4_Database_concepts_lp_method_v2
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4_Database_concepts_lp_method_v2

Оценка 4.8
docx
09.05.2020
4_Database_concepts_lp_method_v2
4_Database_concepts_lp_method_v2.docx

Database

A database is an organized collection of structured information, or data, typically stored electronically in a computer system. A database is usually controlled by a database management system (DBMS). Together, the data and the DBMS, along with the applications that are associated with them, are referred to as a database system, often shortened to just database.

Data within the most common types of databases in operation today is typically modeled in rows and columns in a series of tables to make processing and data querying efficient. The data can then be easily accessed, managed, modified, updated, controlled, and organized. Most databases use structured query language (SQL) for writing and querying data.

database index is a data structure that improves the speed of data retrieval operations on a database table at the cost of additional writes and storage space to maintain the index data structure. Indexes are used to quickly locate data without having to search every row in a database table every time a database table is accessed. Indexes can be created using one or more columns of a database table, providing the basis for both rapid random lookups and efficient access of ordered records.

An index is a copy of selected columns of data from a table that can be searched very efficiently that also includes a low-level disk block address or direct link to the complete row of data it was copied from. Some databases extend the power of indexing by letting developers create indexes on functions or expressions. For example, an index could be created on upper(last_name), which would only store the upper-case versions of the last_name field in the index. Another option sometimes supported is the use of partial indices, where index entries are created only for those records that satisfy some conditional expression. A further aspect of flexibility is to permit indexing on user-defined functions, as well as expressions formed from an assortment of built-in functions.

Tables, Records, and Fields

Tables

A database table is composed of records and fields that hold data. Tables are also called datasheets. Each table in a database holds data about a different, but related, subject.

https://www.cengage.com/school/corpview/RegularFeatures/DatabaseTutorial/figures/figure_2.gif
Figure 2 Database Table

Records

Data is stored in records. A record is composed of fields and contains all the data about one particular person, company, or item in a database. In this database, a record contains the data for one customer support incident report. Records appear as rows in the database table. A record for Log ID 1201242 is highlighted in Figure 3.

https://www.cengage.com/school/corpview/RegularFeatures/DatabaseTutorial/figures/figure_3.gif
Figure 3 Records appear as rows in a database table.

Fields

A field is part of a record and contains a single piece of data for the subject of the record. In the database table illustrated in Figure 4, each record contains four fields:

Log ID

A number assigned to this customer support incident for identification purposes

Operator

The code for the customer support operator who handled this incident

Resolved

A check box to indicate whether the incident was resolved

Duration

The time in seconds the operator spent on this incident

Fields appear as columns in a database table. Data from the Log ID field for five records is highlighted in the Figure 4.

https://www.cengage.com/school/corpview/RegularFeatures/DatabaseTutorial/figures/figure_4.gif
Figure 4 Fields appear as columns in a database table.

 

https://www.oracle.com/database/what-is-database.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database_index

https://www.cengage.com/school/corpview/RegularFeatures/DatabaseTutorial/db_elements/db_elements2.htm


 

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Database A database is an organized collection of structured information, or data, typically stored electronically in a computer system

Database A database is an organized collection of structured information, or data, typically stored electronically in a computer system

Figure 3 Records appear as rows in a database table

Figure 3 Records appear as rows in a database table
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