts, and gives them a chance to plan what to say in English. However, discourage them from writing complete sentences, or the speaking activity will lack spontaneity. Demonstrate by making a few notes on the board; use the questions in exercise 1 as a framework. Talk through the notes as you write, and keep to simple words / phrases, not sentences. Give students time to make notes, and check that they are doing so effectively. At this point, help them with any vocabulary they need. When they talk to a partner in exercise 2, they should be able to manage without notes, or if they then mingle, and do the exercise again, they shouldn't look at their notes.

ideas plus timelines

Draw a timeline on the board with some dates on for students to copy:

write last write last write yesterdays write today's year, eg. 2005 month, e.g. March date date Pairs can then discuss where all the time expressions should go (i.e. yesterday morning, o few days ago, etc). While they are doing this, they will be using the phrases, and that provides additional practice. Ask students to come up and write a phrase on the line, then check all the answers at the end. They can copy the phrases onto their own line.

language point verb + noun collocation

Some of the collocations may require some checking:

- go for a walk: this means a short walk, e.g. an hour, not a days walk.

- go shopping: NOT ee-tø-shopping

- stay at home: NOT stay-in-home The opposite of stay at home is go out.

— do nothing: this often means relax (at home).

- meet sb. for a drink: here, meet means get together with sb.

— do homework: homework is uncountable, so NOT homewoçks. Also, students may think this means housework.


listening how

'skand ååswer àb the weekend using Inatural English phrases

    to talk about last weekend               60—75 mins

lead-in

      For exercise 1, tell the class your favourite day and put them in groups to do the same.

      Exercise 2 can be done by a process of elimination. See Language point on the right.

      Play recording 6.5, then get learners to practise the dialogues in the same way (exercise 3). After that they can mingle and ask others about their weekend.

grammar past simple regular and irregular verbs

       If your students are not familiar with 'weblogs' in exercise 1, tell the class more about them. See culture note on the right. TO put the weblogs in context, ask the students in pairs to describe the pictures.

       Exercise 2 allows for a quick reaction to the texts, but try to get learners to give reasons.

Look at the examples in exercise 3 so that learners realize that regular verbs can add -ed or just -d.

       Exercise 4 highlights the additional syllable in the past tense with regular verbs ending in tor d, e.g. wanted and decided. Students are also often taught the difference between past tense endings pronounced 'd/ or It', e.g. cleaned Ikli:nd/ vs liked /latkt/. In our experience this is seldom a problem, although learners sometimes cannot hear past tense endings in connected speech. For example:

      a) I clean them I b) I cleaned them                                 a) I like them / b) I liked them

You really don't need to worry about these differences; even native speakers often only realize it is a past tense through their understanding of the context.

Exercise 5 concentrates on irregular forms. Three (bought, saw, thought) include the sound /o:l, and it is worth focusing on this as it comes up again in the next help with pronunciation.

Advise students to keep a section of their notebooks for irregular past tenses, and add more as they encounter them. For the test your partner activity which follows, though, remember that this is the first time learners have met regular and irregular verbs together, so don't expect 100% accuracy .

       Exercises 6 and 7 both provide further consolidation and practice of the past simple tense.

listen to this

      Exercise 1 gives a taste of the two recordings which follow, and gives students a chance to tune in to the voice and the content: an account of their last weekend which recycles the past simple.

      When you are confident the students have understood the beginnings of the recordings, go on to exercise 2 (check the answers), and then exercise 3. Move round and monitor to make sure their sentences are correct. At the end, elicit sentences from most pairs. Who got the most?

      exercise 4 is a third account of someone's weekend, only this time students do not have the support provided by an incomplete diary: they must listen and decide what is relevant.

      The responses in the natural English box are very important. See language point on the right.

speaking iYs your turn!

• Give learners time to compose their thoughts in exercise 1. They could look back at the weblogs and tapescripts 6.7 and 6.8 to pick out useful language. Move round and help where necessary, and move on to exercise 2 when you feel they are ready. Stay in the background but take notes for later feedback.

writing

• Students could do this in class or at home, and once again, use the weblogs to help them. See also ideas plus on the right.

focus on regular and Frregular verbs

isten to people talking; bout their weekend âalk to other people About your weekend

)write a weblog about

'your weekend


exercise 2 1 b      4 d

exercise 1

Il I had a lovely weekend.

The children loved it.

My weekend was 0K but a bit boring. That was a bit boring too.

exercise 3

+ ed: wanted, played, watched, stayed, washed

+ d: loved, decided

exercise 5 .had, bought, went, saw, got, thought, did, met

exercise 6

 

Il had

5 stayed; watched

•2 wanted

6 thought

bought

7 decided; washed

4 went; saw

8 met

exercise 1 yes

exercise 2

Wigt: Saturday evening: went to a party at her sister's. Sunday morning: 1 went for a walk 2 met of her sister's friends for lunch

Saturday: stayed at home. Sunday: 1 watched his son playing football. 2 watched a film.

aercise 3 see tapescript p. 150

exercise 4

Federay•. went to the cinema; the film was lovely.

an you remember was / were. had, did, decided, went, bought, met, got

language point not and a bit

One very common feature of spoken English which is illustrated here is the use of a negative (not) with a positive adjective (very interesting), and a bit with a negative adjective (boring). Native speakers often use these combinations when they want to express a fairly negative opinion of something:

What was it like?                      Not very good / nice. A bit boring / slow.

culture note weblogs

There are websites on the Internet where ordinary people - they don't have to be famous - can write about anything they like. This may be something quite obscure but is just as likely to be a very mundane topic such as a typical day in their life or what they did last weekend.

These websites print material in a wide range of languages Gust click on the country you want to access), and if you would like to see what they are like, in English or your own language, try this website: www.blogqers.com

Your elementary students will find the English entries too difficult for their level, but some of the weblogs in English would make very interesting reading material for higher level learners.

language point learning to respond

Learners at this level, and higher levels too, need to be constantly reminded that providing feedback as a listener is a fundamental part of communication, and without it the speaker may be puzzled or even annoyed. The basic problem seems to be that low-level learners are concentrating so hard on trying to understand the incoming message that they sometimes forget responses that they would make instinctively in their mother tongue. In English, yeah and right are probably the two most common ways of doing this, and you should try to get learners into the habit of using these basic responses, not forgetting either the importance of maintaining eye contact as a listener.

ideas plus class weblog

You could set up your own class weblog in different ways: create your own Internet website where students can write weblogs: create a document on a school computer which students can contribute to; bring in a large class diary which students can write in.

Learners could write a weblog each week, or whenever they want. Even those who don't write much will probably be keen to read what others have written.


               help with pronunciation and listening              30—45 mins

pronunciation sounds /o:/, /3:/, and ID/

     Students have already had several past tenses with the 13:1 sound, e.g. bought and saw, but the contrast here with 13:1 is a common problem for some learners. The back Of the tongue is more raised for the 13•./ sound and the lips are more rounded; for the /g:/ sound, the lips are more neutral and relaxed.

     When you have checked exercise 1 and drilled the pronunciation round the class, put learners into pairs. GO through the example for exercise 2 carefully, then let them work together. Move round and monitor, then play recording 6.9 (exercise 3), so they can check their answers and practise orally.  Exercise 4 provides further consolidation.

exercise 1

exercise 2 1 August

exercise 4

/D/ Thursday what first want shops coffee


listening prediction (I)

     Prediction is a key skill in listening and often used in one's mother tongue. In a foreign language though. some learners concentrate so hard on trying to understand the individual words that they sometimes overlook this important skill.

     Start by getting learners to do a prediction exercise. See ideas plus on the right.

     Explain the situation in exercise 1 very clearly. If you have used ideas plus, you could ask the learners for an example rather than showing them the one in the book. They can then work in pairs and you can write their ideas on the board. Play recording 6.10 (exercise 2). If the correct answer is one they have predicted, they should get the answer easily because they will be expecting it. And this is the key to prediction: the more students can predict successfully, the easier listening becomes. The converse, however, is equally true: if students find it difficult to predict successfully — this may happen for cultural reasons — listening is more difficult.

     Continue with exercise 3. If exercise 1 was difficult, elicit another example before the pair-work.

     Exercise 4 introduces a new situation which is less predictable. In other words, students may have to think of a wider range of possible problems in order to include the correct answer in this case. When students do exercise 5, it would be interesting to see whether their ability to predict the correct answer contributed to their understanding of the recording.

     The natural English (exercise 6) box highlights high-frequency phrases used in tapescripts 6.10, 6.11 and 6.12. See if students can first complete the dialogue correctly, then let them use the tapescripts to check their answers. Afterwards they can practise with a partner. Monitor their pronunciation and make sure they say /wAri/ and not /wori/.

exercise 2 His train was late. exercise 3 There were no taxis.

exercise 5 There were lots of people in the shops; she didn't have her credit card. exercise 6 see tapescripts p. 150    

                                                                        six review             45 mins

ideas plus prediction

Tc tune (earners in to the idea of prediction, divide the class in half and write these sentences on the board:

The restaurant last night was terrible.

Our holiday in Spain was fantastic (choose a different country if you work in Spain).

Tell the class that each sentence is the opening remark made to them by a friend. What do they think their friend is going to say next? Ask one half (in pairs) to write down ideas for the first sentence, white the other half do the same for the second. After several minutes, ask each half to shout out their ideas. Write them on the board. Do the other hatf agree? You should end up with two lists which contain some / all of these predictions (plus others):

Restaurant     Holiday food wasn't good      great weather service was slow      excellent hotel / villa possibly too expensive           good food too crowded / noisy /       not expensive full Of smoke            friendly people; lots to do not enough room            and see

grammar past simple and past time phrases

Elicit a couple of examples for exercise 1, then monitor and help While students are writing, and supply vocabulary if necessary. You Can remind students where the irregular verb list on p.158 is in case they want to refer to it.

Demonstrate what to do in exercise 2 by supplying a few sentence endings of your own and ask students to guess the time phase; then put them in pairs. Student B can look at the time phrases in exercise 1 if they need to.

vocabulary past time phrases, verb + noun collocation

This exercise collects together a number of common errors. Let students work alone or together. You could suggest at the end that they minute to check their answers in the wordbooster on p.50, then go through the answers together.

vocabulary past time phrases, verb + noun collocation

1 evening 3 last week 5 at 7 go shopping 2 a few days ago 4 in 6 do 8 went home natural English

• Once they have finished exercises 1 and 2, students could practiSe the dialogues in pairs until they can say them without looking.

grammar past simple verbs

Make it clear students have to choose any nine past tense forms for their grid in exercise 1. Check they are filling them in correctly, and if they make a mistake, refer them to the irregular verb list on p.158 to correct themselves.

When students are ready, explain how to play the game. Demonstrate on the board with an example (write up a few past tenses, then call out the infinitive form of one of the verbs, and cross out the past tense form, or ask a student to). Tell them to shout 'BINGO' when they have crossed out nine. Read out the infinitive forms in random order until someone calls 'BINGO', then ask them to read their past tenses aloud to

test yourself!                         check.

• Arrange small groups of four or five for exercise 4, nominate a bingo test your vocabulary caller and tell students to draw up a new grid to complete. castle, palace, cathedral, market, church, bridge,

museum r2 last night, a week ago, in 2000, yesterday evening possible answers: go out with friends, play cards, wash the car, go shopping, stay at home, go for a walk

!gap-fill

    we               2 both               3 went              4 ago

error correction

1                    1 did a lot of homework last night.

2                    We decided to stay at home yesterday.

3                    Were you late for school this morning? 04 She bought the car in 2004.


in unit sevenreading biographies   75—90 mins

vocabulary life story

You could begin by pre-teaching was born. Tell the class where / when you were born, e.g. Iwas born in a town near Milan; I was born in 1980. Highlight the form and the pronunciation Iwaz/. Students can then make sentences about themselves. If you think anyonc would be sensitive about saying when they were born, don't ask them. Then go on to exercise 1. using the pictures to help with the meaning of some of the phrases in the box. There are a few new verbs here, but students will be able to complete most sentences by a process Of elimination, as they are in a predictable chronological order. See ideas plus on the right.

Use the recording in exercise 2, or supply the answers yourself. In any case, give students an oral model, drill the past forms, then get them to practise in pairs. A test your partner activity would be suitable here: student A says a sentence beginning and student B (whose book is shut) completes it. Monitor and correct common errors, e.g.

and the pronunciation of grew(up) lgru:/, became lbl'kelm/, and wvrked /wa:kt/.

    test yourself!   • Exercise 3 focuses on the infinitive forms of the verbs in exercise 1. As part of

p.73                                                                                      learner training, you could ask students to write the infinitives and past forms in a list in a section set aside for this (sce unit 6 p.62). Remind them about the irregular verb list on p.158.


wordlist p. 136

grammar past simple negatives

     Students focus on The negative form of the past simple in exercise 1, in a dialogue which relates back to the vocabulary in the previous section. If you think your students need more support, ask them to look at the sequence on

p.55 and tick the verbs they hear, i.e. be born, grow up, leave school. go to university. Then play the recording again for students to complete the gaps. They haven't come across didn't before, but they should be able to pick it up as it is repeated several times. Monitor to see how they are coping, then replay the recording as necessary before they compare and check in exercise 2. Go over the answers at the end, and write didn't leave and didn't go on the board. Highlight didn't + verb, NOT •—pas4--4Æ-p4-e. See language point on the right.

     The forms are consolidated in exercise 3; go over the answers quickly. Use the board so that students can check their spelling.

     Exercise 4 is a past simple negative drill done in pairs, which practises listening and transformations. The aim is to help automaticity. Demonstrate the first example with a student in front of thc class, then organize pairs facing each other, and make it clear they mustn't look at each other's books: they have to listen and transform the Sentences.

     Give students time to think about their answers to exercise 5. Point out they will need to use positive and negative forms, and demonstrate by talking about your own life. fry to include examples with more information to extend the speaking. Students will be focusing on past tense questions later in the lesson, so don't get them to ask each other qucstions at this point.

all in the ast


exercise 1

2 in a small village

6 in a school in Scotland

3 school at 18

to an engineer

4 to university

8 a baby

5 a teacher exercise 3 grow / grew up; leave / left; go / went; become / became; work / worked; get / got; have / had

ideas plus processes

Learning words and phrases in sets of sequences or processes is useful in a number of ways. A logical sequence (such as a life story) can make it easier for students to understand new items, as the chronological order helps with meaning. Secondly, it is much easier to memorize a coherent and recognizable sequence than a random list of items: learners can relate it to their lives, and they have a ready-made written record. Thirdly, it is useful for testing and practising (for example, you can provide the phrases jumbled for students to put in order). Each learner can then rehearse a sequence of phrases, which provides volume of practice.

As they progress, there are many sequences and processes that students can learn like this. In unit 4, students learnt a sequence of daily routines. They can also learn vocabulary in processes such as buying clothes, making a drink or a dish, making a phone call, writing a letter, getting ready to go out, etc.


exercise 1 •see tapescript p. 150 exercise 3

You didn't want it; He didn't get the job; She didn't buy the book; We didn't go there yesterday; They didn't do it.

exercise 4

•1 1 didn't see her yesterday.

5

He didn't work on Sunday.

2 She didn't become a doctor.

6

They didn't go to school.

3 We didn't leave early.

 

She didn't have chicken for dinner.

4 They didn't buy a new car.

8

They didn't get married.

1 1 didn't get to work late.

5

She didn't do her homework.

We didn't have lunch in the park.

6

She didn't grow up in Paris.

They didn't want to go.

 

He didn't go to the cinema last night.

4 He didn't meet me at the station.

8

I didn't clean the flat yesterday.

language point did / didn't

The past simple negative form is quite straightforward: didn't + verb. There are no irregular forms or -d / —ed endings to worry about or pronunciation issues, and the forms are the same for all persons. However, some learners tend to simplify the forms,    / and the auxiliary verb do (does / did) simply doesn't spring to mind. For this reason, you may need to highlight and practise question forms extensively.

Did is clearly a past time marker in questions (Oid you see her yesterday?) and negatives (We didn't do it), but it is only used in the positive form for emphasis, e.g. I'm sure I did turn that light off. Steven Pinker in 'The Language Instinct' (Penguin 1994) suggests that 'the past tense ending -ed may have evolved from the verb do: He hammered was originally something tike He hammer did.' This may not help elementary learners, but it is interesting for teachers to know.


                                           read on

       Exercise 1 aims to activate students' knowledge of the topic to help prediction and motivation. Most will have heard of Harry Potter, but may know little about the author. See ideas plus on the right.  The task in exercise 2 encourages learners to read for gist understanding. You could set a time limit, e.g. a minute and a half, then let students compare answers.

       Exercise 3 further checks understanding of the text. In feedback, ask students to give reasons for their answers, e.g. I was born in 1965 — this is true: the text says J K Rowling was born near Bristol in 1965.  Throughout the lesson reading skills and language work are integrated: exercises 1, 2, and 3 are skillsfocused, while exercises 4, 5, and 6 are language-focuscd but rely on the context of the article. Focus on the examples in the natural English box (exercise 5). Write them on the board, and then check understanding, e.g. you could also ask students to plot the sentences on a timeline. Focus on afterthgl: show with arrows on the board that that refers back to went shopping. Point out the punctuation: two sentences are linked with a full stop and capital letter for the link work / phrase, but two are linked by comma + and. Practisc the sentences in the natural English box orally.

       When you have checked the answers to exercise 6, students can practise in pairs: A says a sentence, e.g.

I sold my computer, and then I bought a laptop; B uses a different linker, e.g. I sold my computer. After that, I grammar past simple questions

*       Go over the answers to exercise 1, and highlight the form: did + verb, not did

*       Students could do exercise 2 together. Monitor and see if they have understood the was I were and did.

*       Students won't be able to answer all the questions in exercise 3, but they will find out the rest of the answers in exercises 4 and 5 in an information gap reading activity in pairs. At this point, however, they can only tell you the answers to questions 2, 5, 6, 9, and 12.

*       For exercise 4 make sure students don't look at their partner's text. When they have finished they need to check which questions they can now answer. Go over the answers together.

speaking it's your turn!

*       This gives learners the opportunity to use the simple past in a personalized way. For exercise 1, students could ask you the questions, and you can check accuracy, especially in the follow-up questions, e.g. Did you go on holiday? Expand on your answers to provide a model for the students to follow. At the end, give pairs a minute to think of questions to ask you. For variety, do exercise 2 as a mingling activity. Monitor and make notes on good language use, and give feedback using the board. Listen for any interesting experiences that students could tell the class. See ideas plus on the right.

          wordbooster                30—45 mins

appearance

      Some elementary students will know some items in exercise 1, but they may make errors with the verb form have got. For others, there may be a lot of new language. They can work in pairs, but demonstrate first with some cxarnples. See ideas plus on the right.

      In exercise 2, focus on word stress in the longer words and the silent r in dark, hair, short, and beard.

      In exercise 3, students will already know very, but quite is likely to be new. After checking understanding through the pictures, focus on the pronunciation of quite Ikwatt/.

      In exercise 4, make it clear that they mustn't write the students' names. Monitor, correct, and help with vocabulary. You could pin the texts on the wall and let students read them and identify the descriptions.

character

     Students will need some of the vocabulary in exercise 1 in the next lesson (describing teachers). Go over the answers together, and drill the pronunciation of the items. For more work on vocabulary connected with character and appearance, see workbook, expand your vocabulary p.38.

     Exercises 2 and 3 provide an opportunity for learners to give their opinions. Do one example together. and encourage them to think of examples or reasons for their opinions. See ideas plus on the right.

                                                                                        1                                                                  e                                                                           s

ideas plus biographies

The Internet is a great source for biographies of famous people and useful reading material for your learners. Now that they have some basic vocabulary describing stages in people's lives, and studied the past simple, they may be able to follow some simple biographies of people who interest them. (If they know some of the facts already, it will encourage them to read and make the task easier.) Go to www.biography.com. where there are 25,000 biographies of people from many different countries.

exercise 2 Three: she worked for Amnesty International; she taught English, and French.

exercise 3

1     yes  3 yes (some students may not be sure)          5 yes

2     no  6 yes    8 yes

exercise 4 was; wrote; grew up; left; went; had; met; got married; came back; did; became; sold; made

exercise 5

She went to Exeter University. After that, she moved to London. She also did a teaching course and then became a French teacher. exercise 6 possible answers

Ifinished my homework; and then / after that, I went fór a walk.

I worked in Poland for a year, and then / after that, I went to Korea.

We got married six months ago, and then / after that, we bought a flat.

We played computer games, and then / after that, we went out for a drink.

exercise 1                                                                                                        exercise 4

Did she go to university? Yes, she did. Where did she get married?         Student A can answer these questions:

She got married in Portugal. 3 French 8 She knew a family called Potter Wasshe a teacher? Yes, she-was. Were they happy? No, they weren't. 10 Yes — to a doctor called Neil exercise 2        Student B can answer these questions: 1 is 4 did 7 did 10 Did 1 Joanne 4 two years

2 Did 5 Was 8 did 11 Did / Does 7 because her sister lived there did 6 did 9 did 12 does 11 Yes - a boy called David, and a girl called MacKenzie.

ideas plus writing

Students could write a short personal biography for homework using the vocabulary on p.55. To begin with, suggest a structure which they can use to talk to a partner: when / where they were born, where they grew up and went to school, when they left school, etc. If your students are still at secondary school, you might ask them to include information about their family, which different schools they went to; where they travelled to and when, etc.

can you remember

They didn't want to see me. Did they want to see me?

Why did they want to see me?

Did she get married last year? When did she get married? She didn't get married last year.

Where did he have dinner? He didn't have dinner at ndds. Did he have dinner at Nando's?

 

ideas plus class descriptions

Instead of the texts in exercise 1, you could write similar descriptions about students in your class, using the vocabulary in the section (but not including fat to avoid offence). Underline the key vocabulary, and make copies for the students. They can use dictionaries if necessary. Then use the table in exercise 1. If you do this activity, you will need to adapt exercises 4 and 5, or it will be too repetitive. For freer practice, students in pairs could write about two people in the class, saying what they have / don't have in common, e.g. X and Y have got quite long hair, but X has got dark hair and Y has got blonde hair. They're both attractive. They can then swap their descriptions with another pair to read and identify.

 

ideas plus student questionnaire

Ask students in their groups to make up questions of their own on similar lines to exercise 2. You could suggest some prompts, e.g. models, artists, actors, or whatever is relevant to your teaching context. They can look up different professions in dictionaries and even different adjectives (but they might have to explain these). Each group should write out three or four questions, talk about their own answers, then give them to another group to discuss. Do they agree?


listening

'talk tð Jphotos you possess ifocus on object {pronouns 'describe other people using natural English phrases Âisten people talkin about a teacher from itheir past

(talk to other people (about one of your old iteachers

how to . . . talk about people you know 60-75 mins

lead-in

      If you can bring in either a photo album with pictures of family and I or friends, or better still photosof you as a baby / child (students will love this), this would be a stimulating way to introduce the student discussion, as well as providing motivating listening practice.

grammar object pronouns

      There are certain predictable problems with Object pronouns. See language point on the right.

      Let students look at the photos before exercise 1. If they need extra support, let them listen once to see who the people are, then again to complete the sentences. Check the answers and make sure that students can hear exactly how the different pronouns are pronounced.

When you go over the answers to exercise 2, you could write several complete sentences on the board to put subject and object pronouns clearly in context. For example:

              He told me yesterday       She met them at the station.        We found it in the park.

     


As some of these pronouns can be quite difficult to hear, exercise 3 provides further listening practice. Afterwards, go through the example clearly in exercise 4, and if necessary, do the first one together before students complete it themselves. Check the answers before they do exercise 5 in pairs. You can use the language reference and practice exercises now or later.

      The natural English box introduces: What's he / she like? to enquire about character and I or appearance. We use What does he / she look like? to ask about someone's appearance. At this stage the latter question is best avoided, as students may get confused.

      In the further practice (exercise 7), listen to the pairs and help with any specific vocabulary needs.

listen to this

      The photos show four subjects being taught, but you can teach more. See ideas plus on the right.

      Elicit the answers to exercise 1. Exercise 2 invites them to predict the opening to the listening — following on from the focus on prediction in the previous unit — and in this case there is a fairly predictable discourse structure that learners should recognize, i.e. starting with the teacher's name and the subject. If these two are not predicted, it may indicate a difference in the discourse structure between English and their Ll. which could make prediction quite difficult. If so, you will need to give more support to your students in pre-listening activities. Play recording 7.7 for students to see if their predictions are confirmed.

      Give students time to read through the sentences in exercise 4 then play the recording. Play it again if necessary and check the answers before Glen's story. Finally move on to the listening challenge (exercise 5). By this stage students will be familiar with the interview format.

      The language in the natural EngHsh box has appeared several times in the previous two tapescripts, so students shouldn't find the task difficult. You can highlight the fact that the 't' in last is not pronounced, and they will sound more natural if they do the same. They can search for more examples in 7.7 and

7.8 (exercise 6) to consolidate their understanding, before practising the language in exercise 7.

speaking it's your turn!

      If your students all know each other well, see troubleshooting on the right.

      The students shouldn't need too much time or help with exercise 1 as the previous listening gave them several clear models. Move round and help learners while they prepare.

      When students mingle for exercise 2, they should use the first question to start the interview, and then select from the others if their partner doesn't give them the relevant information. You could interview a strong student yourself to provide them with a model.

      While they are talking, make notes, and at the end bring the class together for feedback on their findings,

e.g. Which character adjectives were used a lot to talk about teachers? Were there any funny stories to share? Finish with language feedback, balancing correction with examples of good language use.

exercise 2

 

 

T/ me you / you he / him exercise.3

she / her

they / them

1 it                  3 us

5 me

7 you

2 him 4 them exercise 4

6 her

 

1 it                  3 him

5 it us

7 it

       them              4 them

6 her

8 them

'exercise 1 see tapescript p. 151

exercise 6 see tapescript p.151

exercise 1 '1 geography 2 music

language point object pronouns

These are some of the problems your learners may have:

      In some languages object pronouns are not used, resulting in this common error:

A        Is the food OK?

B        Yes, I like. (like it)

— Subject and object pronouns may be the same in the students' mother tongue, or they are simply confused:

     1 saw they.         I don't like she.

-    There may be differences in word order, with the object pronoun coming before the verb in the students' mother tongue:

She me asked.

-    Finally, there is the difficulty of hearing certain object pronouns at the end of sentences, especially when the 'h' is omitted from him 11m/, her /3:/, or with the weak form of them /öam/. Exercise 3 highlights this problem and provides additional listening practice.


ideas plus extra vocabulary

drama                      4 maths                                                        Opportunities sometimes arise to teach additional


exercise 2

 

 

vocabulary; this may be the right moment

The teachefS name and the subject he taught.

 

 

further school or university subjects as students may

exercise 4

 

 

need some of them in speaking it's your turn! later.

Lynnds teacher:

 

 

Taking your cue from the photos in the

'1 geography                                  3 sìrict

g

didn:t tike her

book, bring more pictures or diagrams to class which

2 wasn't attractive             4 threeyears

 

 

illustrate other subjects, e.g. a photo of a battle

•Glen's teacher:

 

 

(history), a photo of different composers (music), someone painting (art), a graph showing inflation or

-3       funny

-4       four or five

5

liked her (very much)

interest rates (economics), sentences in a foreign language (e.g. German), and so on. Make

exercise 5

 

 

photocopies, then see if pairs or groups of students

Juliets teacher: (accept any of these, but students Will probably not get all ofthem)

can identify the subjects. Many are similar in

she talks about her English teacher, Grace Benn; she was serious, clever, interesting;

different languages, so the main focus may, in fact,

•Juliet was scared of her because she was strict. She Was her teacher for two years.

be pronunciation.

to teach


She last saw her 25 years ago. exercise 6 tapescript p.151

an you remember ...7 works near me / you / him / her / it / us / them

troubleshooting adapting material

If your students are likely to choose teachers who may be your colleagues, both you and they might find this a rather sensitive subject to discuss. Equally, if the students are the same age and know each other well, they might choose teachers who everyone knows - in this case the activity won't be as successful.

If either of these situations apply in your teaching context, you could extend the the idea of a 'teacher' to include anyone who has given some form of tuition or training in the past, e.g. a football coach, a scout leader, etc. If learners think more laterally, they should be able to choose someone who is neither your colleague nor someone that the other students will all know.

extended speaking people from your past          45—60 mins

ideas nswer questions about Id friends

nterview a partner bout their friend your partnds storya

@rite your own story

It is important at the beginning of this activity to let learners read the boxes at the top of the page which tell them what they are going to do in the lesson, or tell them yourself. This will enable them to get the whole picture. You should also give them time to look back at the can you remember boxes which appear in the unit.

collect ideas

• This first section provides learners with a framework which will help them when they come to do the extended speaking activity. Exercise 1 is an opportunity to recycle language from the wordbooster, while exercises 2 and 3 test students on a text which gives them a model for the activity. After checking the answer to exercise 2, see if students can explain thc meaning of go out with sb be boyfriend and girlfriend) and heartbroken very sad). Both items are guessable from the context and not difficult for learners to paraphrase. While the pairs work on exercise 3, move round and monitor.

prepare an interview

• As the interview is designed to practise the past simple (among other things), make sure the students choose someone they don't see now (exercise 4). When they have chosen someone, their partner can start working on relevant questions to ask them. Allow plenty of time for exercise 5 and move round to check that everyone has a wide range of questions to ask. Most will use the prompts to form questions, but do encourage learners to think up other questions as well.

interview

• When everyone is ready, the pairs can interview each other (exercise 6). There may be quite a lot to remember for exercise 7, so you could let learners scribble down a few key facts (but not complete sentences). When they have finished, they can move on to exercise 7; they should obviously correct any information that their partner gets wrong, or add any important information they have omitted / forgotten. Monitor throughout these stages, and again in exercise 8, making notes for feedback later (language and content).

tell a story

• When you are satisfied everyone is very familiar with their partner's story, move on to exercise 8. Bring the activity to a close while it still has momentum, i.e. don't let one pair carry on if everyone else has finished, and finish with some class feedback on both content and language use. The content might involve you asking students for more information about particular people, while the language feedback should include important error correction as well as positive language use. It is important for learners to go away feeling encouraged by their efforts and the fact that (given their level) they have sustained a conversation.

writing

 Students could do the writing (exercise 9) in class or at home (probably depending on available time) but it would be nice to put the stories on the classroom wall or noticeboard for others to read. You could also ask them to guess who wrote each story, and who they were describing (i.e. the student in class whose friend it was).


seven review                                                45 mins

vocabulary appearance

     Exercise Ion p.62 provides learners with a model for the activity they do afterwards. Go through the example dialogue with the class. By now, students should havethe idea Of pictures which are similar but not identical.

     Put the pairs together for exercise 2 and direct each to their set of pictures. Make sure they dorýt look at, and can't see, each other's, then explain they have to describe their pictures to each other in order to find the differences (as in the example in exercise 1). The pictures are

-numbered, and it is important that each person specifies the number of the picture when they Start the description. At the end, elicit the answers and correctany errors.

exercise 2

1    As man is young, B's is older.

2    Xs woman has got long hair, B's has got short hair.

3    A's girl is thin, B's is a bit fat.

4    A's man has got a beard, B's hasn't.

5    Rs woman is young with blonde hair, B's woman is older with white hair. 6 Rs man has got a moustache, B's hasn't.

vocabulary life story

• Ekercise 1 may take Students quite a lot of time and some will certainly need help Organizing their ideas. If some finish before others, you could pair them up to proofread each other's work and correct any mistakes.

•When the Whole Class is ready, move on to exercise 2.

natural English

•Students Could do exercise individually, then check with a partner before going on to exercise 2.

test yourself!

your vocabulary short, attractive, beard, blonde, thin, beautiful serious, interesting, lazy, nice, clever

-was; grew; got; had

11

brrect the errors

When did she become a teacher? doesn't like her.

He

I

didn't go out last night.

When did you tast see him?


eight


in unit eight . . .

reading


reading I got lost!                                  75-90 mins


I got lost!

p. 74

wordbooster prepositions of place come and go;-bring and take

p.76

listening how to . get around a building 78

tvronunciationvan listening: pronunciation sounds: ,/d/, /tJ/ -and /d3,Q listening: prediction

test yourself!

p.81

wordlist

p.137

tyou getlost cus oóùð&btilary ng around 'sk forañd ji directions in the stree using natural Ergfish phrases read two Qoties 'people Who got tost

any

{interviev o tuden&s

lead-in

    You could start the lesson with your own anecdote about getting lost. This will be motivating for the students and provide excellent listening practice.

    You may have to teach the phrase get lost. See troubleshooting on the right.

    You can then ask students when and where this happens to them and carry on with exercise 1. Come back to any interesting or amusing stories.

    You could use exercise 2 now or later for useful recycling.

vocabulary getting around

Although learners may be familiar with some of these verbs, the list in Why do people get lost? includes a number of phrases which may not transfer easily into the learners' mother tongue. See language point on the right.

    You could do exercises 1 and 2 at the same time, as the pictures illustrate and reinforce the meanings of the sentences, and should help learners. Check the answers, and drill the pronunciation.

    Exercise 3 is a chance to personalize the sentences. Go through one or two examples with the class, then put students in pairs or small groups.

The natural English box continues the theme and highlights common phrases for asking for directions. The main focus is this use of way, but also the important phrase excuse me (to attract someone's attention) and the use 01 wrong referred to earlier. The task in exercise 4 forces students to listen carefully, and at the end you can explain that the words in brackets are optional in all these sentences — students need to be aware of this. Replay the recording and practise the pronunciation (exercise 5).

For exercise 6, you could brainstorm five places near the school as a class on the board, then put learners into pairs for the practice activity. Move round and monitor, and notice if any of the students are able to reformulate the sentences in different ways which are also correct. For example: Can 1get to the post Office this way?

read on

     Exercise 1 is for students to gain a general understanding. Let the class read and familiarize themselves with the questions first. then set a time limit for reading the text, e.g. two minutes. to force them to read quickly for gist and not read word for word using a dictionary (extend it if they are struggling). Check the answers before students read the article again and complete exercise 2. You may be interested to know that, despite sounding highly implausible, both stories are actually true. Does anyone in the class know of similar stories?

All the words in the glossary for this text are extremely useful. You could give learners time to look at the items again (and any others in the stories) and ask you any questions. The next section focuses on grammar, but some of the practice makes further use of these stories.


 

exercise

She got lost in Beijing. She couldn't read the streeÿ signs in Chinese.

 

troubleshooting teaching through a situation

You could use translation with a monolingual group: alternatively, you may have to build up a situation, e.g. draw a simple street map on the board, show the place where you wanted to be, then explain: you went along a street, you didn't know the street, there was no name, and soon you (look around confused and bewildered) got lost. Repeat the phrase, write it on the board, ask students for the tense of got and what the infinitive of the verb is. You can then check their understanding by asking them what a person can do in this situation ('ask someone in the street' is the most likely answer).

 

 

exercise 1

They ask fordirections but don't understand themï they forget-to take a map; they get on the wrong train; they get off at the wrong station; people give then the wrong directions; they fotget the way; it's dark and they can't Seethe road. signs

-exercise 2 they get on the wrong train

02 they forget the way

3 they get off at the wrong statiory they forget to take a map

- they ask for directions but they doh't understand them

6 people give them the wrong directions iYs dark and they can't seethe road signs fhey•don't ask for directions exercise 4 see tapescript p. 151

language point wrong

This is a very high-frequency word in English and comes up in the natural English box in exercise 4. As an adjective, it has a number of different meanings:

— in the context here, it means 'not the one I wanted or intended', e.g. I got on the wrong train; I went the wrong woy (opposite right). In some other languages this meaning is expressed in a completely different way or with a different adjective.

- another closely related meaning is 'not correct', e.g. That's the wrong answer. (opposite = fight).

— it can also mean 'a problem', e.g. There's something wrong with (the phone). With this meaning, the opposite is not right. (The opposite is: There's nothing wrong with the phone.)

You don't need to go into this detail with your learners now, but it is useful to be aware of the potential problems they may have with this word.

 

 

exercise 1 a and c 2 b and c exercise 2

Dover

France (Calais) place near Switzerland on the border Luxembourg'

15     Belgium

16     Netherlands (Rotterdam)

Germany (Bonn)

75

                  •n in   our wa

                    grammar how much / many?                                                      

     Exercise 1 revises countable and uncountable nouns, which is the basis to understanding the difference between (how) much and (how) many. See language point on the right.

     Students should complete the table quite easily through a process of deduction, and the table also highlights the fact that none, quite a lot, and a lot can be used equally with countable or uncountable nouns.

     First nominate A / B pairs, then put As and Bs together to work on exercise 3. Make sure everyone has the right answers before moving on. Move round and monitor the pairs while they are doing exercise 4, and refer them back to the text if you notice any incorrect answers. Finally, establish A / B pairs and let them ask each other their questions (exercise 5).

     Speaking it's your turn! provides freer personalized practice of how much and how many. If you feel your students are ready for this, set the language reference and practice exercises for homework.

speaking it's your turn!

     While practising the grammar from the previous section, this is a much freer activity to end the lesson. Some students may keep to the verbs provided in exercise 1, but encourage pairs to think up their own examples and give them the support to do this. When the pairs have written at least five questions, they can interview other students (exercise 2). Let them interview more people if it is going well. Finally, send them back to their original partner to discuss their findings (exercise 3).


— wordbooster                               30—45 mins

prepositions of place

*       The position on the map guides learners to the meaning of the different prepositions for exercise 1, although we would expect them to know some of them already. If you are familiar with your learners' Ll, you will be aware which concepts are likely to cause most difficulty, but a common problem is in and on because they are used in a similar way. See language point on the right.

*       Praclise the pronunciation of the sentences round the class, then divide the students into pairs for test your partner. Students wili get freer practice of these prepositions in the next lesson.

come and go; bring and take

      These verbs are together as they share the same conceptual problems. See language point on the right. Students could do exercise 1 in pairs. When you check the answers, clarify the basic concept for your students, i.e. come / bring express a movement towards the speaker; go I take express movements to other places (often away from the speaker). Use gestures to reinforce the concept.

      In exercise 2, A I B pairs have to listen to a recording and follow instructions (involving the use of all the target verbs). If any of the pairs make a mistake. stop the recording and go back to the beginning. Do this until all the pairs can carry out the instructions accurately.

      Exercise 3 is a concept check. Students complete the tapescript they have just listened to.


none

not many

 

quite a lot

a lot

none exercise 3

not much

 

quite a lot

a lot

1 How many?

 

4

How many?

 

2 How many?

 

S

How many?

 

3 How much?

 

6

How much?

 

1 How many?

 

4

How much?

 

How much?

 

5

How many?

 

-j How much?

 

6

How much?

 

exercise 2                                                                              language point expressing quantity

We normally use much and many in negatives and questions: much is used with uncountable nouns and many is used with plural nouns:

I haven't got much money. Do you know many Spanish people?

In affirmative sentences we normally use a lot (of), which can be modified by quite:

We've got (quite) a lot of bread.

                                                                                              (NOT There were many people is possible but very formal.)

In replies to questions beginning how much or how many, we often use a lot, quite a lot, not much, and not many. We can use these phrases without a noun if the meaning is clear.

Not much / many is similar to a little / a few, but often more negative: How many are there? Not many. less than I hoped or expected) A few. better than nothing)

To emphasize a negative without a noun we use none:

How much food is there? None.

How many students come to the lesson? None.


1 not many

quite a lot

5 a lot

2 none

Studgnt_g

4 quite a lot/ a lot

6 none

1 a lot

3 none

5 not

exercise 4


      not much- 4 not much                       none

'tan you remember get off at the wrong station get on the wrong train    Which way is the station? 'ask for directions       How much money have you got?


Gercise 1

The hotel's next to thé bank.

'The bank's opposite the cinema.

The cinema's between the shop and the café. rhe car park's behind the hotel. The hotel's near the church.

language point in and on

Both describe the position of something, but we normally use in meaning 'within' a room, building, area, city, etc., and on to refer to the 'surface' Of a room, area, etc.


The statue's in_front of the park.

•The laws in the park.

The boaes on the lake. 'The parks at the end of the road.

eercise 1 come           2 go     3 bring 4 Cake

•exercise 3 tapescript p. 151

It's in the kitchen.

but

It's on the kitchen floor.

We sat in the field.

but

We sat on the grass.

We went in the river. (swimming)

but

We went on the river. (in a boat)

Some examples illustrate how closely the concepts overlap. We would probably prefer we got on the train, but we could also say, we got in the train.

language point come / go and bring / take

Students may find these verbs difficult for several reasons:

-    their own language may use a single verb to express bring        take.

— the conceptual difference Of movement towards or away from the speaker can be more complex than that. Come or bring can describe a movement towards a place where the speaker will be in the future (but isn't there now). For example:

Can you come and pick me up at home ot six? (i.e. that is where I will be then.) - bring and take are transitive, e.g. Bring it to me (not 8-àR¶-te-me).

-    all four verbs have a range of meanings in English which do not always transfer to the learners' LI using the same verbs.

      listening how to . . . get around a building               60-75 mins

talk about the ssroom

iask for directions usi

(natural Erghsh phrases

glisten to people asking for and-giving •rections m vocabulary for irections, and ask fot nd give directions und the school

-directions for'S dents to follow

grammar there is / are