4. Reasons for the influence and use
of the Anglicism on the formation of youth slang in the Russian language. 8
The actuality and practical significance of
the research. Currently, the English language has acquired the status
of language of international communication for people, so more and more people
decide to study this very language. The position of the English language in the
world is determined historically: the expansion of trade and economic ties, the
dominance of the United States in the world economy and politics, the
development of international tourism, etc. The development of new information
and computer technologies, the emergence of the global Internet have also been
influenced by the popularity of the English language. Moreover, increased
students' interest in the English language is because of the opportunity to
visit the English-speaking countries.
source of promotion of the English language is the so-called popular culture.
Passion for popular music of different genres, English movies, led to the fact
that the majority of Anglicisms enter the Russian language without any barriers
and used by most of the population, regardless of sex, age, and social status.
Purpose of the work is to identify the reasons for the borrowing of English
words and the need to stay in the Russian language.
¾To identify the causes of borrowings of
English words in the Russian language;
¾To analyze the theoretical materials
related to the borrowings;
¾To consider the methods of formation of
¾To find out the necessity of presence of
Anglicisms in the Russian language;
¾To define the popularity of using the
English words among the pupils of or school.
1. Borrowed words: concept and
the establishment of international organizations in economic, financial,
political, and other spheres of activity, the use of new communication
technologies (Internet, satellite television) - all this, as a rule, in the
modern world, English has become the most important. It is actively used not
only on the international stage but also in the country itself, in all spheres
of society. Therefore, it is not surprising that there is such a large number
of loanwords. However, of particular concern is that in everyday conversations
of modern youth it is increasingly common to borrow English slang and its
derivatives. In this regard, it is essential to maintain the cultural base of
the language and eliminate the tendency of illiterate people to use the
language. So, what is ‘Anglican’? Is it an integral part of language
development or its ‘pest’? Borrowing is an integral part of language
development and one of the main reasons for complementing vocabulary. 1. The
borrowed vocabulary reflects the fact of ethnic contact, social, economic, and
cultural relations between linguistic groups. There are several reasons for this
phenomenon (M.A. Bright):
1. The need to name new objects, concepts, and
phenomena. For example, a driver, a browser, or a laptop.
2. The lack of appropriate concept. Words such as
speedometer, interview, railway station, crossword puzzle, tram, golf,
champion, simulator, slang, picnic have their equivalent in Russian.
3. The lack of correct. For example, the word book was
replaced by a synonymous expression ‘people of the book’, ‘book’.
To provide a stylistic effect. For example, to give a demonstration, instead of
the word ‘excellent’, they say ‘super’. Another reason for the frequent use of
‘Anglicism’, which is the most used in youth slang, has already created the
stereotype of an idealized American society with a high standard of living,
democratic values because the second one is that social group who tries to
stand out and, unlike the rest, are the most prone to change. It can also play
the role of a quotation like terms related to the special field can be
mentioned, and any business good and the condition of such words are formed by
adding, subtracting, moving sounds, components .
2. The history of
Anglicisms in Russian
usually people pronounce English words in Russian like - ‘пати’
(‘Party’ ‘вечеринка’) – ‘Is
it possible to organize a joint New Year’s Party?’ - ‘респект’
(‘respect’ - ‘уважение’)-then
they will be truly unique. – ‘Батл’ (‘battle’- ‘сражаться’, ‘fight’- a battle
between a literary poet and a soldier).
episode of ‘Счастливыйконец’ (‘Happy
ending’ – ‘хэппиэнд’) must
have a happy ending. Any event and phenomenon, socio-political and economic
changes, and the process depicted by the media. News-papers, magazines,
television, the radio, and the Internet, provide a lot of information.
Therefore, it is not surprising that the mass media plays a huge role in
language development. Thanks to them, many words and sentences have been firmly
entered into dictionaries. However, the excessive influx of foreign vocabulary
in Russian, especially in the texts of the mass media, raises the question of
the expediency of obtaining loans in a foreign language. Especially if the loan
is to obtain a foreign language, it is combined with the distortion of its
meaning. For example, in the special edition of the newspaper ‘Metro’ called
‘The weekend’, there are headlines from readers ‘Lifestyle’, ‘Sorry’, ‘Fashion’
(from– ‘модныйлук, look’)
[5, p. 78].
the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, the Epis-copal Church began to
penetrate Russia. These words were important for people’s communication, trade,
and eco-nomic relations between Russia and European countries. However, the
process of supplementing youth slang with English words intensified precisely
at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The purpose of
this work is to identify the main reasons for the use of English and to study
the semantic meaning when switching from English into Russian. The relevance of
this topic should be denied, since the use of English by mod-ern youth is
increasing every day, and instead of their native Russian. First of all, it
should be noted that there are three stages of development in Russian youth
slang. The first can be traced back to the 1920s when the revolution and civil
war destroyed the social structure and created an army of street children. The
wise words of young people of aristocratic origin were not separated from them
and were supplemented by many slangs, so-called ‘thieves’ words [3, p. 138].
second step can be traced back to the 1950s when the ‘man’ contributed to the
formation of youth slang. This is the one subculture of the Soviet youth, to
spread in major Soviet cities in the late 1940s and the early 1960s, with the
American-largest lifestyle as the norm. Stylists showed a certain irony in
their judgments and had a negative attitude towards certain norms of So-viet
morality. Stylists stood out with bright clothes and a kind of slang. As a
rule, they used a derivative of the English words in their speeches. For
(father), шузы (shoes),
лукать (look), дринкать (drink),
олдовый (old), соксы (socks)
and so on. The development of the third stage of the youth slang formation is
associated with a period of stagnation, in the 1970s and 1980s. In that era,
various informal youth movements were created, for example, ‘hippies’. ‘Hippie’
youth created their own ‘system’ slang as a linguistic gesture against the
of-ficial ideology and the ‘Iron Curtain’ of the Soviet era. The subculture of
‘hippies’ began in the 1960s. years in the United States. This fact completely
influenced the Soviet slang ‘hippies’. They usually use the transliteration of
ordinary English words. For example, you can give the following words: хаер (hair), пипл
(people), герла (girl), флет (flat), бед (bed), мен (мan), летитби (let it
be). But, despite this, the influx of the Irish language in the Russian
vocabulary was unimportant up to the 90s of the twentieth century. This is due
to changes in the moral direction of the world of politics, economics, culture,
and society. During this period, with the col-lapse of the Soviet Union, the
‘stream’ of American and European movies and music poured into Russia. In the early
1990s, the young Russians saw with their own eyes all the ‘charms’ of Western
life, flourished, and developed technology. The Iron Curtain fell, and all
Soviet ideals fell along with it. They were replaced by the beautiful American
dream and free life. At that time the Anglican Church was actively used in the
jargon of the Russian youth. The charm of the Anglican Church be-came a
fashion, but it was because of the stereotypes and ideas created in the youth
of the society. Such a modern stereotype that the image of idealized American
society with a much higher standard of living and with a significantly higher
rate of advanced technology. It is the result of the whole world. Taking the
English borrowed their speeches, young people, first of all, to borrow foreign
languages is one of the ways to develop new languages, because a language is
always responding quickly and flexibly to the needs of society. Several factors
that influence the development of jargon (slang and English are dialects and
foreign jargon, in this case, borrowed from English). In the 1990s, western
computer technology and systems first appeared in Russia, and thus also appear
in English. .
3. Methods for forming Anglicism
The process of borrowing new words is rather
quick, because a language reacts rapidly to the needs of the society.
Borrowings become the result of constant interrelations of peoples and states.
the methods for forming Anglicisms it is possible to distinguish the next
groups of borrowing:
Direct borrowing: words exist in the Russian language in their original forms.
They are words like “уик-енд” - the weekend; “блек” - Negro; “мани” – the
Hybrids: these words are formed by adding a Russian suffix or a prefix to the
English words. In this case, it changes the value of a foreign word: “аскать”
(to ask - спрашивать), “коннектиться” (to connect – связываться, соединяться)
Tracing: foreign words used with the preservation of their phonetic and graphic
appearance. It is words like “menu”, “the drive”, “the virus”, “the club”, and
Semi paper: word, obeying the rules in the grammatical development of Russian
grammar with the addition of the suffix. For example, “drive” in the meaning of
Exoticism: words used to characterize specific cultural phenomena of another
country describing non-Russian reality. These words do not have synonyms in the
Russian language. For example, “чипсы” (chips), “хот-дог” (hot-dog),
Foreign-language blotches: words that usually have lexical equivalents, but
stylistically are different from them and secured in a particular field of
communication. For example, “окей” (OK); “вау” (Wow!), “хэппи-енд”(happy end).
Composites: word composed of two English words, such as “секонд-хенд”
(second-hand – магазин, торгующий одеждой, бывшей в употреблении), “хит парад”
(hit parade - список самых популярных медиа-продуктов);
Jargonizes: words emerged as a result of any distortion of sounds, such as
“крезанутый” (от crazy - сумасшедший), “парентсы” (parents – родители).
is a living organism and it changes and develops together with its carriers.
Borrowings take root in the Russian language, and some of them are not clear
and others are for most people.
the one hand, the emergence of new words expands the vocabulary of the Russian
language, on the other in connection with the use of a huge number of
unnecessary borrowing occurs clogging of the Russian language, it is losing its
originality and unique beauty. However, do not forget that some of the loans
have analogues in the Russian language, which does not concede to Anglicisms in
their semantic and expressive properties.
4. Reasons for the influence and use of the
Anglicism on the formation of youth slang in the Russian language
is an integral part of the language and reflects the linguistic and cultural
features of the society that uses slang. We are witnessing slang go into many
areas of human activity such as slang units used in radio and television, news
and literature, the internet, not to mention the oral speech of people of
almost all ages, social groups, and classes. The correct use of slang
vocabulary units undoubtedly increases the level of language proficiency,
taking into account the tasks and needs of the speaker, as well as the
successful establishment and maintenance of interpersonal and group
relationships. This is the art of communication [2, pp. 57-68].
a little about the history of some slang. For example, where does the word cool
come from? The related word ‘beak’ – ‘good’ was first discovered in the
language of mobile traders of small goods. It had its tradition and very
colorful language of the 18th century. Linguists believe that the word
associated with them is ‘beak’. It turns out everything that bites is fine.
Cool and relatives-dialectics also recorded in the dictionary of V. I. Dahl: -
‘cool, crossing treasures, crossing treasures’ in Ryazan, Tambov, Tver
province, Vladimir is good, beautiful, and vocal. In dialect, a cool bride
means a beautiful bride. Interestingly, today it is considered a loan from a
clever, but clever Englishwoman. Today, one of the most popular of these words
was a party. Ubiquitous parties can be seen in newspapers and books rushing to
us from the TV screen. Where does the name come from? Words related to the
words ‘hang out’ are ‘shuffle (card)’ and ‘brawl’. These words come from
have passed, but young people continue to use English words and terms related
to computers and the Internet. The Internet has generated even more popular
Anglicisms among young people associated with the world wide web such as smile,
e-mail, online, connect, like, site, blog, blogger, chat, and so on.
Contemporary music and the so-called ‘club’ culture, as well as the film
industry, as an integral part of the lives of young people. Pop music, the dark
(heavy music), distribution, playlists, charts, face sports people, fitness,
bodybuilding, formation, and topics related, which is a popular sport such as
surfing. The active use of these words in the slang of modern youth is largely
due to the so-called ‘worship of the body beautiful’, to which the modern world
is not recommended. Derivative busters are marketing, broker, manager,
promoter, factory, boss, list price, sale, discount, and supermarket. When many
fast-food restaurants opened in Russia in the early 1990s, words such as fast
food, burgers, hot dogs, and cheese-burgers appeared in youth slang. To emulate
the lifestyle of American youth-produced one of the most slang groups. [7, p.
in the daily communication and the quality of daily life of Russian youth
through the use of the following words such as a man friend, VIP, credit card,
as well as that of the public, okay, oysters, hotels, parties, super girls,
children, God bless you, the number of most of the fall in market chaos. In the
Russian language, when young people communicate with their peers, English,
musical works, the media is removed from the Internet was widely used and have
lost their real semantic meaning, to determine the reasons for the use of
anglicism and to confirm the hypotheses put forward, a study was organized and
conducted an eight-question questionnaire with each other. The theme of
research with pupils from school № 9 in matters of 1-2, with a total of 60
people. Based on these results, we have reached the following conclusion, i.e.,
most of the young people use English (84%) when communicating, and the main
source of the word computer technology, the mass media, and the field of
education. (36%, 27%, 21% Thus); the meaning of the most commonly used English
words corresponds to the right meaning of the word (more than 90%). (40%, 28%,
27%, the head). Based on the following results, it is necessary to draw the
following conclusions. The main reason for the use of English is to promote
communication among young people. Concerning the semantic meaning of the word
when translated into Russian, it is completely impossible to say that it has
changed. Most of the words, when translated, have the same meaning as Anglican.
It should also be noted that most of the English words ‘moved’ to the Russian
language and were replaced by equivalents of English with their meanings. It
should be noted that based on the results of the study, this hypothesis is
partially confirmed. This opens up the prospect of further study of the
Episcopal Church, which can be considered, not just among young people, but
also among other age and social groups. In short, it should be noted that slang
will not disappear. Young people have been using slang for many years, and they
will keep on using it. There is no doubt that the slang has changed over time,
some words have died and others appeared. However, a lot of the English
language, which penetrated the jargon of the Russian youth long before the 21st
century, will remain in their jargon forever, with new words added every day.
In general, foreign language terminology is an
interesting linguistiс phenomenon, the role of which in the Russian language is
very important. English-Russian linguistic interaction has consistently
attraсted the attention of research aimed at the study of the total inflow of
foreign language vocabulary in Russian.
Using the knowledge on the topic and researching the
speech of our school pupils, we have succeeded in doing the tasks:
¾identified the causes of borrowings of
English words in the Russian language;
¾analyzed the theoretical materials related
to the borrowings.
¾considered the methods of formation of
¾found out the necessity of presence of
Anglicisms in the Russian language.
¾defined the popularity of using the
English words among the pupils our school.
a result, we can say that young people do not see
anything wrong with using Anglicisms and they use them in their speech.
However, despite the popularity of these words, not everyone knows the value of
words of English and cannot use them correctly.
Nowadays it is very
important to research the problems of borrowing foreign words, because many
researchers express apprehensions concerning great amount of borrowings in the
Russian language that spoils it and leads to its death. We do not have to
exclude all foreign words from our vocabulary, because they are important for
expressing many phenomena, but foreign language words should be used
appropriately without exaggeration.
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6.Lukin M.F. Criteria for the transition of parts of speech in
modern Russian // Philological Sciences - 2016. - No. 3 - PP. 49–55.
7.Matyushenko, E.E. Borrowing as one of the most productive
ways of forming units of modern youth slang // Social variants of language - 2013.
- No. 2 - PP. 386–389.
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13.Скачано с www.znanio.ru
Anglicisms in the modern Russian language
INTRODUCTION The actuality and practical significance of the research
Borrowed words: concept and characteristics
The history of Anglicisms in Russian
The second step can be traced back to the 1950s when the ‘man’ contributed to the formation of youth slang
English are dialects and foreign jargon, in this case, borrowed from
Composites: word composed of two
V. I. Dahl: - ‘cool, crossing treasures, crossing treasures’ in
English (84%) when communicating, and the main source of the word computer technology, the mass media, and the field of education
CONCLUSION In general, foreign language terminology is an interesting linguistiс phenomenon, the role of which in the
Концепт». — 2019. — № 5 (май)
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