Anglicisms in the modern Russian language
Оценка 4.7

Anglicisms in the modern Russian language

Оценка 4.7
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23.12.2022
Anglicisms in the modern Russian language
REASONS_FOR_THE_INFLUENCE_AND_USE_O.docx

Anglicisms in the modern Russian language

 

CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION.. 3

1. Borrowed words: concept and characteristics 4

2. The history of Anglicisms in Russian. 5

3. Methods for forming Anglicism.. 7

4. Reasons for the influence and use of the Anglicism on the formation of youth slang in the Russian language. 8

CONCLUSION.. 11

BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 12

 

 


 

INTRODUCTION

 

         The actuality and practical significance of the research. Currently, the English language has acquired the status of language of international communication for people, so more and more people decide to study this very language. The position of the English language in the world is determined historically: the expansion of trade and economic ties, the dominance of the United States in the world economy and politics, the development of international tourism, etc. The development of new information and computer technologies, the emergence of the global Internet have also been influenced by the popularity of the English language. Moreover, increased students' interest in the English language is because of the opportunity to visit the English-speaking countries.

      Another source of promotion of the English language is the so-called popular culture. Passion for popular music of different genres, English movies, led to the fact that the majority of Anglicisms enter the Russian language without any barriers and used by most of the population, regardless of sex, age, and social status.

           Purpose of the work is to identify the reasons for the borrowing of English words and the need to stay in the Russian language.

           Basic tasks:

¾              To identify the causes of borrowings of English words in the Russian language;

¾              To analyze the theoretical materials related to the borrowings;

¾              To consider the methods of formation of Anglicisms;

¾              To find out the necessity of presence of Anglicisms in the Russian language;

¾                To define the popularity of using the English words among the pupils of or school.


 

1. Borrowed words: concept and characteristics

 

Globalization, the establishment of international organizations in economic, financial, political, and other spheres of activity, the use of new communication technologies (Internet, satellite television) - all this, as a rule, in the modern world, English has become the most important. It is actively used not only on the international stage but also in the country itself, in all spheres of society. Therefore, it is not surprising that there is such a large number of loanwords. However, of particular concern is that in everyday conversations of modern youth it is increasingly common to borrow English slang and its derivatives. In this regard, it is essential to maintain the cultural base of the language and eliminate the tendency of illiterate people to use the language. So, what is ‘Anglican’? Is it an integral part of language development or its ‘pest’? Borrowing is an integral part of language development and one of the main reasons for complementing vocabulary. 1. The borrowed vocabulary reflects the fact of ethnic contact, social, economic, and cultural relations between linguistic groups. There are several reasons for this phenomenon (M.A. Bright):

1. The need to name new objects, concepts, and phenomena. For example, a driver, a browser, or a laptop.

2. The lack of appropriate concept. Words such as speedometer, interview, railway station, crossword puzzle, tram, golf, champion, simulator, slang, picnic have their equivalent in Russian.

3. The lack of correct. For example, the word book was replaced by a synonymous expression ‘people of the book’, ‘book’.

4. To provide a stylistic effect. For example, to give a demonstration, instead of the word ‘excellent’, they say ‘super’. Another reason for the frequent use of ‘Anglicism’, which is the most used in youth slang, has already created the stereotype of an idealized American society with a high standard of living, democratic values because  the second one is that social group who tries to stand out and, unlike the rest, are the most prone to change. It can also play the role of a quotation like terms related to the special field can be mentioned, and any business good and the condition of such words are formed by adding, subtracting, moving sounds, components [5].

2. The history of Anglicisms in Russian

 

Young usually people pronounce English words in Russian like - ‘пати’ (‘Party’ ‘вечеринка’) – ‘Is it possible to organize a joint New Year’s Party?’ - ‘респект’ (‘respect’ - ‘уважение’)-then they will be truly unique. – ‘Батл’ (‘battle’- ‘сражаться’, ‘fight’- a battle between a literary poet and a soldier).

Every episode of ‘Счастливый конец’ (‘Happy ending’ – ‘хэппи энд’) must have a happy ending. Any event and phenomenon, socio-political and economic changes, and the process depicted by the media. News-papers, magazines, television, the radio, and the Internet, provide a lot of information. Therefore, it is not surprising that the mass media plays a huge role in language development. Thanks to them, many words and sentences have been firmly entered into dictionaries. However, the excessive influx of foreign vocabulary in Russian, especially in the texts of the mass media, raises the question of the expediency of obtaining loans in a foreign language. Especially if the loan is to obtain a foreign language, it is combined with the distortion of its meaning. For example, in the special edition of the newspaper ‘Metro’ called ‘The weekend’, there are headlines from readers ‘Lifestyle’, ‘Sorry’, ‘Fashion’ (from– ‘модный лук, look’) [5, p. 78].

At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, the Epis-copal Church began to penetrate Russia. These words were important for people’s communication, trade, and eco-nomic relations between Russia and European countries. However, the process of supplementing youth slang with English words intensified precisely at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The purpose of this work is to identify the main reasons for the use of English and to study the semantic meaning when switching from English into Russian. The relevance of this topic should be denied, since the use of English by mod-ern youth is increasing every day, and instead of their native Russian. First of all, it should be noted that there are three stages of development in Russian youth slang. The first can be traced back to the 1920s when the revolution and civil war destroyed the social structure and created an army of street children. The wise words of young people of aristocratic origin were not separated from them and were supplemented by many slangs, so-called ‘thieves’ words [3, p. 138].

The second step can be traced back to the 1950s when the ‘man’ contributed to the formation of youth slang. This is the one subculture of the Soviet youth, to spread in major Soviet cities in the late 1940s and the early 1960s, with the American-largest lifestyle as the norm. Stylists showed a certain irony in their judgments and had a negative attitude towards certain norms of So-viet morality. Stylists stood out with bright clothes and a kind of slang. As a rule, they used a derivative of the English words in their speeches. For example, фазер (father), шузы (shoes), лукать (look), дринкать (drink), олдовый (old), соксы (socks) and so on. The development of the third stage of the youth slang formation is associated with a period of stagnation, in the 1970s and 1980s. In that era, various informal youth movements were created, for example, ‘hippies’. ‘Hippie’ youth created their own ‘system’ slang as a linguistic gesture against the of-ficial ideology and the ‘Iron Curtain’ of the Soviet era. The subculture of ‘hippies’ began in the 1960s. years in the United States. This fact completely influenced the Soviet slang ‘hippies’. They usually use the transliteration of ordinary English words. For example, you can give the following words: хаер (hair), пипл (people), герла (girl), флет (flat), бед (bed), мен (мan), лет ит би (let it be). But, despite this, the influx of the Irish language in the Russian vocabulary was unimportant up to the 90s of the twentieth century. This is due to changes in the moral direction of the world of politics, economics, culture, and society. During this period, with the col-lapse of the Soviet Union, the ‘stream’ of American and European movies and music poured into Russia. In the early 1990s, the young Russians saw with their own eyes all the ‘charms’ of Western life, flourished, and developed technology. The Iron Curtain fell, and all Soviet ideals fell along with it. They were replaced by the beautiful American dream and free life. At that time the Anglican Church was actively used in the jargon of the Russian youth. The charm of the Anglican Church be-came a fashion, but it was because of the stereotypes and ideas created in the youth of the society. Such a modern stereotype that the image of idealized American society with a much higher standard of living and with a significantly higher rate of advanced technology. It is the result of the whole world. Taking the English borrowed their speeches, young people, first of all, to borrow foreign languages is one of the ways to develop new languages, because a language is always responding quickly and flexibly to the needs of society. Several factors that influence the development of jargon (slang and English are dialects and foreign jargon, in this case, borrowed from English). In the 1990s, western computer technology and systems first appeared in Russia, and thus also appear in English. [1].

 

3. Methods for forming Anglicism

 

The process of borrowing new words is rather quick, because a language reacts rapidly to the needs of the society. Borrowings become the result of constant interrelations of peoples and states.

On the methods for forming Anglicisms it is possible to distinguish the next groups of borrowing:

1. Direct borrowing: words exist in the Russian language in their original forms. They are words like “уик-енд” - the weekend; “блек” - Negro; “мани” – the money.

2. Hybrids: these words are formed by adding a Russian suffix or a prefix to the English words. In this case, it changes the value of a foreign word: “аскать” (to ask - спрашивать), “коннектиться” (to connect – связываться, соединяться)

3. Tracing: foreign words used with the preservation of their phonetic and graphic appearance. It is words like “menu”, “the drive”, “the virus”, “the club”, and “the sarcophagus”.

4. Semi paper: word, obeying the rules in the grammatical development of Russian grammar with the addition of the suffix. For example, “drive” in the meaning of "energy, power."

5. Exoticism: words used to characterize specific cultural phenomena of another country describing non-Russian reality. These words do not have synonyms in the Russian language. For example, “чипсы” (chips), “хот-дог” (hot-dog), “чизбургер” (cheeseburger).

6. Foreign-language blotches: words that usually have lexical equivalents, but stylistically are different from them and secured in a particular field of communication. For example, “окей” (OK); “вау” (Wow!), “хэппи-енд”(happy end).

7. Composites: word composed of two English words, such as “секонд-хенд” (second-hand – магазин, торгующий одеждой, бывшей в употреблении), “хит парад” (hit parade - список самых популярных медиа-продуктов);

8. Jargonizes: words emerged as a result of any distortion of sounds, such as “крезанутый” (от crazy - сумасшедший), “парентсы” (parents – родители).

Language is a living organism and it changes and develops together with its carriers. Borrowings take root in the Russian language, and some of them are not clear and others are for most people.

On the one hand, the emergence of new words expands the vocabulary of the Russian language, on the other in connection with the use of a huge number of unnecessary borrowing occurs clogging of the Russian language, it is losing its originality and unique beauty. However, do not forget that some of the loans have analogues in the Russian language, which does not concede to Anglicisms in their semantic and expressive properties.

 

4. Reasons for the influence and use of the Anglicism on the formation of youth slang in the Russian language  

 

Slang is an integral part of the language and reflects the linguistic and cultural features of the society that uses slang. We are witnessing slang go into many areas of human activity such as slang units used in radio and television, news and literature, the internet, not to mention the oral speech of people of almost all ages, social groups, and classes. The correct use of slang vocabulary units undoubtedly increases the level of language proficiency, taking into account the tasks and needs of the speaker, as well as the successful establishment and maintenance of interpersonal and group relationships. This is the art of communication [2, pp. 57-68].

Now a little about the history of some slang. For example, where does the word cool come from? The related word ‘beak’ – ‘good’ was first discovered in the language of mobile traders of small goods. It had its tradition and very colorful language of the 18th century. Linguists believe that the word associated with them is ‘beak’. It turns out everything that bites is fine. Cool and relatives-dialectics also recorded in the dictionary of V. I. Dahl: - ‘cool, crossing treasures, crossing treasures’ in Ryazan, Tambov, Tver province, Vladimir is good, beautiful, and vocal. In dialect, a cool bride means a beautiful bride. Interestingly, today it is considered a loan from a clever, but clever Englishwoman. Today, one of the most popular of these words was a party. Ubiquitous parties can be seen in newspapers and books rushing to us from the TV screen. Where does the name come from? Words related to the words ‘hang out’ are ‘shuffle (card)’ and ‘brawl’. These words come from French.

Years have passed, but young people continue to use English words and terms related to computers and the Internet. The Internet has generated even more popular Anglicisms among young people associated with the world wide web such as smile, e-mail, online, connect, like, site, blog, blogger, chat, and so on. Contemporary music and the so-called ‘club’ culture, as well as the film industry, as an integral part of the lives of young people. Pop music, the dark (heavy music), distribution, playlists, charts, face sports people, fitness, bodybuilding, formation, and topics related, which is a popular sport such as surfing. The active use of these words in the slang of modern youth is largely due to the so-called ‘worship of the body beautiful’, to which the modern world is not recommended. Derivative busters are marketing, broker, manager, promoter, factory, boss, list price, sale, discount, and supermarket. When many fast-food restaurants opened in Russia in the early 1990s, words such as fast food, burgers, hot dogs, and cheese-burgers appeared in youth slang. To emulate the lifestyle of American youth-produced one of the most slang groups. [7, p. 387].

Also, in the daily communication and the quality of daily life of Russian youth through the use of the following words such as a man friend, VIP, credit card, as well as that of the public, okay, oysters, hotels, parties, super girls, children, God bless you, the number of most of the fall in market chaos. In the Russian language, when young people communicate with their peers, English, musical works, the media is removed from the Internet was widely used and have lost their real semantic meaning, to determine the reasons for the use of anglicism and to confirm the hypotheses put forward, a study was organized and conducted an eight-question questionnaire with each other. The theme of research with pupils from school № 9 in matters of 1-2, with a total of 60 people. Based on these results, we have reached the following conclusion, i.e., most of the young people use English (84%) when communicating, and the main source of the word computer technology, the mass media, and the field of education. (36%, 27%, 21% Thus); the meaning of the most commonly used English words corresponds to the right meaning of the word (more than 90%). (40%, 28%, 27%, the head). Based on the following results, it is necessary to draw the following conclusions. The main reason for the use of English is to promote communication among young people. Concerning the semantic meaning of the word when translated into Russian, it is completely impossible to say that it has changed. Most of the words, when translated, have the same meaning as Anglican. It should also be noted that most of the English words ‘moved’ to the Russian language and were replaced by equivalents of English with their meanings. It should be noted that based on the results of the study, this hypothesis is partially confirmed. This opens up the prospect of further study of the Episcopal Church, which can be considered, not just among young people, but also among other age and social groups. In short, it should be noted that slang will not disappear. Young people have been using slang for many years, and they will keep on using it. There is no doubt that the slang has changed over time, some words have died and others appeared. However, a lot of the English language, which penetrated the jargon of the Russian youth long before the 21st century, will remain in their jargon forever, with new words added every day.


 

CONCLUSION

 

In general, foreign language terminology is an interesting linguistiс phenomenon, the role of which in the Russian language is very important. English-Russian linguistic interaction has consistently attraсted the attention of research aimed at the study of the total inflow of foreign language vocabulary in Russian.

Using the knowledge on the topic and researching the speech of our school pupils, we have succeeded in doing the tasks:

¾              identified the causes of borrowings of English words in the Russian language;

¾              analyzed the theoretical materials related to the borrowings.

¾              considered the methods of formation of Anglicisms.

¾              found out the necessity of presence of Anglicisms in the Russian language.

¾              defined the popularity of using the English words among the pupils our school.

As a result, we can say that young people do not see anything wrong with using Anglicisms and they use them in their speech. However, despite the popularity of these words, not everyone knows the value of words of English and cannot use them correctly.

Nowadays it is very important to research the problems of borrowing foreign words, because many researchers express apprehensions concerning great amount of borrowings in the Russian language that spoils it and leads to its death. We do not have to exclude all foreign words from our vocabulary, because they are important for expressing many phenomena, but foreign language words should be used appropriately without exaggeration.

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

1.                 Вадим Ф. Лурье. TableTalk сегодня. М.: Наука, 2020.

2.                 Dubrovina K.I. – Student jargon // FN. No. 1, 2016. - PP. 45-86.

3.                 Zapesotsky A.S., Fain L.P. This incomprehensible youth. M., 1990.

4.                 Zemskaya E.A. Word formation as an activity. M., 2016. - PP. 50-70.

5.                 Kopylenko M.M. On the semantic nature of youth jargon // Sociolinguistic Research. - 2016. - No. 1. – PP. 21–24.

6.                 Lukin M.F. Criteria for the transition of parts of speech in modern Russian // Philological Sciences - 2016. - No. 3 - PP. 49–55.

7.                 Matyushenko, E.E. Borrowing as one of the most productive ways of forming units of modern youth slang // Social variants of language - 2013. - No. 2 - PP. 386–389.

8.                 Арнольд И. В. Лексикология современного английского языка. /Арнольд И.В. — Москва: Флинта. — 2012. — 376 с.

9.                 Билицки Т. Семантическая адаптация англицизмов в молодежном сленге Русский язык: система и функционирование (к 90‑летию БГУ и 85‑летию профессора П. П. Шубы): сб. материалов V Междунар. науч. конф., 11–12 окт. 2011 г., Минск [Электронный ресурс] / Билицкий Т. // редкол.: И. С. Ровдо (отв. ред.). — Минск: Изд. центр БГУ, 2011. — С. 100– 102. URL: http://elib.bsu.by/handle/123456789/17124 (дата обращения: 12.04.2022).

10.            Бондарец О. Э. Иноязычные заимствования в речи и языке: лингвосоциологический аспект. [Электронный ресурс] / Бондарец О. Э. — Таганрог: Изд-во Таганрог. Гос. Пед. Ин-та, 2008. — 144 с. — URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/2009–03– 008‑bondarets-o-e-inoyazychnye-zaimstvovaniya-v-rechi-i-yazykelingvosotsiologicheskiy-aspekt-taganrog-izd-vo-taganrog-gos-ped-in-ta/ viewer (дата обращения: 12.11.2021).

11.            Лошакова Н. А., Павленко В. Г. История и адаптация англицизмов в русском языке [Электронный ресурс] /Лошакова Н.А.// Научнометодический электронный журнал «Концепт». — 2019. — № 5 (май). — С. 199–205. — URL: http://e-koncept.ru/2019/195016.htm (дата обращения: 14.11.2021).

12.            Тодосиенко З. В. Семантическая деривация как важнейший механизм содержательной динамики языка (на материале русского и английского языков) [Электронный ресурс] / Тодосиенко З. В. // Фундаментальные исследования. — 2014. — № 5–3. — С. 643–648;


 

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Anglicisms in the modern Russian language

Anglicisms in the modern Russian language

INTRODUCTION The actuality and practical significance of the research

INTRODUCTION The actuality and practical significance of the research

Borrowed words: concept and characteristics

Borrowed words: concept and characteristics

The history of Anglicisms in Russian

The history of Anglicisms in Russian

The second step can be traced back to the 1950s when the ‘man’ contributed to the formation of youth slang

The second step can be traced back to the 1950s when the ‘man’ contributed to the formation of youth slang

English are dialects and foreign jargon, in this case, borrowed from

English are dialects and foreign jargon, in this case, borrowed from

Composites: word composed of two

Composites: word composed of two

V. I. Dahl: - ‘cool, crossing treasures, crossing treasures’ in

V. I. Dahl: - ‘cool, crossing treasures, crossing treasures’ in

English (84%) when communicating, and the main source of the word computer technology, the mass media, and the field of education

English (84%) when communicating, and the main source of the word computer technology, the mass media, and the field of education

CONCLUSION In general, foreign language terminology is an interesting linguistiс phenomenon, the role of which in the

CONCLUSION In general, foreign language terminology is an interesting linguistiс phenomenon, the role of which in the

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.

Концепт». — 2019. — № 5 (май)

Концепт». — 2019. — № 5 (май)
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