Methods of teaching English in non-philological institutions
Оценка 4.6

Methods of teaching English in non-philological institutions

Оценка 4.6
docx
24.12.2020
Methods of teaching English in non-philological institutions
Methods of teaching English in non-philological institutions.docx

Methods of teaching English in

non-philological institutions

 

Saidkulova Nazokat Rahmonovna

Teacher of the department of Languages,

Chirchik higher tank command-engineering school

 

Due to the fact that the position of the English language in the world as a leading means of international communication is increasingly strengthened, and there are no significant trends to stop or slow down this process, the problem of creating an effective methodology for teaching English is extremely important. As you know, the human brain most actively perceives and remembers information and works productively during the first half of life; Thus, in the case of the English language, as well as with a huge number of other disciplines, it is extremely important to provide the possibility of mastering the language at a relatively early stage in the development of the human personality. This work is devoted to a review of the so-called communicative methodology of teaching English in high school, which seems to the author the most effective and promising of all existing and currently used. It should be noted that the effectiveness of this technique is confirmed by the results of its application in European countries over the past 15-20 years. It is also encouraging that in recent years there have been observed, if not ubiquitous, but already significant experiences in integrating a communicative methodology into the system of language education in Uzbekistan.

1. A communicative system-activity approach to teaching English

Let us first consider in general terms a communicative system-activity approach to teaching English. This approach is the implementation of such a learning method in which an ordered, systematic and interrelated teaching of the English language is carried out as a means of communication in the conditions of the modeled (reproduced) in the classroom speech activity - an integral and integral part of the general (extralinguistic) activity. A communicative system-activity approach involves a complete and optimal systematization of the relationship between the components of the learning content. These include a system of general (for example, extra-linguistic, pedagogical) activity, a system of speech activity, a system of verbal communication (communication, interaction and mutual perception), the system of the English language itself, a systematic correlation of the native and English languages ​​(their consciously-comparative analysis), the system speech mechanisms (speech production, speech perception, speech interaction, etc.), text as a system of speech products, system of structural-speech formations (dialogue, monologue, monologue in dialogue, different types s speech utterances and messages, and so on. p.), the system (process) of learning English system (structure) human verbal behavior. As a result of this approach in training, a system of English proficiency is formed, implemented and operates as a means of communication in the broad sense of the word. Such a system, taking into account its use for teaching the English language, should also include the interdependence of general motives with the motives and needs of the communication associated with it; subject content and methods of performing activities; typical conditions of its course and the nature of the interaction of its participants (interindividual, group), as well as determining the nature, content and forms of relationships and communication of participants adopted in the framework of this activity: in the unity of their communicative, interactive and perceptual aspects, role, place, spheres and situations of English-language speech communication.

2. Communicative methodology of teaching English

Consider now the communicative methodology of teaching English. The overview of the methodology given in this section is based on the pan-European concept of teaching foreign languages ​​in accordance with this methodology, and therefore most of the recommendations are given regarding “foreign languages”. However, it should be noted that the communicative methodology was originally developed with reference to the English language as the most common means of international communication (which, by the way, can be seen from the extensive terminology given in this section), and therefore everything that is said below is primarily refers to teaching English and is tested in practice precisely during the training of students of European and other countries in English.

In the 60s, the Council of Europe took a number of measures aimed at developing a program to intensify the teaching of foreign languages ​​on the continent. In 1971, a group of experts was tasked with exploring the possibilities of creating a system of teaching foreign languages ​​to schoolchildren and adult learners.

This was the starting point of a series of studies aimed at developing a concept that could focus on the formation and development of the ability to communicate in a foreign language in the context of student-centered learning. As a result, the idea of ​​developing threshold levels (threshold levels) as specific goals for mastering a foreign language was formed. What was originally intended primarily for adult learners was successfully adapted to the goals and content of instruction in schools and other educational institutions. In 1982, the results of the studies were presented and analyzed in the document "Modern languages: 1971-81". This made it possible to significantly expand the possibilities of practical use of the developed approach on a functional-semantic basis and the implementation of the basic principles in several directions: in the development of new methods and the creation of new training materials, in the creation of integrated technological training systems (multi-media systems), in the development of assessment systems and self-esteem, self-learning based on its individualization (learner autonomy), in the development of recommendations for the training of teachers of a foreign language.

Subsequently, in the 80-90s, a number of research projects were carried out, which had as their goal the formation of a system of communicative training. An important place among them was taken by Project No. 12: “Learning and leaching modern languages ​​for communication” 2. Particular attention in the integrated communicative approach, systematized on the basis of theoretical developments and practical experience in teaching foreign languages ​​in the UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and other Western European countries, is given to the communicative orientation of training sessions and the teaching materials used to teach a foreign language as a means of communication. Three levels of initial (basic) mastery of the language were identified: 1) level “survival level”, 2) “path to language” (waystage level), 3) threshold level. For a number of Western European languages, detailed requirements and content for these levels have been developed. In terms of content and volume, the Waystage and Threshold Level are correlated as 1: 2 while maintaining all the main aspects in both. The materials used in the training should form linguistic competence (possession of linguistic material for its use in the form of speech utterances), sociolinguistic competence (the ability to use language units in accordance with communication situations), discursive competence (the ability to understand and achieve coherence in the perception and generation of individual expressions in within communicatively significant speech formations), the so-called “strategic” competence (the ability to compensate for verbal and non-verbal means lack of language skills), socio-cultural competence (degree of familiarity with the socio-cultural context of the functioning of the language), social competence (ability and willingness to communicate with others). In general, the implementation of the Language Learning for European citizenship program should give Europeans the opportunity to communicate freely, remove language barriers, and achieve mutual understanding and respect. Both levels in a carefully designed form are models of the planned (for a certain period of study) knowledge of a foreign language as a means of effective communication.

In the English version of both levels, researchers J. van Ek and J. Trim identify as the main components such as:

1) classified situations of communication (contacts with officials, situations of social and everyday communication and social interaction, situations of textual activity, situations of communication within the socio-cultural context of the language being studied - speech and social etiquette, etc., situations related to mastering the language of educational activities, situations of familiarization with the culture of the people and the country of the language being studied; situations of communication with native speakers of the language being studied, involving the completion of training in the process of interaction with them, power, error correction, tip, etc.).;

2) the functions of the language and the most appropriate options for their implementation (search and receipt of information, expression and clarification of the relationship, expression of doubt, pleasure, happiness, fear, etc.);

3) means of designating and transmitting common meanings (existence, space, time, quantity, quality, thinking, attitude, indication);

4) means of transmitting separate (specific) meanings in thematic groups (personal identification, home and home, environment, daily life, free time and entertainment, travel, relationships with other people, health and care for him, education, shopping, nutrition , service, attractions and places to visit, language, weather);

5) patterns of verbal interaction (they relate to the most frequently encountered and used, as a rule, fixed types of interaction, for example, in the process of making purchases and orders, searching and receiving information, meeting people, walking around the city, recognizing and naming time, discussing and etc.);

6) types of texts, auditory, printed and written materials that can be or become sources of information, and skills corresponding to their perception;

7) a list of materials whose knowledge requires mastering the language in a socio-cultural context (geographic realities, accepted patterns of communication, national traditions, rituals, habits, forms of politeness, gestures, etc.);

8) a list of skills that the learner must possess in order to compensate for deficiencies in foreign language skills (in the process of reading and hearing perception of foreign speech, speaking and writing, in the process of interaction with a native speaker or a more experienced interlocutor in the language);

 

9) a list of skills necessary for a student of a foreign language in all types of speech activity, in working with various sources, in independent work and self-esteem.

Along with the above, in each of the mentioned levels, the degree of mastery and possession of acquired language and speech material is established. This degree is defined as the main criterion for pragmatic adequacy, which involves the coincidence of the transmitted and perceived communicative intentions of communication partners or the meanings of their statements. The second criterion, of a higher order, in this case becomes the degree of communication efficiency. Corresponding to the Waystage and Threshold Levels, scales are established for assessing and self-assessment of mastery and knowledge of a foreign language based on the use of multi-level scales in the spectrum from zero to ideal (expert, for example) language proficiency.

 

LIST OF REFERENCES

1.   Maslyko E.A. “Communicative English for Intensive Learning”. Minsk, 1989, 240p.

2.   Brumfit S., Johnson K. “The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching”. Oxford,1981, 234p.

3.   Widdowson H.G. “Teaching Language as Communication” Oxford, 1979, 273p.

 


 

Methods of teaching English in non-philological institutions

Methods of teaching English in non-philological institutions

A communicative system-activity approach involves a complete and optimal systematization of the relationship between the components of the learning content

A communicative system-activity approach involves a complete and optimal systematization of the relationship between the components of the learning content

However, it should be noted that the communicative methodology was originally developed with reference to the

However, it should be noted that the communicative methodology was originally developed with reference to the

An important place among them was taken by

An important place among them was taken by

1) classified situations of communication (contacts with officials, situations of social and everyday communication and social interaction, situations of textual activity, situations of communication within…

1) classified situations of communication (contacts with officials, situations of social and everyday communication and social interaction, situations of textual activity, situations of communication within…

Along with the above, in each of the mentioned levels, the degree of mastery and possession of acquired language and speech material is established

Along with the above, in each of the mentioned levels, the degree of mastery and possession of acquired language and speech material is established
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