4_Primary_key_method_l1_v2
Оценка 4.7

4_Primary_key_method_l1_v2

Оценка 4.7
docx
09.05.2020
4_Primary_key_method_l1_v2
4_Primary_key_method_l1_v2.docx

The primary key concept is critical to an efficient relational database. Without the primary key and closely related foreign key concepts, relational databases would not work.

Almost all individuals deal with primary keys frequently but unknowingly in everyday life. For example, students are routinely assigned unique identification (ID) numbers, and all U.S. citizens have government-assigned and uniquely identifiable Social Security numbers.

For example, a database must hold all of the data stored by a commercial bank. Two of the database tables include the CUSTOMER_MASTER, which stores basic and static customer data (name, date of birth, address, Social Security number, etc.) and the ACCOUNTS_MASTER, which stores various bank account data (account creation date, account type, withdrawal limits or corresponding account information, etc.).

To uniquely identify customers, a column or combination of columns is selected to guarantee that two customers never have the same unique value. Thus, certain columns are immediately eliminated, e.g., surname and date of birth. A good primary key candidate is the column that is designated to hold Social Security numbers. However, some account holders may not have Social Security numbers, so this column’s candidacy is eliminated. The next logical option is to use a combination of columns, such as adding the surname to the date of birth to the email address, resulting in a long and cumbersome primary key.

The best option is to create a separate primary key in a new column named CUSTOMER_ID. Then, the database automatically generates a unique number each time a customer is added, guaranteeing unique identification. As this key is created, the column is designated as the primary key within the SQL script that creates the table, and all null values are automatically rejected.

The account number associated with each CUSTOMER_ID allows for the secure handling of customer queries and also demonstrates why primary keys offer the fastest method of data searching within tables. For example, a customer may be asked to provide his surname when conducting a bank query. A common surname (such as Smith) query is likely to return multiple results. When querying data, utilizing the primary key uniqueness feature guarantees one result.

In the relational model of databases, a primary key is a specific choice of a minimal set of attributes (columns) that uniquely specify a tuple (row) in a relation (table).[a] Informally, a primary key is "which attributes identify a record", and in simple cases are simply a single attribute: a unique id. More formally, a primary key is a choice of candidate key (a minimal superkey); any other candidate key is an alternate key.

A primary key may consist of real-world observables, in which case it is called a natural key, while an attribute created to function as a key and not used for identification outside the database is called a surrogate key. For example, for a database of people (of a given nationality), time and location of birth could be a natural key[b].National identification number is another example of an attribute that may be used as a natural key.

In relational database terms, a primary key does not differ in form or function from a key that isn't primary and in practice various different motivations may determine the choice of any one key as primary over another. The designation of a primary key may indicate the "preferred" identifier for data in the table, or that the primary key is to be used for foreign key references from other tables or it may indicate some other technical rather than semantic feature of the table. Some languages and software have special syntax features that can be used to identify a primary key as such (e.g. the PRIMARY KEY constraint in SQL).

The relational model, as expressed through relational calculus and relational algebra, does not distinguish between primary keys and other kinds of keys. Primary keys were added to the SQL standard mainly as a convenience to the application programmer.[citation needed]

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_key

https://www.techopedia.com/definition/5547/primary-key


 

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The primary key concept is critical to an efficient relational database

The primary key concept is critical to an efficient relational database

Primary _ key https://www.techopedia

Primary _ key https://www.techopedia
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