АНГЛИЙСКИЙ С1-С2
Оценка 4.7

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ С1-С2

Оценка 4.7
Домашнее обучение +5
pdf
английский язык +2
10 кл—11 кл +1
27.04.2018
Публикация является частью публикации:
Upper-Interm_SB.pdf

oxford exam support

Solutions

Upper-Intermediate Student's Book

Words app

Words on the go!

'lil

Tim Falla, Paul A Davies                                                                                OXFORD


Solutions 2nd edition

Upper-intermediate Words app


Words on the go! Look up, listen to and practise words from Solutions 2nd edition anytime, anyplace.

test knowledge of

into contextual how words are used

iPod touch@ and





Check your progress

Think about your progress as you work through Solutions 2nd edition Upper-Intermediote. After completing Skills Round-up read each statement and write the number Of ticks (V) that is true for you. DO the same again after Skills Round•up I —10.


I need more practice.                         I sometimes find this difficult.                           NO problem!

In English I tan

Skills

Round-up

Skills

Round-up

1-10

Listening

 

Bl

understand the main points of speech about familiar topics and follow the main points Of an extended discussion. IA. 2C, IOC

 

 

B2

understand extended discussions on familiar topics and identify speaker viewpoints. SC. 6C, 8A

 

 

B2

understand and react to current affairs radio programmes. 4A. 5C.6C

 

 

B2

follow complex lines of argument on familiar topics. 2C, 'C, SC, 6C

 

 

B2

understand detailed and linguistically complex descriptive and narrative passages. IC, 5D, 9C

 

 

 

understand a wide range Of broadcast material and identify finer points of detail. 3B, 8A.9A

 

 

 

 

Bl

understand the description Of events and feelings. 1C. ID. 3D.90

 

 

B2

scan quickly through long and complex texts. locating relevant detail. 50.60. ID, 80.90

 

 

B2

understand magazine articles about current issues in which writers adopt particular viewpoints. 2C,

 

 

2

understand factual articles and reports. 80, IOD

 

 

Cl

understand long and complex factual and literary texts. 40, 60, 7D, 80

 

 

Speaking

 

Bl

express personal views on familiar topics. IA, 2A. 2E, 6F

 

 

 

give detailed accounts Of events, real or imagined. 5E, 7E, 8B

 

 

B2

present detailed descriptions on a variety Of familiar topics. SD, 7A

 

 

B2

take an active part in a discussion On familiar topics. 1B, 2B.3D

 

 

B2

develop a clear argument, Supporting my views at some length With relevant examples. 1 G, 2D.4A, 9E

 

 

B2

explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages. 3C, 7C, 8A, I OG

 

 

Cl

formulate ideas and Opinions and present them skilfully and coherently to Others. 5E, 6A, 6C, ID

 

 

Writing

 

BI

Write accounts Of experiences, describing feelings and reactions in a simple text. 5G, 9G

 

 

Bl

write detailed descriptions on a range of familiar subjects. IG, 66. IOG

 

 

B2

writea review of a film, book or play. 7G

 

 

B2

write detailed descriptions of real or imaginary events in a clear connected text. 2G, 5G, 9G

 

 

B2

write an essay which develops an argument. giving reasons in support Of Or against a particular point ofview. 3G, 86

 

 

B2

write an essay Which develops an argument, explaining the advantages and disadvantages of various options. 3G

 

 

Cl

expand and support Views With subsidiary points, reasons and examples. 8G

 

 

CI

write formally correct letters. 4G

 

 

Check your progress                                                                                                                     O Oxford University Press

THIS UNIT INCLUDES

                   Describe the photos. What mental qualities do                   adjectives?

the people need for doing these activities? Which of those

 

 

qualities do you have, in your opinion?

5

 Choose the three adjectives from exercise 2 which

2  Check the meaning of the adjectives below. Which could you use to describe the people in the photos?

 

best describe you, in your opinion. Explain your choices to your partner.

Why?

6

            Listen to six people discussing personality traits.

Personality traits ambitious argumentative assertive

 

Which question             is each person answering? Whose answer

calm considerate conventional creative dedicated

 

surprises you most?

eccentric immature organised outgoing responsible

 

Which personality trait:

selfish sensible serious sociable stubborn

 

a do you find most annoying? Wtv,'?

unconventional

 

b   do you most admire? Why?

c    would you like but don't have? Give reasons.

D VOCABULARY BUILDER 1.1: PAGE 134

 

d would you prefer not to have? Give reasons.

3 Complete the sentences With adjectives from exercise 2.

 

e is the most important to become rich? Why? f is the most important in a friend? Why?

I My brother is so ! He screams like a baby if he

7

1.02 Listen again and complete the compound

loses at a game.

 

 

      2 My aunt is very                  . If a conversation isn't about

 

adjectives I —6.

her, she isn't interested.•motivated•tempered

    3 You're so                                        If I give an opinion, you always•mean•ng-skinned

disagree with it!

 

    -minded                     •pinching

4 suppose I'm quite   . don'twantto go Out,

8

 Work in pairs. Ask and answer all the questions in

      impossible to persuade me!

5 My best friend is very If her parents have to

 

exercise 6. Give your own ideas and reasons.

work late, she looks after her little brothers.

 

D VOCABULARY BUILDER 1.2: PAGE 134

                                                                                                                                                                                           I Out Of the                    

Complete each sentence


people need to climb mountains?

2     Read the text and find the name, age and nationality Of the person it is describing. Then give your own answers to the two questions at the end Of the text.

AT FIRST GLANCE, Jordan appears to be a typical American teenager, but for the past three years he has not been leading an ordinary life. Since he was ten. he's had a single goal: to climb the highest mountain on every continent in the world.

Now thirteen, Jordan has already climbed seven ot the eight mountains on his list including Mount Everest he is due to climb the last, Mount Vinson in Antarctica. next month. He's been using Facebook and Twitter to publicise his climbs arui raise money. And recently, Jordan has been giving motivational talks to schoolchildren around the world via an online link. Tve learned a lot about setting goals. healthy eating and living and Of Course climbing mountains: He has also tpen appearing on TV chat shows.

But some experts have been voicing concerns about the climbs. Have Jordan and his family been consldering the risks? Or have they been thinking more about the publicity?

3     Read the Learn this! box. Then underline all the examples Of the present perfect continuous in the text in exercise 2 and match them With uses 1, 2 and 3.

Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous

I We use the present perfect continuous form for an action in progress and, the simple form for a completed action.

I've been learning Russian, but / can't speak it well.

I've learnt a new piece On the piano. / can ploy it now.

2 We use the continuous form for something which has been happening recently and repeatedly:

/ haven 't been doing my homework this term. But we use the simple form for one occasion or an exact number Of Occasions:

I haven't done my proiect/my last three projects.

3 We can use the simple or continuous form with for or since to say how long a Current action has been in progress. The continuous form is more frequent: I've been waiting/"ve waited for hours!

D GRAMMAR BUILDER 1.1: PAGE 115

Out of the ordinary

simple and continuous. Explain the difference.

(read) the new Stephenie Meyer novel.

2 We             (not play) football for a long time. 3 She       (do) well in her exams this year. (finish) his science homework.

My parents (go) to the new gym. 6 You (eat) my crisps!

LOOK OUT!

State verbs are verbs which describe States, whereas dynamic verbs describe actions. We do not use State verbs in continuous tenses.

X I've always hated dogs. Some verbs can be State or dynamic verbs, depending on the meaning: e.g. taste is a dynamic verb when it means try.

We've been tasting different cheeses.

Is.üt.tastinyttrrmy?x Does it taste funny?

5     Read the Look out! box. Then find a verb in the text in exercise 2 which is used once as a state verb and once as a dynamic verb. What is the difference in meaning?

D GRAMMAR BUILDER 1.2: PAGE 115

6     Complete the sentences about Jordan using the present perfect continuous, affirmative or negative. or the present perfect simple form when the continuous is not correct.  His dad and Step-mum  (help) him.

2    He               (like) mountain-climbing since he was

(climb) the highest mountain in Australia.

(not climb) the highest mountain in

(not go) to school very regularly this year. (appear' on TV a lot recently.

7     Look at the prompts    and write questions using the present perfect continuous if possible. If it is a State verb, use the present pertKt simple

I what / you / watch on TV / recently?

2    how long /                 English?

3    vou / work hard / recentty?

4    how long you            /              teacher?

5    your best friend seem I happy / recently?

6    how much / it / rain / this month?

7    What time /                / goto bed / recently?

understand this grammar lesson?

In pairs, make a list Of books, films or TV shows                                                                                   1.04 Read an extract from TO Kill A Mockingbird,

8     Ask and answer the questions in about adolescents. HOW many can you think of in three minutes?

2    1.03 Listen to a radio programme about two writers. Think Of at least two things they have in common.

EXAM

TIP

 

 

 

 

 

When you do a multiple choice listening task, mark the answers you know after the first listening. When you listen again, focus mainly on the answers you still need.

3    Read the Exam tip and mark the answers Which you think you know for questions 1—5. Then listen again and choose the best answers. 1 The novelist l. D. Salinger went to university but a was asked to leave.

b received poor grades in his first year. c left before finishing the first year.

d did not regard getting a degree as •success'.

2   Salinger's famous novel about adolescence was a popular mainly because it was controversial. b only popular with younger readers. c extremely popular but condemned by some people. d not taught in many schools at first.

3   Because Salinger refused to be in the public eye, a people stopped asking him for interviews. b nobody was even sure What religion he was. c he was rarely talked about.

d his fame actually increased.

4    Harper Lee's education was a not as successful as she had hoped. b more successful than Salinger's. c not as successful as Salinger's. d very similar to Salinger's.

5    How did Harper Lee find time to write herfirst novel? a A friend paid for her to take a year off work. b A friend got her work as a songwriter in New York. c She couldn't find a job in New York.

d She wrote slowly for ten years in total.

 Complete the chart using a dictionary to help you if necessary. Which four religions did J. D. Salinger follow during his life, according to the radio programme?

Religion

Christianity

Hinduism

Islam

Judaism

Adjective Buddhist

            / Islamic

Sikh

Follower

Buddhist

narrated by a girt called Scout. find two separate implications in the text that Aunt Alexandra will be staying for a long time.

'Put my bag in the front bedrcÄMn, Calpurnia,' was the first thing Aunt Alexandra said. 'Jean Louise, stop scratching your head,' was the second thing she said. Calpurnta picked up Aunty"s heavy suitcase and opened the door. 'I'll take it,' said Jem, and took it. I heard the suitcase hit the bedroom floor with a thump. The sound had a dull permanence about it. 'Have you come for a visit, Aunty?' I asked. Aunt Alexandra's visits from the Landing were rare, and she travelled in state. She owned a bright green square Buick and a black chauffeur, both kept in an unhealthy State of tidiness, but today they were nowhere to be seen.

'Didn't your father tell you?' she asked.

Jem and I shook our heads.

' ProbÖ• he forgot. He's not in yet, is he?' 'Nome, he doesn't usually get back till late afternoon,' said Jem,

'Well, your father and I decided it was time I came to stay with you for a while. '

'For a while' in Maycomb meant anything from three days to thirty years, Jem and I exchanged glances. 'Jem's growing up now and you are too,' she said to me. "We decided that it would be best for you to have some feminine influence. It won't be many years, Jean Louise, before you become interested in clothes and boys. I could have made several answers to this: Cal's a girl; it would be many years before I would be interested in boys; [ would never be interested in clothes but I kept quiet.

6    Find evidence in the text Which implies that:

1           Aunt Alexandra is bossy.

2           Jem is considerate.

3           Scout and Jern•s father is absent-minded. 4 Scout is a tomboy.

7     Work in pairs. Choose one book, film or W show


from your list in exercise I. Give an example Of how it deals With one or more of these topics:

  friendship and arguments between friends.  the relationship between teenagers and adults.  rebellion and breaking the rules.

  becoming an adult and taking responsibility for your life. 1 Outofthe


ID READING A maths prodigy

I can understand and react to a text about a high achiever.

BAD SCHOOL LIVES


Work in pairs. Discuss the quotation below. What personality adjectives could you use to describe this person? Does it sound like you?

I'm desperate to achieve. I'm desperate to get high margs. I'm too hard on m•fself_

Cameron Thompson, fourteen•gear-old mathsprodigy

2     1109 Read the text opposite about Cameron Thompson. DO you think the adjectives you chose in exercise I are accurate? What Others could you add to your description? Justify your answer with evidence from the text.

EXAM TIP

 

 

 

 

When you do a multiple choice reading task, read the options carefully and choose the one which matches the text in terms of information. DO not be distracted by specific words or phrases. focus on the meaning.

3     Read the Exam tip. Then choose the correct answers for the questions (1—5).

I Between the ages Of four and ten, Cameron a demonstrated outstanding ability in maths. b allowed his passion for numbers to dominate his life. c excelled at various school subjects.

d  didn't really fulfil his promise at maths.

3   Cameron's problems With communication a have been getting worse recently.

b haven't been affecting his popularity at school. c are irrelevant when he's doing maths, d have been interfering With his ability to do maths work.

4   Cameron met a boy at his new school who a has something in common with him.

b has even more severe problems With communication. c is even better at maths.

d  took a strong dislike to him from the first day.

4     Professor Leader thinks Cameron should a continue With his degree.

b have a temporary break from his degree. c give up maths completely for a few years. d try to increase the speed Of his progress.

5     Recently. Cameron has noticed a a deterioration in his relationship with his parents. b a loss of ambition academically. c an improvement in his social life.

d a sudden improvement in his school life.

Out ofthe ordinary

Teachers first noticed Cameron Thompson's talent for numbers when he was four years old and at pre-school. Throughout primary school, Cameron Thompson's best subject was maths. Then. When he was eleven, he took a maths test prior to entering secondary school. The test was Out of 140; Cameron scored 141. 'l broke the system,' he recalls.

Since then. he has continued to progress quickly. He passed two GCSEs (maths and further maths) at the age Of eleven and then got the highest grade in his maths A-Ievel before the end Of that same academic year. He is now fϥrteen years Old and studying for a degree in maths, a remarkable achievement bearing in mind his age.

But his academic achievements have not always been matched by social Success. 'I have the social ability Of a talking potato,' he admits. In other words. he feels more at ease with numbers than among Other teenagers. 'Most people my age do despise me. rve been like this for years.'

Communication is not one of Cameron's strong points and, aside from the problems this causes socially. it is now beginning affect his marks in mathematics. This is because. at undergraduate level, he is expected to give


 

4

 Look at the prepositions and prepositional phrases (1—10) below. Match them With the highlighted prepositions in the text.

I considering            5 before                                9 because of

2    together with 6 apart from         10 regarding

3    about                7 past/furtherthan

4    with   8 right through

 

5

 Choose the correct preposition in these sentences. Then say if you agree or disagree.

 It's better to maintain the same extra-curricular activities right through / before school.

2 Doing a hobby usually means spending more time about / among people your own age.

 It's impossible to devote your energy to hobbies alongside / aside from schoolwork and exams.

4 It's essential to develop non-academic skills prior to / regarding starting your career.

reasons for his answers alongside the answers themselves.

 

 Many teenagers can't pursue their hobbies easily

Cameron's difficulty is that he Often doesn't know how he

 

considering / Owing to a lack of facilities.

has arrived at the answers, even though the answers are

 

6 Doing hobbies can help develop useful skills among /

usually correct.

 

aside from the ones you need for the hobby itself.

Cameron and his family have recently moved house and

6

 Work in pairs. Agree on three out-of-school

Cameron is due to start at a new school. He regards it as

 

activities which would be best for developing a person's

a chance to make a fresh start and make some friends.

 

social skills. Give reasons for your choices. Use the activities

gut his mother, Alison, has a few worries concerning his lack Of social skills. While she describes Cameron as •very

 

below or your own ideas.

sensitive', she also acknowledges that he is socially naive

 

Extra-curricular activities doing drama doing karate

and often oblivious to signals from Other people.

 

doing yoga going dancing going shopping

The new school specialises in dealing with students

 

joining a choir jogging learning an instrument

who, like Cameron, excel academically but find it difficult

 

playing basketball playing computer games

to relate to other students. And indeed, on his first day.

 

watch ing sport

Cameron did make a new friend — a boy called Tim — mainly

7

 Prepare a role-play.

oning to a shared dislike Of lustin Bieber's music.

 

 

Recently, a maths professor from Cambridge University

 

Student A: You are a teenager who, like Cameron, has poor

has been looking at Cameron's work. His advice to

 

social skills. You want advice on how to improve them.

Cameron is perhaps surprising. professor Imre Leader

 

Student B: You are giving Student A advice on how to

thinks Cameron should slow down. Stop taking maths

 

improve his/her social skills. Suggest activities to achieve

exams, and wait until he is eighteen before doing a degree.

 

this.

•There's quite an important distinction,' he explains,

8

 Perform your role-play to the class. Together. you

•Between taking lots of exams as fast as you can, and

 

should agree on one activity for Student A to try. Use the

relaxing and enjoying the level that you are at — What we call enrichment.' Professor Leader believes Cameron Will

 

expressions below to help you.

do better in the long run if he Stops trying to progress so

 

Su      stin

.uickly_ And although Cameron does want to finish his

 

How about taking up ? It's realty good for (building


current degree. he isn't making any academic plans beyond   confidence/meeting people/ getting fit, etc.) that. He goes to a weekly karate class after school. And    Or what about recently. he went to a computer games convention with                In that case, why don't you try ? some friends from karate.

  Since turning fourteen, Cameron's feelings towards girls                        0b ectin

being disgusted by them.' He's even been on a first date — without his parents. And in general, he feels less isolated and unusual than he did before. 'There are other people me — high maths abilities, bad school lives — I am not

Spooky. '

be my thing/would suit me).

Maybe you've got a point./That's not a bad idea./l could try it, I suppose./l might give it a go.

Save changed. As he puts it, 'I started to like them instead                       TO be honest, I don't realty like     not that keen on ...Il don't feel happy about               don't think (would


1                                                              9

Work in pairs. Discuss how strongly you agree With this Statement: I prefer to be in the background than in the The verbs remember, forget, stop and try can be followed


spotlight. Give it a mark between 5 (strongly agree) and 0 (strongly disagree).

2                                                              Work in pairs. DO questions 1—3 Of a personality quiz. Are the results So far similar to your ideas in exercise I?

Fitting in or STANDING OUT: Which do YOU prefer?

Take the personality quiz and find out!

More a's than b's? You like to stand out!

Do you let your friends to-row your clothes?

Sure - ant I hen them choose! b No W3/!

If you want your               decorated do you invite        friends to come tor a Dainting ;nrty•? decide to paint it yourself one weekend?

If a stranger seems tabe upset in the street doyou ,offet to help immediately?

b avoid helping because you teel shy?

3    Read the Learn this! box. Complete the second example of each pattern With phrases from the quiz in exercise 2.

 

Verb pattern S

I verb + infinitive a They failed to finish the race.

2    verb + •ing form a / gave up doing karate         school.

3    verb + Object + infinitive a They forced him to get into the Cor.

4    verb + Object * infinitive without to a She made me wait outside her office.

5    verb + Object + past participle a Let's get your bike repaired tomorrow.

 

 

 

 

4    find three more examples Of verb patterns in questions Of exercise 2. Which pattern does each one belong to?

5    Can you remember if the verbs below are followed by (A) an infinitive or (B) an •ing form? Label them A or B then check your answers in the Grammar Builder 1.3 on page 116.

agree avoid can't help can't stand consider deny enjoy feel like finish hope imagine keep (on) miss practise pretend refuse risk spend (time) suggest

Outoftheordinary

by an infinitive or •ing form, but with different meanings: I remembered to vote. / / don't remember voting (but I did).

I'll never forget visiting the Tate. I forgot to visit the Tate. She's stopped smoking. / She stopped to light a cigarette. / tried to stand up but / couldn't. / tried standing up but / still couldn't see the stage.

The verbs see, hear, watch and feel are followed by an Object ± -ing form for ongoing actions, or an Object infinitive without to for completed actions:

/ can felt him staring at me. / felt the ball brush mvarrn. / saw two cats fighting. / Did you see him steal the car?

6                                 Read the Look out! box. Then explain the difference in meaning between each pair Of sentences. 1 a heard my neighbour shout.

b heard my neighbour shouting.

2          a She tried smiling at the policeman.

b She tried to smile at the policeman.

3          a The busker stopped chatting With the crowd. b The busker stopped to chat With the crowd. 4 a You must remember to speak to Sam. b You must remember speaking to Sam.

D GRAMMAR BUILDER 1.3: PAGE 116

7                                 Complete questions                 Of the quiz. Use the infinitive (With or Without to), past participle or •ing form Of the verb in brackets. Then answer the questions.

8                                 In pairs. write two more questions for the quiz.

Include at least one verb pattern from the Learn this! or Look out! box. Swap With another pair and answer their questions.


Photo description

I can describe a photo and answer questions about it.


1                                        Look at the photo.

Choose three adjectives below to describe the couple's overall appearance. Then compare your ideas in pairs. Do you agree?

attention-seeking cool fashionable individual intriguing messy outlandish unattractive

2                                        Work in pairs.

Add the words below to the mind map. Then add as many other words as you can in two minutes.

bracelet crouching dyed eye-liner mascara moody piercing spiky tie tights

hair clothes  make-up

       expression/posture                     jewellery

3         .06 Listen to a candidate describing the photo in exercise

1. How many of the words in exercise 2 does she mention?

EXAM

TIP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When you describe a photo, talk about what you can see and also what you can guess Or deduce. For guesses and deductions. avoid repeating think and instead use phrases like; should think they are Mavbe/Perhaps

They look as if... They 100k like

They look as though They are obviously I'd say they are

They could be/may be/might be

Read the first Exam tip. Then listen to the candidate again. Which of the phrases in the box does she use?

EXAM

TIP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The examiner's first question in the picture description task usually asks you to interpret the picture, the second usually requires you to give a more general opinion. Listen carefully to each question and make sure you really answer them.

5     Read the second Exam tip. Then read the phrases below and decide if each one would be more useful in answering question 1 or question 2 in the exam.

a Judging by , I reckon b By and large, c Looking at . I'd say that d Personally, I think„ e In my experience, f Jr s clear from the photo that

6     Look at the examiner's first two questions for the photo in exercise I. Discuss them in pairs and note down your ideas. Do you think the boy in the photo cares about his appearance? do you think so?

2 How much can you tell about a teenagers personality just from looking at their appearance?

7     1.07 NOW listen to the candidate answering the questions. Do you agree with her answers? Why?'Why not?

8     1.07 Listen again. Which phrases from exercise 5 does the candidate use?

9     In pairs, describe the photo below. Then take turns to ask and answer the examiner's first two questions. Include at least two phrases from exercise 5.

1   What impression do you think these women want to give other people?

2   Why do some young people want to dress in a way that older people find shocking?


unit

Read the saying below and its definition. DO you   Match four adjectives from the words below With Connor


agree or disagree? Give examples to support your opinion.

Opposites attract.

 

and four with Bess. Justify your answers using phrases from

 

People Who are very different tend to get on well together.

 

conformist considerate dependable funny

 

2 Read the text. Can you explain the title?

 

outgoing shy unconventional unreliable

 

 

4

Complete these contrasting pairs Of phrases

 

CÐ/LZ and CHEESE

 

for describing character and behaviour. Use the verbs below. Which phrases are in the text in exercise 2?

count get give keep let look play take wear

 

 

Describing character and behaviour

 

be up for anything/               it safe

 

(always) on the bright side expect the worst speak your mind your Opinions to yourself things in your stride / get stressed your heart on your sleeve / not much away never be lost for words / tongue-tied me down / I can't on you

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Complete the second sentence So that it means the same as the first. Write 2—5 words, including the word in brackets.

Connor and Bess are completely different from each other.

 

She takes everything in her stride.

They're both seventeen years old, but that's about all

 

          She                                       about anything. (stressed)

they've got in common!

 

You can always count on me.

For a teenager, Connor comes across as very confident.

 

down. (never)

He finds it easy to talk to people and is never lost for words.

 

a Suddenly, I got tongue-tied.

He's got a good sense of humour and really enjoys making

 

            was                                     words. (lost)

people laugh.

 

He doesn't give much away.

As far as clothes go, Connor dresses in quite an unusual

 

          He doesn't                                     his sleeve. (heart)

way and buys a lot Of his outfits in second-hand markets

 

a I usually expect the worst.

and charity shops. He Often changes his hairstyle too.

Connor is really good fun to be With. He's up for anything,

 

          I rarely                                     side. (bright)

and when you go out with him, you end up doing some

6

Read the Look out! box below. Find an example Of this use Of

crazy things. Having said that, he isn't that reliable. We

Often make plans to go out at the weekend, but he's always

 

the present continuous in the text in exercise 2.

phoning me at the last minute to change the arrangement.

 

LOOK OUT!

Unlike Connor, Bess hates being the centre Of attention

 

We normally use the present simple for describing regular

and isn't particularly interested in fashion. When it comes

 

actions. However, we can use the present continuous with

to clothes, Bess usually plays it safe. And Whilst Connor

 

always or forever to express disapproval.

regularly changes his hairstyle, Bess's hair has looked the

 

Tom always goes home by bus. (fact)

same since I first met her.

 

Lucy is always asking me for money. (disapproval)

When Bess is with close friends. she tends to be very talkative, but she often gets tongue-tied in social               7             In pairs, discuss which person in the text, Connor

situations. However, she's a very good friend. She always thinks Of Others and she never lets you down.

Connor and Bess are complete opposites. Nevertheless, I get on well With both of them — and surprisingly, perhaps, they get On well together.

or Bess, is more like you, in your opinion. Who would you rather be friends with? Give reasons.

Outofthe ordinary

You are going to do the following exam writing task. Look at


the list Of topics you might include in the description. Which ones are mentioned in the text on page 12?

Write a description of two people you know Who are very different. Write 200—250 words.

exercise 2. To make your writing more sophisticated, include four different ways to make contrasts from the Learn this!

EXAM

TIP

 

 

 

 

 

 

Make your descriptions ot people's personalities more subtle by using the phrases below:

She tends to        verb

He has a tendency to       verb

She has a habit         4 •ing form

He comes across as ± adjective

People regard her os        adjective

People consider her + adjective Some people find her        adjective She can be (adjective) at times.

annoying habits clothes hair hobbies likes and dislikes personal traits talents

2 Choose the two people you are going to write about. Make notes about them in the chart. Use four topics from exercise I or your own ideas.

          6 Read the Exam tip. Find two Of the phrases in the model text

3

Read the Learn this! box below. Underline examples Of these words and phrases in the text on page 12.

 

on page 12. Then suggest two other places in the text where you could use phrases from the tip.

 

 

7

Rewrite these sentences in a more subtle way. Include the

 

Contrast

You can use a variety Of phrases for making contrasts, not just but and however.

Unlike Sara, Jade is tall.

In contrast to Sara, Jade is tall.

Sara is short, but/whereas her sister Jade is tall.

While/Whilst Sara is short, lade is toll.

Sara is short. lode, on the other hand, is tall. lade is tall, and yet her sister Sara is short. Jade is tall. However, Sara is short.

 

 

 

word in brackets.


 My dad is immature. (across)

2 My neighbour talks too much. (tendency)

 My friend George is an ambitious student. (regard)

4 Lucy's brother offends people. (tends)

 My best friend is argumentative. (find)

6   My mum is unconventional. (can)

7   1'm trustworthy. (consider)

8   He says the wrong thing. (habit)

8 Do the writing task in exercise 1.

4 Choose the correct words in these sentences.

CHECK YOUR WORK Have you:

followed the writing plan? written 200-250 words?

used different phrases for making contrasts? included phrases from the tip box? checked your spelling and grammar?

I Luke is eccentric. unlike / whereas his sister is conventional.

2    Whilst / In contrast to my brother is hard-working, I'm quite lazy.

3    Ryan is very popular, and yet / while he's quite shy.

4    Sam is easy-going, but / however his brothers aren't.

5    Charlie is quite generous. His cousin, whereas / on the Other hand, is very penny-pinching.


         1      Get Ready for your Exam

 

SUMMER If you're looking for a really

summer camp, then Pali i?CAMP Adventures in Califiynia offers a

chance to learn the of a Hollywood stunt             in a sate and closely-3 environment, You can learn sworfflay, • combat. falls arud safe landing               under the s              eye Ot professional Stuntmen.

and       With the 6, offering the Chance to a 7               fall from a ten•metre The camp including dance circus skills. watersports           fashim_    Friday night. the B pali Shcywcase eiues                different the oppœtunity to dernmstrate            skills to each other.

Listening

1  and decide which you would most like to attend. Then explain your choice to your partner.

a an intensive English course in the USA b a survival course in the Arctic c a meditation and martial arts course d a performing arts course (music, dance, drama, etc.)

2  DO the exam task.

91.08 You will hear information about various summer courses. Match each extract to the correct summary sentence (A—F). There is one extra sentence.

Speaking

4 Which Of a summer activity course are most important? put ideas below in order from Exercising your mind could be the answer to Vour I (most important) to 4 (least important). everyday problems.

a               having the chance to mix and make new friends Join the fast track to personal safety.

b              improving fitness and/or strength

C Go back to the beginning to discover the true             c learning a new skill or improving an existing one meaning.

d having fun and avoiding boredom

D This year, exciting fun in the water is available to all.

               If you know the basics, refine your skills and train                     5 Do the exam task.

               financial income repay save waste (v)                                             Say if you agree or disagree, and why.

Mone                                               Management

for teens

I Work out your total money decisions.

2 Don't get into*

Tips for parents

4    Don't worry if your child

What might seem a poor decision to you can sometimes be a valuable lesson for the child.

5    Involve teenagers in family finances. Discuss big decisions (e.g. Can we to take a holiday this year?) and weekly or monthly like food and power bills.

6    Teach teenagers how to Wisely but allow them the freedom to make mistakes.

1    You get what you pay for. If something is probably isn't worth having.

2    Friendship is

3    The more          you are, the easier your life is. 4 Being          will help you to get rich.

6Listen and match each speaker with a statement (A—E). There is one statement you don't need.

This person:

A    won't spend money just to have nice things.

B   
has been raised to be careful with his/her money.

C    should probably be more careful with his/her money.

D   thinks that having a bank account isn't necessary.

E    is good with his/her finances but likes spending, too.

7  Discuss in pairs. Give reasons and examples.

1    Does money burn a hole in your pocket?

2    DO you keep some money back for a rainy day?

3    When you buy something, do you shop around?

D VOCABULARY BUILDER 2.1: PAGE 135

3  Which two tips do you think are most useful? Give reasons.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            •         andpoor

 DO you know anyone Who has won money on the lottery? Do•

Some Of these sentences are incorrect. Correct them.

you think buying a lottery ticket is a good idea? Give reasons.

 

1 Dan use to work in a bank. X

2 Read the text and answer the questions.

 

Dan used to work in a bank

2 1'm not used to wear glasses, butl do now.

I Has Molly always been well Off?

 

3 Did you use to have long hair?

2 What was her life like in Bristol?

 

4 MV dad would have a beautiful old sports car.

3 Why didn't Molly check whether she'd won the lottery?

 

5 Sally used to be a teacher for ten years. 6 Joe used to smoke. He'd smoke 30 a day.

5 Complete the sentences with would, used to or the past LI.J@K'V         simple. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.

                                                                                                                                       1 My dad (have) a credit card. He              (use) it

NUMBERS! for buying expensive things. But two years ago he

                                                                                                                                           (get) rid of it. The credit card company          (charge) a

Molly Higgins is a very rich woman and the proud owner   very high rate of interest and he              (end) up deep in of a ten-bedroom mansion near London. But she didn't debt.

      use to be rich. She used to live in a small flat in a run•                 2 My grandad  (be) a factory worker. He

            down area of Bristol and get by on state benefits. Every                         (work) in a car factory for 30 years. He (have to)

Thursday evening Molly would buy a EuroMillions lottery            work long hours and he    (not earn) very much ticket. She'd always choose the same numbers but she        money. But he     (do) the lottery every week and didn't usually look at the winning       eventually he       (win) enough money to buy a car.

                                          numbers the following evening.               D GRAMMAR BUILDER 2.1: PAGE 117

'l never used to win anything, and I'd sometimes forget to             LOOK OUT!

look at the results,' says             If we stress would, it suggests irritation and criticism. Molly. But one Friday, when    In this case, we don't use the contracted form 'd.

she checked the results              He would wear those old jeans to school every day. she couldn't believe her    

1                                                       
eyes. She'd won the jackpot 6 01.10 PRONUNCIATION Read the Lookout! box. Then - €10 million! listen, repeat. and say if the speaker is irritated.

 

 

7

 Complete the second Sentence So that it has the same meaning as the first. Use no more than five words

3

Read the Learn this! box. Then underline all the examples Of

 

including the word in brackets.

 

used to and would in the text.

 

I It was typical Of Sue to interrupt all the time!

used to and would

1    We use usedto and would to talk about habits and situations that are now finished.

We used to live in London. But now we live in Brighton. When I was at primary school I'd always play football after school.

2    We don't use wouldwith state verbs.

I.wauldheve•c-cat X / used to have a cat.

3    We don't use used to or wouldto say how long a situation or habit continued. We use the past simple.

Sh

She worked in a bank for six years.

4    Never used to and would never are common negative forms.

never used to save any money.

He would never admit he was wrong.

all the time! (would)

I was in the habit Of spending all my pocket money. all my pocket money. (used)

In the '90s my dad always drove to work.

In the '90s my dad work. (would) 4 In the past was your hair much longer?  much longer hair? (use)

 There wasn't a bank at the end of the street.

                                                                                                                                            There               a bank at the end of the street. (never)

8 Work in pairs. Think about when you were younger. Using would or used to, tell your partner about: 1 something ridiculous you often wore when you were little.

2                                                        something boring you did at weekends.

3                                                        something you did that annoyed other people.

16             2 •          and poor


HOUSE!


In July property developer lim Lock bought a large, detached.

be a nursing home, through a downstairs window that had been left open. The group,  includes three small

 

 

children, is sleeping on the floor in sleeping bags. There's

4

Decide Which opinion is not expressed by the

no heating or furniture. Mr Lock went to the police but

 

squatter in the interview. Then listen again and check exactly

they said they could do nothing. Squatting in commercial

 

What she says.

   properties isn't a criminal offence in England       squatters

 

I Rented accommodation is too expensive.

don't actually break into an empty property or cause criminal

 

2 Property developers are wrong to leave houses empty

   damage. 'I was astonished that the police       evict them,'

 

and wait for prices to rise before selling them.

said an exasperated Mr Lock. 'They're just a bunch Of lazy

 

3 Private property is wrong.

hippies. I'll have to go to court to get them evicted. It'll cost

 

4 Everybody has the right to shelter.

me thousands in legal fees.'

 

5 Squatters are using something that would Otherwise go to waste.

 Work in pairs. Describe the photo and answer the

 

6 Squatters contribute to society.

questions.

5

 Complete these buying and renting collocations

1 Are there a lot Of homeless people in your country? What

 

With the verbs in the box.

about in your town Or city?

2 Why do people become homeless, do you think?

 

become do get make make pay rent take


ten-bedroom building in Bath With plans to convert it into three luxury flats. He's planning to sell the flats for £400,000 and expects to t _ a profit Of about £250,000. However, before building work started. a group Of twenty squatters moved into the house and claimed they were 'looking the empty property. They climbed into the building, which

possession (of) 3 Think of five problems homeless people face.

maintenance

2    Choose the correct words (a, b, cimprovements or d) to complete the text. Then listen and check.evicted

2          a for b after C c bringat d d makeinto 6 Discuss this question in pairs: Who do feel 1 a do b take

3          a was to b would c used to d had to more sympathy with, Jim Lock or the squatters? Give reasons. Then take a class vote.

4          a that      b Whichd whose

5          a as long as b although c as much as d apart from 7Work in pairs. prepare this role-play. Make notes. 6 a can't b shouldn't c didn't use to d wouldn't

Student A: You have been homeless for two years and have

3    Listen to a radio reporter interviewing one Of the recently joined a squat With some friends. Explain to the squatters. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? owner Of the property Why you should be allowed to stay there.

Listeners can hear the interview on the radio as it takes

Student 3: You are the property owner. Explain to place.

The squatters can't afford both rent and living expenses.             the squatter Why you think he/she should move Out immediately.

3   According the squatter, there aren't enough properties in the UK to house everybody.       8Work in pairs. Have a conversation using your

4   The squatters were certain that the house was notes from exercise 7. Include as many phrases as you can unoccupied When they first saw it. from exercise 5. Student starts the conversation. The squatters have improved the house since moving in.

6          The squatters won't move out under anv circumstances.


D VOCABULARY BUILDER 2.2: PAGE 135


2 •

READING How the other half live

I can understand and react to a story about millionaire philanthropists.

Look at the text title and the photos only. What is happening

In the programme, millionaires go undercwer to deprived areas

 

in the photos? What do you think the text Will be about? Then

Of Britain, where they volunteer in the local community. For

 

look quickly through the text to check your ideas.

a fortnight they give up their affluent lifestyle and live with little money in substandard accommodation. Their experiences

 

2 Read the introduction to the text and mark the sentences true

Often prompt them to hand over life-changing sums Of money to deserving individuals and institutions. At the end, they

 

I The people who meet the millionaires know that they are

reveal who they actually are.

 

rich straight away.

There have been eight series Of the programme in the UK so

 

2 The millionaires have to live differently for a While.

far, with millions Of pounds being given away to good causes.

 

3 The millionaires have to donate lots of money.

While watching the programmes, it's sometimes hard to tell

 

4 The socially disadvantaged people benefit more than the

who is benefiting most from the relationship. All of the people

 

rich people in the programme.

involved have talked about how it has changed their lives. But

 

5 The millionaires don't Stay in touch with the people they meet.

interestingly. it seemed that it was the millionaires Who found their experiences the most rewarding. Some discovered that

 

EXAM TIP

there are more important things in life than making money,

 

For multiple matching tasks, look quickly through the

and forged lasting relationships with the people they met.

 

texts to geta general idea of their meaning. Then read

HILARY DEVEY, who, as a single mother. risked everything

 

the questions that you have to match With them. It may

to start up a now hugely successful transport company, lives

 

be easier to work through texts A—D in order, matching

on her Own in her enormous mansion.

 

the questions to them as vou go, and underlining the

She returned incognito to the place she

A'

relevant parts Of the text, rather than working through

grew up in, and one of the projects she

 

the questions in Order and searching through all four

got involved in was a local community

 

texts each time.

support centre which was in danger Of

 

closing.

SECRET MILLIONAIRE

Secret Millionaire is a reality TV show with a difference. The participants come on the programme to possibly give away thousands of pounds.

               •         and poor

The centre provides marriage counseling, support for single             parents and homeless people and so on. She funded the centre


below. They are all in the text.


and provided more facilities for it. Hilary is still a regular   visitor to the centre, and feels she now has friends who value her for the person she is, not her money.     

NICK LESLAU is one of Britain's wealthiest property    tycoons and lives in luxury With his family in London. He went to Glasgow and worked in a poor area with severely disabled people. He was astonished at how friendly and kind everyone was, even though they didn't know anything about him.       

Although he has always donated money to various charities, he found it immensely rewarding to get involved directly for        once. He said he felt privileged to have met some Of society's genuine heroes — people Who work tirelessly to help others.     

KAVITA OBEROI is a 38-year-old IT millionaire whose  sole interest in life, apart from her family, was making money. views completely changed when she went to a centre for               disadvantaged girls in Manchester. She used to believe that             people were poor because they didn't try to improve their lives. When she got involved with the girls' centre, she realised that people Often need help and support to do their best. She realised that her Own mother had sacrificed a lot so that Kavita could have a good education. Kavita became a director of the group and is helping it to go national to support more young

JAMES BENAMORE, a tough financial dealer now worth             £77 million. used to have a drug problem himself. He waved            goodbye to his wife and children and went to a crime-ridden area of Manchester. He worked in a centre for teenagers who excluded from mainstream education and found that

they had no confidence in themselves, nor any belief that any effort they made would make any difference. James donated

money to the centre so that children who worked hard earned rewards in the form of trips and outings. He also offered some                for from in in in Of to to With


         I benefit                           5 value sb/sth

2     forge a relationship      6 donate money

3     get involved    7 wave goodbye

4     be  danger       8 have confidence

5     Work in pairs. Each choose one of the millionaires. Read the relevant text again for one minute, then cover it and tell your partner as much about the millionaire as you can remember.

6      What do you think about the programme? Is it a good idea? Are there any bad aspects to it? Decide on at least

two positive and two negative things with your partner.

7     Read the Learn this! box and complete the rule.

 

Second conditional

I We use the second conditional to talk about unreal situations and events.

If / was o secret millionaire, I'd visit a homeless charity. Perhaps he wouldn't be so stingy if he had more money.

2 We use the        in the if clause and              the base form Ofthe verb in the main clause.

 

 

 

D GRAMMAR BUILDER 2.2: PAGE 117

8                                Discuss this question in pairs: If you had €50,000 to give away, who would you give it to, and why? Use the second conditional. Agree on three good causes and make

9                               Report your ideas to the class. The class votes on


tænagers a month's work experience at his company. He was

&lighted to see how their attitudes changed, and has set up scheme permanently.

þRAMMAR Past perfect simple and continuous

I can talk about actions and events and their consequences in the past.


1 Read the text. Underline the examples Of the past perfect and past perfect continuous.

   RAGS TO RICHES    in

1994, J.K. Rowling, creator Of the Harry

Potter books, was living in Scotland, and feeling a complete failure. She had just returned from Portugal, where she had been living for two years. She had been teaching English in Porto, and had married a Portuguese man there. But the marriage had only lasted for a few years, and she had moved back to Britain with her baby daughter. She hadn't been feeling well for months and was eventually diagnosed with depression. SO, there she was: a jobless, penniless, depressed single mother. She decided that the only thing she wanted to do was write a story that had been going around in her head for a long time. And the rest, as they say, is history.

2    Read the Learn this! box. Choose the correct alternatives to complete the rules. Then match an example from the text to each rule.

Past perfect simple and continuous

1     We use the past perfect simple / continuous fora completed action that happened before a specific time in the past.

2     We use the past perfect simple I continuous for an action in progress before a specific time in the past.

Th's Often shows the cause of something in the past.

3     With state verbs (know, be, like. etc.), we use the past perfect simple / continuous with for or since to say how long an action had been in progress.

4     With action verbs, we use the past perfect simple / continuous with for or since to say how long an action had been in progress.

D GRAMMAR BUILDER 2.3: PAGE 118

3    Choose the correct tense.

1     How long had you had / been having a credit card when you got rid Of it?

 The road was flooded because it had rained / been raining for hours and showed no sign of stopping.  She had learnt / been learning English for three years before she visited Britain.

4    Had you ever eaten / been eating Japanese food before you visited Japan?

5    1 was thirsty because I'd run / been running all morning.  Martin told me that he hadn't seen / been seeing the Champions League final On IV. 20 2 • andpoor

Complete the sentences With the verbs below. Use the past perfect simple Or past perfect continuous. Say which use Of the tenses in the Learn this! box each sentence follows.

go out know learn not have wait work I The grass was slippery because

2    Ed                to drive for two years when he took his test.

3    When JO finally arrived, we  for Over an hour.

4    They each other for many years when they got engaged, but they only for a year.

5    1 was thirsty because I           a drink for hours.

6    Sue's hands were muddy. She              in the garden.

5     Complete the text with the verbs in brackets. Use the past perfect simple or past perfect continuous.

Now in his 70s, American designer Ralph Lauren is a multi-millionaire, but he wasn't born into fame and fortune. In 1967 Lauren was looking for a job in fashion, but he didn't have any qualifications at all. Earlier that year, he (drop Out) Of night school. He 2 (study) for a business degree in the evenings, but he (not finish) it. By day he (sell) glcwes, but he knew he had to make a change. As a child growing up in New York, fashion-conscious Ralph s_ (not have) much money for nice clothes, so he 6 always (work) after school in department stores. It was this experience that eventually led to his own huge clothing empire. In 1967 he started working for a tie maker, and by the end of 1968 he (start) his own tie design company. By the 1970s Lauren (design) his own ties for several years, and they were very popular. so he started designing suits to match.

6     Work in pairs. Think about the last time you were: delighted embarrassed exhausted irritated relieved soaking wet starving

Find out Why your partner felt that way. Use appropriate past

Because I'd been listening to some fantastic music.

 

 

Photo description

I can describe a photo and answer the examiner's questions.

Work in pairs. Describe the photo. Use the words below to help you.

decoration dressing gown lid surprise

2    Workin pairs. What is the boy thinking and feeling, and Why? Make notes about your ideas.

3    Now listen to a candidate answering the question in exercise 2. Compare your ideas from exercise 2 With the candidate's ideas. How are they similar and different?

4    Which two extreme adjectives meaning surprised and happy did the student use?

D                       VOCABULARY BUILDER 2.3: PAGE 135

EXAM

TIP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the picture description task, the examiner can ask you to talk about a personal experience. You will need to use narrative tenses, e.g. past simple, past continuous, past perfect and past perfect continuous, used to and would.

5    Read the Exam tip. Then listen to the candidate answering the examiners question. Which of the tenses mentioned in the tip does the candidate use?

6    Answer the questions.

I Why did the girl choose to buy her sister a hoodie?

 How does she think she came to select the wrong size?  Why didn't she see the hoodie herself before giving it to her sister?

 How did her sister react when she saw the hoodie?

5 How did the girl feel then? Have her feelings changed?

Comment adverbs and adverbial phrases

Comment adverbs give the speaker's opinion. Unfortunately, we can't afford a holiday this year. ro my surprise, he sold his motorbike.

Some adverbs can be used as both comment adverbs and as adverbs Of manner. Frankly, / don't believe you.

He spoke frank/v about his financial problems. We usually put comment adverbs at the Start Of the sentence, although they can go with the verb.

Foolishly, left my wallet at home.

/ fochlishly left my wallet at home.

7    Read the Learn this! box. Then complete the sentences with five Of the comment adverbs below. Listen again and check.

fortunately hopefully ideally luckily Obviously stupidly to be honest

1 1 found a great one on a website, but I ordered the wrong size.

didn't realise my mistake until she Opened the present on her birthday.

she saw the funny side.

, I didn't think it was very funny at the time. , Iwas able to return it.

D                       VOCABULARY BUILDER 2.4: PAGE 135

pairs. Take turns to ask and answer the examineds questions. Try to use some comment adverbs.

1    What is the girl thinking and feeling, and why?

2    00 you like spending money on Other people? Why?/Why not?

3    Tell me about a really good present that you once received.

2 •

the examples in the Look Out! box. Use the correct

or found any money? When? Where? What happened?

2     Read the story. Where do you think the money came from?

It was a day like any Other and Graham Hill was doing his normal round as a waste collector. He was putting bags Of rubbish onto his handcart, when he noticed something unusual in one of the dustbins. Leaning over the bin, he took a closer 100k and saw a filthy plastic bag with what looked like money inside. As he pulled it Out, he gasped. It was money. Inside the carrier bag were lots of banknotes! But they were all Cut into pieces! As soon as he realised What he'd found, Hill called the police, Who quickly arrived on the Scene. Having looked in the bag, they calculated that there must be about £10,000 in torn notes. The police thanked Hill and said that the money must have come from a robbery that had gone wrong. As they were leaving, the police told him they would find Out what had happened.

Six months later, Hill had forgotten all about the incident. Out Of the blue the police phoned with some unexpected and wonderful news. Surprisingly, after investigating for a long time, they had been unable to discover anything about the bag Of notes. There was no crime or robbery that they could link the money to. Apparently, under British law, the bag Of money now belonged to Hill. What's more, the Bank Of England said that for every note that he could put back together, Hill would receive a new one. He had been given the ultimate jigsaw puzzle!

3     Identify the following Stages in the story in exercise 2.

  background information that sets the Scene

  a first event, often a problem, that triggers the action

  later events that follow from the first event

  the final resolution or Outcome

22             2 •          and poor

tenses. Then find examples Of each use in the Story in exercise 2.

        LOOK OUT!      Past simple and past continuous

 We can use the past continuous to set the scene.

(rain) and the Wind (blow).  We use the past simple for actions that happened one after another.

She              (stand up),            (open) the door and (leave).

3 We use the past simple for an action or event that interrupted a background event; we use the past continuous for the background event. While (read) my book, my phone (ring).

D GRAMMAR BUILDER 2.4: PAGE 118

5     Read the Learn this! box. Find an example Of each type of sequencing clause in the story.

Sequencing clauses

For an action which happens before another action, we can use:

I ager + •ing

After losing his wallet, he called the police.

2 having + past participle

Having found the money, he took it to the police station.

For an action Which happens at the same time as another action, We can use: 3 as + past simple

As he put his hand in his pocket he realised his wallet was missing.

the moment/os soon as + past simple

The moment I Saw his face, / knew he'd been crying.

5 a present participle

Looking up, she Saw a police Officer approaching. The subject of the participle clause and the main clause must be the same.

Crossing the rood, she was hit byo car.

Crossing-the.raadv-a-eerhit-trer: X

6     Combine the pairs Of sentences into single sentences. Use the sequencing clauses in the Learn this! box. More than one answer is possible.

I •I've lost my wallet,' said Mary. At the same time, she closed her handbag.

       I stepped outside. At the same time, it started to snow.

 He sat down. Then he opened the newspaper.

4 I walked to the shops. At the same time, thought about what my mum had just said.  She had lunch. Then she went out.


EXAM TIP

 

 

 

 

 

In a Story. use a mix of long and short sentences. The short ones can make events more dramatic.

The moment he arrived home, be made o cup Of tea and, sitting down on the sofa, turned on the television to watch the news. Suddenly, he jumped up. Somebody wCs in the room.

 You are going to do the following exam writing task. first think Of some ideas for your Story. Use the questions below to help you.

Wrlte a story with a happy ending about a character Who loses or finds something valuable. Write 200—250 words. 1 Does the character lose or find something?

 

2 Where does he/she lose Or find it?

6

Find the following features which make the writing style

 

3 If the character loses something, does he/she find it again? If the character finds something. does he/she get

 

interesting in the Story on page 22.

 

to keep it?

 

1 two extreme adjectives

 

4 How does the story end?

 

2   two examples of comment adverbs

3   two examples Of reported speech

2

Look again at the stages Of a Story in exercise 3 on page 22.

 

 

 

Think how your ideas will fit into paragraphs. Use your ideas

7

Write the middle paragraphs Of the story. Tell the later events

 

from exercise I to make notes under paragraph headings.

 

in a logical order. Remember to make the language dramatic

 

may need more or fewer than four paragraphs.)

 

and varied. Link events together to show time and sequence.

Paragraph I

Paragraph 2

Paragraph 3

Paragraph 4

CHECK YOUR WORK

Have you:

written 200—250 words?

used a variety of narrative tenses?

used sequencing clauses and Other time expressions? used a mix of short dramatic sentences and longer Ones?

included some extreme adjectives, comment adverbs, and/or reported speech?

-included a last sentence that links to the title?

8   
Look at the title and the last sentence of the Story on page 22. Think of a good sentence to finish your story. Then write a title for your story which links everything together.

9    Write the final paragraph of the story. Give the resolution or final outcome Of the Story. End With a good sentence.

3 Write the first paragraph Of the Story. Set the scene briefly With background information, then tell the first event Of the story. Remember to use appropriate narrative tenses.


1-2 Language Review

unit 1

Complete the sentences With a suitable adjective. (More than one answer may be possible.)

       I Lucy is very              : she only thinks about herself.

2    MV dad is so             : nothing gets him angry or excited.

3    1'm very    : I want to be CEO Of a big company.

4    My dad is 42 but acts like he's 12: he's so

5    Ian is very  : he writes songs and paints too.

Mark: _ 15

2   Complete the sentences With the present perfect simple or continuous Of five of the verbs below.

belong do go read remember stay want where you put the tickets?

The Hobbit; I'm about half way through it. 3 My English teacher to England three times.  4 My parents at that hotel every year since it -opened.

       5 Karen              a horse since she was a little girl.

Mark: _ 15

3   Complete the email. Use the infinitive, the infinitive without to, the -ing form or the past participle of the verbs given.

I went into town this afternoon because 1 needed to get my phone             (repair). The man at the shop said it would take an hour didn't feel like               (stand) around, 50 decided

(go) toa coffee shop instead. saw some friends of

(play) cards, so I sat down with them, They let me

(join) the game and We played for ages. When I got back to the phone Shop, it was closed!

Mark:

Complete the dialogue With the words below.

could like say should though

                Boy

Have you seen this photo of dad when he was young?

      Girl

NO, I haven't. Let me see! He looks               he's feeling sick!

      Boy NO, he doesn't. I'd 2          he's just trying to look cool.

        Girl He looks as               he's getting ready to go out.

Boy

How old do you think he is?

Girl

think he's about fifteen.

Unit 2

5    Choose the best word (a, b or c) to complete each sentence.

A broken mirror is a priceless b worthless c mean My grandfather owns three shops, and the rentfrom those gives him a good a ncome b budget c allowance

3   The hotel isn't expensive; in fact, it's very a extortionate b pricey c reasonable

4   I wouldn't say I'm rich, but I'm certainly not _ a comfortably Off b affluent c hard up

I love that jacket. but I can't buy it — it's too a dear b valuable c precious

                                                                                   Mark:          15

6    Complete the sentences With the verbs below.

           'd didn't use to used to would wouldn't                   

I My grandmotherwork. but now she's got a job in  a bookshop.

2 1 be a football fan, but I prefer basketball now. 3 We had somegreat parties in those days, but the neighbours at-ways complain about the noise!

4    Every time my uncle went abroad, hebuy a painting.

5    She bought a chocolate bar every day after school, but eat it until she got home.

Mark: _ 15

7    Choose the best verb forms.

Elena 'had looked / had been looking forward to the day Of the garden pany for weeks. Now. finally. it 'had arrived / had been arriving. She Yhad got up / had been getting up early to give her more time for the preparations. Anxiously, she looked Out Of the Window to check the weather, Which 'had got / had been getting worse and worse each day, even though it was June. To her dismay. she saw that the apple tree by the back wall Shad fallen / had been falling down during the night.

                                                                                   Mark:         15

8    Write an extreme adjective Which means:


1 very angry:  4 very ugly: 2 very dirty:  5 very funny: 3 very clean:


 Boy Yes, I agree. He             be getting ready to go on a date with Mum!

Language Review 1—2

 

 

 

Hi Anna,

How are you? hope you're enjoying your job in Warsaw. HOW long have you been doing it now? It must be six months or so, reckon, because you'd been working there for a few days when I got back from                backpacking holiday in Australia. Let me know hcwit's going and what the people there are like,

DO you ever hear from Mike these days? Maybe YOU just want to forget about him and your time in Liverpool, He really wasn't right for       I mean, it'5 OK to be ambitious, but he was just selfish. And there Was something Strange about him               For example, why did he decide to Change his name from Jack to Mike? kncp,v we British people are supposed to be eccentric, but that'S just ridiculous!

Stefan has been looking for a place to live,     1 think found one or two possibilities. We've loved having him here, and he's welcome to stay as long as he wants, but he's determined to find his own place, He'S Very single-minded, your brother, isn't he? I suppose pu are too, now 1 think about it, so maybe it n.'ns in the family! AnyAqay, I guess he can afford to rent somewhere nice, working in the financial sector — he must be on a good salary. (I've asked him what he earns, but he won't tell me!) I hope he won't get lonely, living on his Win, He isn't as outgoing as you are, so I don't think he'll meet people as easily. gut Still, everybody needs Company. He doesn't talk about people from work much, so 'guess he hasn't made many friends I've tried to persuade him to play basketball a few times, but he's refused. He Says he'S rubbish at ball games, but he might start going swimming when he's got more free time. That's better than nothing, I suppose — OK for keeping fit, but not a great way to meet

Anyway, I shouldn't worry about him, I'm Sure he can look after himself. Please send me an email with your news— and some pictures of your new flat. You haven't        in touch for

a is very similar to Anna. b needs to be more Outgoing. c is too single-minded.

d is similar to Anna in some ways but different in Others.

4 In Libby's opinion, swimming isn't the ideal hobby for Stefan because a it's something he'll do on his own. b it requires tCH) much free time. c it won't make him as fit as basketball. d he'll probably give up Soon.

Listening

4    1.17 Listen. Does Spikey sound more friendly or less friendly towards Stefan by the end Of their conversation? What is the reason for this, in your opinion?

5    I .17 Listen again. Are these sentences true (T) or false (F)?

1   Stefan is planning to buy or rent a flat.

2  


The events take place on a Thursday.

3   Stefan started learning English ten years ago.

4   Spikey tells Stefan that he's sharing with seven or eight friends.

5   Spikey describes squatting as a criminal activity. 6 Spikey is not his real name.

Speaking

6 Tell your partner about an occasion when you met somebody for the first time.

Writing

7 Imagine you are Stefan. Write an announcement to be put in a newsagent's Window to help you find a flat to rent. Include this information:

What you are looking for and when you want to move in. some personal details about you: job, nationality, etc. Why you would be a good tenant. the best way to contact you.

                                                                                                                                                                                           Skills Round-up 1-2

      2       Get Ready for your Exam


Reading

I     Talk in pairs about the following questions. Then report your ideas to the class.

1    Do you think you are influenced by advertising?

Give reasons for your answer.

2    What different marketing techniques do companies use to make us buy their products?

3    What do you think the term 'neuromarketing' might mean?

2 Do the exam task.

Complete the text with the missing sentences (A—EL There is one extra sentence that is not needed.

Big business has always wanted to see inside our heads. The marketing and advertising departments of the major corporations spend millions every year trying to work out what we want and then find ways to try and sell it to us. The more accurately businesses can predict What we, the consumers, are likely to buy and when and how much for, the more money they can get us to spend.

Understanding consumers has not been particularly easy. Marketing teams have watched what we buy in supermarkets, they have measured how we have responded to their various promotional campaigns. and they have carried Out endless Surveys asking us why we buy what we do. However, it is not by any means an exact science. 1 And even if they do, they do not always tell the truth.

This is where •neuro' or brain science steps in. For the first time researchers have begun to wire consumers up to MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) machines to watch what actually happens inside people's brains when they are faced With consumer choices. The researchers followed the areas of activity lighting up inside the shoppers' brains. Something Which is definitely Of interest to the marketing specialists.

This new area of science is called •neuromarketing•. Marketing departments Of companies say they won't need to watch us shopping or ask us what we'd buy, they'll just •read our minds'. This is good news for companies, as their massive marketing budgets can be used more effectively, but where's the benefit for us?

If businesses can know more about how we think than we do ourselves, they'll have the power not just to influence us, but also to manipulate us. so far, advertising regulations have merely restricted companies from making unsupported claims for their products. In future. they may have to go one step further and assess whether the marketers are having our behaviour as consumers altered in ways we cannot ourselves detect.

Get Ready for your Exam 2

Advertising will be cleverly deployedtOÞer4 us more accurately to buy the products on show.

They also need to keep in mind that increased activity in the brain doesn't necessarily mean increased preference for a product.

This Cannot be a good thing for the general public and something will have to be done about it.

It seems that people do not always know What they are thinking.

Eventually they found that they could predict

Speaking

3    could buy in a jewellery shop. Which pair can write the most in two minutes?

4    Do the exam task.

SPEAKING exam task

Describe the picture. Then answer the questions.

Why do you think this couple is buying something in this shop?

What are the advantages and disadvantages Of having expensive possessions?

Tell me about the most expensive thing you have ever bought.


THIS UNIT INCLUDES

Vocabulary • relatins                •           interaction • phrasal verbs

Grammar • question foms • comparison • question tags • Speaking • role-play

Generations

Writing •        pros andtons


VOCABULARY AND LISTENING Relating to people

I can discuss relationships and behaviour.


Workin pairs. Find out as much information about each other's families as you tan in three minutes. Use the ideas below and add your own.

how many in immediate family? extended family? brothers / sisters / twins? (how many? ages? names?) Oldest / youngest family members? cousins / aunts / uncles / in-laws, etc.?

relatives living in your home / nearby / faraway / abroad?

2    In pairs, put the expressions below into two groups: negative and positive. (In some cases, it is a matter of opinion.)

Relating to people admire adore be on the same wavelength (as) be (very) close (to) be wary of despise envy feel sorry for have a lot in common (with) have nothing in common (With) 100k down on

100k up to not see eye to eye (with) respect trust

3    01.18 Listen to six people discussing members Of their family. Complete each summary with an expression from exercise 2 and a reason.

 arianna admires / trusts her mother, because

2   Ryan despises / doesn't see eye to eye with his father, because

3   Sophia is very close to / has a lot in common with her grandfather, because

4   Isaac envies / respects his cousin, because  Ella looks down on has nothing in common with her twin brother, because

6 David feels sorry for / is wary of his uncle, because

 Find out more about your partner's relationships with family and friends. Ask three questions using expressions from exercise 2. Ask for reasons. v•lho do you admire and *hi?

5      In pairs, Check the meaning of the verbs below           using a dictionary. Then test each other. Can you remember the translations?

Verbal interaction bicker (with sb) boast (to sb about sth) confide (in sb about sth) flatter (sb) flirt (with 5b) insult (5b) lecture (sb about sth) nag (sb about sth)

praise 6b for sth) tease (sb about sth) tell (sb) Off (for 5th) warn (sb about sth)

•a'hat mean? It means

6     Complete the questions With the correct prepositions.

1           Who does Brianna bicker

2           Who can Ryan always confide 3 What does Sophia's mum nag her

4    What does Isaac's cousin boast

5    What does Ella's dad tease her

6    What does David's aunt praise him

7Listen to the extracts again. Answer the questions in exercise 6.

   1.19 Listen to six monologues. What is each speaker doing? Choose the best verb from exercise 5.

ipeaker l: praising: Speager

9 01.19 Listen again. Write a one-sentence summary to describe What each speaker is doing.

ipeaker I is praising somebody for winning a tennis match.

prepare a monologue like the ones in exercise 8. Choose a verb from exercise 5 and invent your own situation.

 Perform your monologue to the class. Can they describe what you are doing?

You're boasting to somebodi about esarn results Yet. that" right. NO, tn again

D VOCABULARY BUILDER 3.1: PAGE 136


Tom 0K. fine.

Ava Thank you. First, I need a few details about you. old you are?

Tom I'm twenty.

Ava                    you do?

Tom I'm a web designer.

you work for?

Tom I'm self-employed. I work at home.

Ava Great. so. question one. What do you argue about most in your family?

Tom Er whose turn it is to use the car.

Ava OK. Question two. Who cooks most of the meals in

Tom We don't have family meals. We help ourselves.

Ava And finally, question three. Who do you get With hest in your family?

Tom My sister, definitely. We've got a lot in common. Ava That's all. Thanks very much for your help. Tom NO problem.    I can ask you a question.

Ava Sure. Go ahead.

Tom                  you're free this evening.

Can you tell me whether you share a bedroom?

 

 

Subject and Object questions

Questions with Who, What or Which can be subject Or object questions.

Object questions include the normal interrogative form Of the verb. The answers are the object of the verb.

What did you buy? (l bought a scarf.)

Who did vou sit with? sat with Jack.)

Subject questions include the normal affirmative form of the verb. The answers are the subject of the verb. Who bought this DVD? (Darren bought it.)

3     Rewrite the six indirect questions from the dialogue in exercise as direct questions. 1 Could Nou spare moment?

D    GRAMMAR BUILDER 3.1: PAGE 119

4     Rewrite the questions below as indirect questions. Use a different phrase from the Learn this! box for each one.  Do you share a bedroom?

2          Who do you bicker with most at home?

3          Are you the only teenager in your home?

4          How often do you all have a meal together at home?

5          Who goes to bed first in    family?

6          Are pu Often alone in your home? 7 Do you help with the housework?

5      In pairs, ask and answer the indirect questions in exercise 4. Add three indirect questions ofyour own.

6    
Read the Learn this! box. Are the underlined questions in the dialogue in exercise subject or Object questions?

D    GRAMMAR BUILDER 3.2: PAGE 119  01.20 Read, listen and complete the dialogue. Does Tom like Ava? How do you know? 7 Write questions in the present simple using the prompts below. Is each question a subject or Object question?

2 Read the Learn this! box. Then look again at answers in exercise 1. Which of these indirect questions include a 1 Who / live / next door to you? question word and Which include if or Whether? Who lives ne.xt door to •iou?

2 What / you / have / for breakfast?

Indirect questions

Indirect questions are more polite and more formal than direct questions. They use the same word order and verb form as a statement. They begin with a phrase like: Can / ask (you) ? Can/Could you tell me

I'd like to know.„ I wonder

Would you mind telling me ?

These phrases are followed by a question word (what, how, etc.) or, in yes/no questions, by if or Whether. Can / ask where Emma lives? Do know if she's in?

 Which letter / your surname / start with?

4 Which month / have the fewest days?

 Which subject / you / have / first on Mondays?  Who / buy / your clothes?

7      What/ make / you laugh?

 Who / you / admire most / in the world?

 Who / have the most in common with you?

8       In pairs, ask and answer the questions in exercise 7.

3

CULTURE Ageing population

I can talk about the elderly.


1     Work in pairs. Describe the photo opposite. Then agree on a definition Of elderly. Compare with the class.

2     In pairs, read the facts box and guess the missing numbers.

• AGEING POPULATION: THE FACTS

For the first time in history, there are more people in the UK aged over 65 than undert

Average life expectancy for people born today in the UK is about 78 for men and 2 for women.

Forty years ago, life expectancy was for men and 75 for women.

The retirement age for all UK workers will rise to probably by 2027.

3    Listen to the first part Of a radio interview and check your answers to exercise 2. What is the most interesting piece of information, in your opinion?

4    Listen to the whole interview. Choose the correct answer: a, b, c or d.

I Professor Clark believes people a don't like thinking about getting Old.

b   don't mind the idea of getting old. c are frightened of the elderly. d cannot explain their own view Of Old age.

3   In Classical times, most people a died during infancy or childhood.

b   died around the age of 28.

c    died between 60 and 70.

d   were ill for more than half their life.

4   Life expectancy has increased mainly because people a still go jogging when they're in their eighties.

b   spend their State pension on food and exercise. c worry less about having poor health.

d have better healthcare and a healthier lifestyle.

5   Professor Clark's personal opinion is that a soon, most people Will reach the age Of 100. b the human lifespan has a natural limit.

c   in the future  will be fitter than 80•year• olds today.

d  people Will have to take up keep-fit in their fifties.

5    In Britain and North America, elderly people a have to work after the retirement age.

b  are not treated as well as in most other places.

c   are Often abandoned by their families. d prefer to live in nursing homes.

6    In modern cities in China and India, families are a taking better care of the elderly than they used to. b allowing elderly people to lead independent lives. C asking grandparents to 100k after children. d taking worse care of the elderly than they used to.

5     the two halves              nouns and write them correctly as one word Or two. (All the nouns are in exercise 4.)

        I life                                           care

2    health         homes

3    old              c expectancy 4 elderly       span nursing        age retirement pension state           age

       8 life                                           relatives

6     Complete the sentences using the compound nouns from exercise 5.

 continues to rise, we won't be able to feed everyone.

2    Elderly people should only live in  if they have no families to look after them.

 The average human could be 200 years if

scientists continue to make advances in

4 We won't have enough money to pay retired people the  if the number of elderly people increases.

 You can learn a lot by spending more time With your

should be 75 or older.

7     In pairs, ask and answer about the Opinions in exercise 6. DO you agree or disagree? Give reasons.

of elderly people. Then share your ideas With the class. Try to include nouns from exercise 5.

3D READING Closing the generation gap

I can talk about relationships between parents and teenagers.

1     Read the quotation below and say ifyou agree or disagree. At what age do people become adults, in your opinion? Give reasons.

A boy becomes an adult three      before his parents think he does, and about two pars after he thin" he

2     Read the title and the last sentence Of the text opposite.

Predict which sentence (a—d) best summarises the opinions

Of the text's writer.

a    Parents should let their teenage children spend more time alone.

b   parents should treat their teenage children more like adults.

c    Teenagers should remember that their parents are trying their best.

d   If teenagers want to be treated like adults, they should behave like adults.

3     Read the text, ignoring the gaps, and check your answer to exercise 2. Do you agree with Ellie's view? Why?'Why not?

 

EXAM

TIP

 

 

 

When you do a gapped sentences task, look for connections between the missing sentence and the sentences around the gap. Focus on words that Often refer logically to ideas in other sentences:

pronouns (we, it. this, etc.) — What do they refer back

• for example — does it exemplify what comes before? comparatives — What is being compared?

more / the same — What idea is being repeated? but / however — what ideas are being contrasted?


 Does the text contain mainly facts or mainly opinions? Find evidence in the text to support your answer.

5 Read the Exam tip. Match the gaps (1—6) in the text with the sentences below (A-H). There are two extra sentences.

A    Why was it such a big deal?

B    Even more worrying was the fact that my parents weren't talking to each Other.              

 A few more rows later and written more than 10,000 words Of advice for parents.

D But part Of being a teenager is feeling free to take Steps down new paths and learning from our own mistakes.  After that. the arguments with my dad just got worse.  lust last week, for example, I persuaded Mum to buy me a pair of shoes that she had said I couldn't have.

G   It makes me not want to confide in you.

H   Surprisingly, we all share similar views on What our parents are doing wrong.   

3

HOW TO

BE A GOOD PARENT:

a teenager's guide

Sixteen year old Ellie, who lives with her parents, Louise, 38, and Peter, 43, has written a book to tell us what parents of teenagers are doing wrong

All adults think teenagers are a nightmare. According to them. we're moody, argumentative, rude and disruptive. But have any adults ever stopped to think that perhaps they are resmsible for the unpredictable and confusing way we behave?

Take me, for instance. I may be a teenage nightmare. but this is all to do with my parents, not me. With my mother, I stamp my feet. storm out ot shops in the middle of arguments and moan until I get my own way. C]But my father, On the other hand, turns me nto a shining example of teenage perfection. I do as he asks, I dont answer and I happily accept that means no.

My parents have very different parenting styles. While my dad brino out the best in me, by being calm and reasonable and treating me like an adult. my mum, like so many other parents of teenagers, inadvertently makes me want to rebel by being combative and speaking to me as though I'm still a child. Last summer. after yet another row in a shop with my mother, I decided to start writing down the way I felt about things. 2 C]

In December, having contacted uarious publishers, I signed a book deal. My parenting book, HOW Teenagers Think. is going to be published next year, the firstot its type actually written by a teenager. Much of my book is based on my own experiences, but I've also interviewed my friends about their patents. s C] And it usually comes down to the fact that our parents care too much about us and don't want to let us grow

For example, mum drove me crazy a few weeks ago when she kept worrying I'd broken my neck after I fell off my bike, Yes, my neck hurt. but I'd been to the doctor and he'd told me I was fine, so why did she want to take me to hospital?

                                                   HOW                     n

TEENAGERS

THINK

jellyellie

Instead of fussing around teenagers like we're small children,

—entS could be using Our desire to feel grown-up to their Eantage, If were behaving badly, why not tell us straight an that we don't deserve to be treated like an adult? Then try to earn your                And why not reward us when behave maturely? Recently, I wanted to take a train

•Portsmouth to see a friend - a journey rd done with Mum W.e. Dad was fine with the idea of me going alone, but it Æeks Of arguments before Mum agreed.

need to learn to trust teenagers, And when parents

— wried about us, there is no point becoming angry - that things worse. A few months ago, Mum lost her when I told my parents I'd been receiving emails from rd met in a chatroom. She instantly banned me trom S-€tne Internet and we ended having a huge row. But rm

Most teenagers know talking to strangers online is a pod idea. so I'd told them What was happening - I don't get abducted, just as much as they don't want me to.

S:                be angry with me. Mum?    Surely its better for won't be angry, so I can talk to you?

of my friends feel the same way. They end up not parents What they're up to because theVII be cross.

I interviewed for my book bved the idea Of being to their parents, Despite the way we behave, we relationships with our parents. We also all know that our parents usually do know best. s Our ha•e to unwrap the cotton wool they place around us what is just a natural phase ot lite.

6     Work in pairs. Listen and check your answers to exercise 5 and say Which words helped you to work out the

7     Match the phrasal verbs highlighted in the text with the definitions below.

change; transform

2 gradually become an adult 3 do something Without interruption

4   can be explained by

5   arrive at a situation (often unintentionally)

6   cause a certain type of behaviour in somebody

7   leave quickly and angrily

8   reply impolitely to somebody in authority

8     Explain the meaning Of the underlined phrases in these Sentences from the text. Rewrite the sentences using different words.

1    All adults think teenagers are a nightmare.

2    1 moan until I germeown_way.

3    Mum          a few weeks ago.

4    Why was it

5    Part of being a teenager is feeling free to take steps down

9     Match the two parts of the words to make adjectives from the text. Which adjective best describes (a) most teenagers? (b) most adults? (c) you? Compare your ideas in pairs.

I mood

able

2 argument

able

3    respons

4    unpredict

5    confus

6    reason

ative

7 combat

ing

Work in pairs. HOW could relationships between teenagers and their parents be improved? Think of three things that (a) parents and (b) teenagers should do. Use the ideas below to help you.

communication courtesy friends holidays housework independence money privacy respect schoolwork stress trust understanding

Present your ideas to the class. Include as many words and phrases from exercises 7—10 as possible. Use the phrases below to structure your presentation.

e first thini i teenageþþþogld do is

 

 

. in my opinion parents/ teenagers should

nallý, it would help if parents teen    tense)

 

 

 


D VOCABULARY BUILDER 3.2: PAGE 136 HOW do you and your friends speak compared with   Read the Look out! box. Then complete the sentences with a


people Of your parents' generation? Discuss the ideas below in pairs and decide on the biggest difference.

grammar pronunciation slang speed vocabulary

2    Read the text. HOW many comparative and superlative forms can you find? Are they adjectives or adverbs, regular or irregular?

Although teenagers in the UK generally understand about 40,000 different words, the number Of words they actually use is far smaller than you might think — sometimes only 800 words. An inability to distinguish between formal and informal language is almost as worrying. Ever since the 1950s, speaking correct English has been nowhere near as important for teenagers as sounding cool. But experts are worried that today's teenagers are even worse at talking in formal situations than previous generations were.

The language that teenagers use is nothing like as varied as,vou would imagine, With the twenty commonest words  representing about a third Of all words spoken. And if you 100k at younger age groups, the situation is just as worrying: children are developing speech problems more and more frequently. Children watch a lot of IV. as do adults. This creates background noise; and the noisier their surroundings. the harder it is for babies to hear conversations around them.

3    Read the Learn this! box. Find at least one example in the text in exercise 2 for each point (1—5) in the box.

Comparative structures

I We can qualify comparatives using far, much, even. a little or no:

She's no better at swimming than her sister.

2    We can qualify comparatives with as  as usingjust, almost/ nearly or nowhere near/ nothing like; I'm almost as tall os my dad.

3    Comparatives often have a clause after than. She's less argumentative than she used to be. It's much hotter today than realised.

4    We can use double comparatives for changes:

He's getting taller and taller/more and more handsome.

5    We can use the following Structure to say that two things change together because they are connected: The faster he works, the more mistakes he makes.

LOOK OUTI

We can use a clause beginning with os an auxiliary or modal verb or the correct form Of be to show similarity.

Pay attention to the word order:


She's a great singer, as is her father.

clause to show similarity. Use the words in brackets. I I love Lady Gaga, do friends. (my friends)

2          We've sold our house,       . (our neighbours)

3          She can speak Russian,       . (her dad)

4          The school will be closed, . (the pre-school) 5 She loved the film,          . (her boyfriend)

5          Match the two halves of the comparative sentences.

* I speak far more clearly

2 1'm much more intelligent 3 The harder you work, 4 I love sport.

 I'm nowhere near as moody

6          This dessert is even more delicious

7          She's getting more and more confident, 8 This exercise isn't nearly as difficult

 than everyone thinks I am.

 as do most of my friends. c as some people I know.

 than used to.

e than I thought it would be.

* as the next one.

g the more successful you'll be. as are most teenagers.

D GRAMMAR BUILDER 3.3: PAGE 120

6     Write new beginnings for           in exercise 5.

       a           far more stubborn than everyone thin" I am.

7     Rewrite sentences below using a different comparative or superlative form. Include the word in brackets and do not change the meaning. There is more than one possible answer. I Nobody in my class is as Outgoing as I am. (most) I'm the mott outgoing person in class.

2    lack is far more talkative than Sam. (nowhere)

3    Getting online is becoming easier and easier. (less)

4    My sister drives badly. My dad drives badly too. (as)

5    Everybody in the class sings better than I do. (singer)

6    He plays football much better than he thinks. (badly)

7    The town centre is much emptier than it used to be. (busy)

8      In pairs, think of an appropriate way to finish each sentence. Then compare your ideas with the class.

 The longer people live,

 It's getting more and more difficult to  The hardest thing about being a teenager is

*    The world is getting more and more

 The quickest way to improve your English is

busy / quiet cheap / expensive exciting / relaxing formal / informal noisy / peaceful trendy / Old-fashioned

2 01:26 Read the role-play task and listen to a student doing the task with an examiner. What conclusion do they reach for each Of the four issues? Complete the chart below.

A teenage foreign friend is coming to visit your town with

4

5

his/her grandfather. Talk to your friend about the visit, remembering to make plans and arrangements Which are suitable for both visitors. Cover these issues:

*    where they should Stay

*    a recommended place to eat out

*    a daÝtrip or excursion that both would enjoy

*    the best wayto getaround

place to stay

 

day-trip

 

getting around

 

eating out

 

Complete the phrases using the words below. Check you

     •derstand the expressions.                                                                  6

I Suggesting a course of action could got idea know Other think

                              Why don't we ?                                                             7

Here's an :     . Let's it. How about ? we should always       8 thing we should do is



I see  you're saying that, but not a bad idea but I think , we could

Listen to the role•play again. Which of the phrases in exercise 3 do they use?

Read the Learn this! box and complete the examples. Then listen and check.

Question tags turn statements into questions. We use affirmative tags after negative verbs and negative tags after affirmative verbs. Tags include a modal verb or auxiliary pan of a verb form (have, do, did. etc.). Your grandfather is coming too,

You haven't got a big flat,

Thai food is spicy,

Everybody likes Italian food,

/ should 100k online,

Let's decide later,

Don 't forget,

D GRAMMAR BUILDER 3.4: PAGE 120

 Listen and repeat the sentences in exercise 5. Does the intonation go up or down at the end Of each one? HOW does that affect the meaning?

In pairs, prepare to do the role-play task from exercise 2. Decide which part you will each play and what conclusions you will reach. Make a chart like the one in exercise 2 and write your ideas in it.

 Do the role-play task in pairs. Make sure you include some question tags.


Ask and answer these questions in pairs.


I DO you think you have enough freedom and independence from your family?

2   What are the positive effects of giving teenagers more freedom and independence?

3   What are the negative effects?

2      Work in pairs. Read the task below and agree on one advantage and one disadvantage.

Many teenagers spend time looking after themselves at home while the adults are away. Write an essay which presents the advantages and disadvantages Of being 'home alone' When you're a teenager.

3     Read the essay. Does the candidate mention your ideas from exercise 2?

Scme parents happy to their teenage chilWen in the tE:ause they trust ttHn to ttunseh,es. There can drawbacks. Exit situation can also out the best r.

Firstly. itk a     to             hcw to favcx_rite      c:nüne ftÿ, say.

c.cuk:in't it means ncbody is there to nag tell What to do. Which — even thCROh you may two little things. Thirdly, not acuts arcond is a chance to prcyve that you can inc8Jendent and even deal with difficult situaticns occasionally.

other hand, there we definitely cisadvantages to          at             WNe your parents are away. Although sceparing yCMr own fcod may fun,      Will end up eatrg k)ts ot        snacks and no         meals.

Secondly, it your parents arent there to renind you, forget something impœtant. a doctor S apçnntn-ult. Thny, wthout your parents at home, you need to Cc*ye With any domestic emergenciœ yourself. For example, f the bathrocyn roods, ytl' næd to it Out!

Ov•erall, I    the advantages fix teenagers Ot sÇmding a tine home ame    the

Despite     risk 0t     its an part of grcywing up.

EXAM

TIP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Make sure your essay is divided into paragraphs and has a clear and logical Structure. For example:

Paragraph 1: (introduction) Rephrase the question and / or give an example of the situation it describes to show that you have understood it.

Paragraph 2: (pros) List two or three advantages.

Include examples.

Paragraph 3: (cons) List two or three disadvantages.

Include examples.

Paragraph 4: (conclusion) Sum up the most important points and / or give your own opinion.

4 Read the Exam tip. Answer the questions in relation to the essay in exercise 3.

I Does the essay follow the structure in the tip?

2    How many different (a) advantages and (b) disadvantages does the candidate mention?

3    Underline all the places where the candidate gives examples. How are the examples introduced?

4    What phrase does the candidate use to introduce a personal opinion in the conclusion?

 

Concessions

We can use although Or even though to introduce a concession clause.

He won the race even though he'd hurt his foot.

Although he'd hurt his foot, he won the race.

Despite and in spite Of also express concession but are followed by a noun or •ing form. not a clause. Despite/ln spite Of his injury, he won the race.

 

 

 

 

Read the Learn this! box. Underline all the examples Of concession in the essay in exercise 3.

6                                 Rewrite the sentences without changing the meaning. Include the word in brackets.

I Even though they get on well, they're splitting up.

(despite)

Despite getting on well, theft-e splitting up.

2 Even though they're friends, they often argue. (despite) Although we tease each other, we're actually very close.

(in spite on

4    In spite of the rain, they walked home together.

(although)

5    Many parents watch too much TV, despite lecturing their children about the same thing. (even though)

6    She doesn't respect her dad, even though he's got a well• paid job. (in spite on

7                                 In pairs, discuss the conclusion Of the essay in


exercise 3. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons.

Essay: pros and cons

I can analyse and express the pros and cons of a situation.


 

Write an essay which presents the advantages and

 

 

disadvantages of going on holiday With friends your own age rather than with your family.

5

2

Plan your essay in pairs.

Student A: Think Of as many advantages as you can.

 

 

Student B: Think Of as many disadvantages as you can. Make notes using the ideas below to help you.

be on the same wavelength eat unhealthy food get ill get lost get mugged make mistakes make new friends

6

 

miss your family run out ot money stay up all night stay in hostels

7

3

 Compare ideas with your partner. Agree on the best two or three advantages and disadvantages. then think Of examples where possible. Complete the plan for paragraphs 2 and 3.

Paragraph I: introduction

Paragraph 2: advantages

 

You are going to do the following exam writing task. Read the task and discuss Some ideas for advantages and disadvantages with your partner.

8

 

Point 1:

Point 2:

Point 3:

 

 

 

Paragraph 3: disadvantages

Point I: Point 2: point 3:

 

 

 

Paragraph 4.• conclusion

In pairs, translate the underlined phrases in the sentences below. Think about how you could use the phrases in your essay. Which section of the essay might they belong to?

You might live on junk food for the entire holiday.

Ifyou comedown with food poisoning, find a doctor.

It's important to stick together.

Your family are only a phone call away.

Holidays can be a bonding experience.

Teenagers can be anvasytarget for criminals.

If things go wrong. you may need to grow LID overnight. It could be the holidav Of a lifetime.

In pairs, write the introduction to your essay by completing the outline below.

Some teenagers have the opportunity to go on hol"day with friends their own age. Although this can be it can also

Agree on a conclusion with your partner. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, or vice versa? Make a note of your opinion and the reasons for it.

Look back at the essay in exercise 3 on page 34 and complete these three different ways Of expressing the idea Of being

is a chance to prove you can be independent there are definitely disadvantages to being at home

, you need to cope With any domestic emergencies yourself.

Do the writing task in exercise I. Follow the essay plan you made With your partner in exercises 3—6.

CHECK YOUR WORK

Have you:

given your essay a clear and logical structure? used at least one concession clause?

included some expressions from exercises 2 and 4? rephrased the wording Of the task in different ways? written 200-250 words?

your spelling and grammar?

Get Ready for your Exam

Listening

spend your weekends:

alone or with company? With friends or family? indoors or outdoors? being active or relaxed?

LISTENING exam task

2 DO the exam task.

You Will hear five people talking about how they spend the weekend. Match each sentence in the table to the correct speaker(s). Which speaker

loves to expand his/her wardrobe?

spends his/her weekend glued to the screen?

loves to chill Out?

has an expensive hobby?

has a hobby which annoys his/her family?

doesn't mind getting dirty?

9 has a role model? appreciates nature?

spends weekends with a

Use of English

3 Do the exam task.

USE OF ENGLISH exam task

Read the text. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for each gap to create a logical and grammatically Correct text.

LIK life expectancy has risen quite dramatically, despite concerns over Obesity and its attendant health problems. reports published this month, average life expectancy has risen 80 years Old, eight years higher than in the 1970s. What has made the most difference to the population's health? Has it been increasing the government budget for hospitals, staff and medical equipment? Has it been the in medicine with exciting breakthroughs in new treatments for tackling disease? Has it been the fact that we're more conscious Of staying healthy these days? These factors have obviously contributed to the health Of the nation. But one thing in particular has been an enormous contributing

Get Ready for your Exam 3

factor — it was a simple public health campaign about the dangers of smoking.

In 1971, many thousands of men in their early 60s died 3 smoking-related heart disease. 2000 the figure for this age group had halved, while for cancer the number had gone down by a third, and strokerelated deaths had fallen by two-thirds. The dramatic fall in these numbers can be attributed to the first generation Of non-smokers arriving at Old age.

But what is the likelihood of life expectancy increasing? Health professionals are concerned that this trend by the time today's youth reach old age. Smoking has been replaced by the equally unhealthy habit Of over-eating, and unless a similar public health campaign takes soon, who knows what the future may bring?

Due to B According to C Based on

D Apart from growth B acceleration C improvement

D advances on B from C at D for

4 A Since B In C By D After is reversing B has been reversed

C Will be reversed D reverses

6 A effect B result C action D control

Speaking

4

better at as they get older? What do they get worse at? In pairs, make two lists.

5 DO the exam task.

SPEAKING exam task

DO you agree or disagree With this Statement? Give reasons.

In Our society, we do not attach enough value to the wisdom and experience Of the Old.


PO L I T 1 Co HOW MUCH DO

Look at the four politicians in the photos. a What nationality are/were they? b Name one thing they are famous for.

Name three members of the government in your country.

3     How old do you have to be to vote in your country?

4     How many countries are there in the EU? Who is the current a President of the US? b British Prime Minister? c President of the EU Commission?


Work in pairs. DO the political awareness quiz. HOW well-informed are you?

2                                        Complete the text with the correct form Of the verbs below. Then listen and check.

call for change gauge influence join launch sign tackle take part write e-petitions


Most aritish teenagers aren't very interested in politics. Very few have in a demonstration Or a letter of protest, let alone a political party. But with the advent of the Internet, a new wav of • a campaign Or government policy has emerged: e•petitions. Any British citizen can start a petition on the British government website. If more than 100,000 people the petition, it could be debated in the House Of Commons. Recent popular petitions have a referendum on British membership Of the EU, Or demanded action to 8 problems like drug addiction and homelessness. But could a petition ever lead the Government to actually 9 law? Or is it just a cynical way for the government to public opinion or. worse, to fool voters into thinking that the Government is actually listening to them? Time will tell.

3                                        In pairs, check the meaning Of the collocations in red. Then test each other. launch?      a campaign

DVOCABULARY BUILDER 4.1: PAGE 137

4                                        Listen to five teenagers being interviewed about their attitude to politics. Match the statements (A—F) with the speakers. There is one statement that you don't need.

A          I don't think that politicians ever listen.

B           I believe people have a duty to get involved in politics.

C           I want to have a say in who governs the country.

D          I don't believe that young people care enough to vote.

E           I don't think our voting system produces fair results. F I'll never change my attitude to politics.

5                                        Listen again. Identify one reason that each teenager gives to explain their attitude.

6                                        What's the meaning Of these political terms?

How many can you explain?

general public / general election mainstream politics / single-issue politics electoral system I political system left-wing / right-wing public opinion / public Office

7                                        Work in pairs. Say whether you agree or disagree with the opinions in exercise 4. Give reasons.

don't agree that politicians never lislen. They have to listen in order to get elected.

DVOCABULARY BUILDER 4.2: PAGE 137

1  01.31 Read and listen to the dialogue. Answer the questions.

I Who are Sandy and Ryan?

2  What's happening and why?

Ryan Hey Sandy, move it! Hurry up! Grab a placard and some water. Chances are we'll be Out all day.

Sandy OK. Where are we off to?

Ryan The university library. Thousands of students will be heading there right now. Hurry!

Sandy OK, OK. Blimey, there are loads Of us! People must be wondering what's going on.

Ryan That's the idea! Come on!

Sandy What's the plan then?

Ryan     Well, at least a hundred students are likely to occupy the library. The rest of us could march to the Town Hall, or it might be better to Stay in the centre of town to protest there. Either way. people are bound to sit up and take notice.

Crowd No to student fees! No to student fees!

Ryan And the TV cameras should be here today as well! The Government can't ignore us any longer. Come on! No to student fees! No to student fees!

2    
Read the Learn this! box. Underline in the dialogue all the modal verbs and phrases that express probability.

 

Talking about possibility

I We use will to make predictions about the future.

/ don't think the President Will be re-elected.

2    We use the future continuous and the future perfect to make assumptions about the present.

It's 8.00. Carolyn Will be driving to work.

think Emily Will have left the Office by now.

3    We use must to conclude that something is certain. Dad isn't at home. He must be at work.

4    We use can't to express impossibility.

He can't be at work. His car's outside.

5    We use may, might and could to talk about the possibility Of something happening.

Where's Max?' 'He could be doing his homework. • It may rain later, so we might not play tennis.

6    We use should to say that something will probably happen, in our opinion.

Spain should beat England.

7    We can use Other phrases to express probability.

It's so cold. It's bound to snow tonight. certain) Chances are it'll rain tomorrow. very probable) Are you likely to go to Jeff's party?

 

 

D GRAMMAR BUILDER 4.1: PAGE 121

3     Choose the correct answers. Where more than one answer is possible, explain the difference in meaning.

I This exercise shouldn't / mustn't / won't take you too long to complete if you've read the learn this! box.

2 'It's freezing in here. The window must / could / should be open.'

 'Where's Aidan?' 'I'm not sure. He might / should / will be playing football.'

 The plane left London for Paris six hours ago. It Will arrive / have arrived / be arriving by now.

5 You shouldn't / mustn't / can't be listening to the teacher if you are whispering to the student next to you.  Emma has revised very hard for her exams so she should / may / won't do well.

7 Bring warm clothes to the barbecue next Saturday. The weather mustn't / can't I might not be as warm as it's been recently.

4      Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. Keep the meaning the same.

 The phone's ringing. think it's Tom. (Will)

The phone.@ ringiny It'll be Torn

 I'm certain that the Government will be defeated. (bound)  I rang Liam at home but there was no answer. There's no way that he's at home. (can't)

4    DO vou think that lash will arrive soon? (likely)

5    1 really don't expect Sam Will fail his driving test.

(shouldn't)

6    Fran is probably lying. (chances)

7    It's one o'clock. I assume she's having lunch. (will)

5      Work in pairs. Describe the photo. Discuss What is happening now and what might happen. Use language from the Learn this! box.


adjectives (un)armed violent

                                                                                                                                                unrest             5 armed

nouns barricade riot rioter shield weapon verbs riot protest demonstrate    3 paramilitary

3   I .32 Read the text. What is the significance Of these         6             I .33 Listen to two teenagers talking about Northern Ireland. Choose the correct answer. dates?

a 1922 c 1969 e 1998 a Neither of them wants a united Ireland. b the 1960s d 1985 b One Of them wants a united Ireland.

c Both Of them want a united Ireland. Read the text again. Answer the questions.

                                                                                                                         7               Listen again. Are the sentences true (T) or false (n?

1   What proportion of the population of Northern Ireland is

1

          Protestant?                                                                                                   William has some happy childhood memories.

2   Why did the Catholic community feel aggrieved following            2 TWO Of William's relatives were killed by terrorists.

         the partition of Ireland?                                                                             3 William can't help thinking Of Catholics as enemies. C]

4   Niamh thinks the IRA made a mistake when it gave up its armed struggle.

5   Approximately 90% Of children in Northern Ireland go to faith schools.

6  
Niamh will probably send her children to a Catholic

independence in 1922. the North,                united again and started killing British soldiers. The British government of the population were Protestants. remained part Of the UK. For             acknowledged the Catholics' grievances, but insisted that Northern after, the minority Catholic population in the North felt badly               Ireland would remain part of the UK as long as that was what the

f•ated. They ware less well off and were often excluded from public

Most of them wanted an end to British rule in Northern Ireland.

         b the       some Protestants reacted violently to Catholic demands

L                   and civil rights, and police used force to break up Catholic

—onstrations. Rioting and civil unrest followed and in 1S9the Brmsh ETV was sent into restore law and order. Catholic and Protestant groups started planting bombs and murdering people.

•mag that they were •protecting their communities'. One of these the Provisional IRA (Irish Republican Army), wanted Ireland to be

majority Of its people wanted.

The British government was unable to Stop the violence, Which lasted for nearly 30 years. This period saw a number at failed peace initiatives, an attempt by the IRA in 1985 to murder Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, and the deaths Of aver 351 people, including 1,100 British soldiers.

But people in both communities were tiring of the spiral of violence and IRA agreedto give up its armed struggle and seek to achieve its goal by peaceful means. Northern Ireland is still part Of the UK, butnow has its own government, made up of Catholics and Protestants.


READING Freedom of speech

I can understand a text about freedom of speech.


Freedom of speech and information

how much should we have?

SIMON WILSON - libertarian

We libertarians believe that the Gwetnment should interfere in peoplek lives as little as gnssible That means that peoples right to free       should not law unless what they are saying is certain to incite violence, I tvlie•e that extreme right-wing or left•aing views and extreme religious views should all be allowed even though most people find them abhorrent This is the es§ence of a free society. Extreme views should be expressed That the only wav to defeat them

JASON ROMFORD - comedian

Its difficult to be polite in comedy because you are usually making tun Of people. so you're   to offend somebody at some point. But just somebody is OffeMed doesrft mean they are right. I believe that have right to Offend you. and if you are offended. thats rot a problem. That doesn't mean that I try to offensive. don't I tri/ to be funny. try to be honest try to make people think. If sœneone feels Offerded at something I say. that's too bad That's their ;yoblem. JANE SIMMONS - politician

Governments have the right to cansot information and restrict free speech in the interests Of national secu:ity, for yeservinç public safety. or for the prevention of disorder or crime. For example. its a crime to incite people to carry Out acts of terrorism Most geople agree that this is sensibla However. there is a danger that governments will use •the defence Of national security' as an excuse to silence legitimate protests and stifle      to their polities Ifs imgœtant therefore that l*ople are able to challenge the limits ot free speech in a court 0t law

PETER GREENWOOD - civil rights activist

There's a danger that people can use tree speech to undermine the human rights of others. Liberalism is a good thing. butwe should limit people's to express racist. sexist. ageist or homophobic views There are lessons we must learn from history If      had been no free speech for the Nazi pan,' in Germany during the early 20s. it is possible that fascism may not have grown in power and influenca The lesson is: be intolerantot intoleraxe.

SARAH MATTHEWS - online activist

Contribute to a website called Wikileaks, where anonymous volunteers leak confidential government information hack into government cunøuler files worldwide and put them on the Internal. GD•ærnments say Our actions are dangero•as. I think they just want to conceal their tram us. I want expose the truth. people have tt-æ right to know everything that their Weernment is doing I'm absolutely opposed to censorship Of the

I Have you or someone you know ever signed a petition or demonstrated against something? If So, why? If not, would you? Give reasons.

2 2.01 Read through the texts quickly. Decide who believes that there should be limits to freedom of speech. Which keywords/phrases helped you decide?

Simon Wilson —             M: unless incite violence interfere as little as possible ntrme views be allowed

EXAM TIP

Skim read the text before you read the multiple choice questions in Order to get the general meaning. Then read each question and identify the part of the text that contains the information you need.

Reject any options that are clearly wrong and identify the correct answer by looking carefully at the relevant part of the text.

If you are unsure which of two answers is correct, make an intelligent guess.

ANNIE THATCHER - journalist The press must not invade peoples privacy. nor can say things which hurt a personS reputation without clear evidence ttk2t they are true. But is it fair to investigate the private lives of figures? Journalists tend to justify their intrusion into the lives Of famous mple claiming that certain information is 'in the public interest' las opposed ta something the public is interested ink For example. thew argue. if the captain Of the England football team is having an affair. the public should know atX)ut it as he is in a position of authority and respect and a role model tor young boys. Ultimately. though. some of the press will print anything that sells newspa¥.rs — if they can get away with it

3   Read the Exam tip on page Then read the texts again and choose the best answer.

I Simon Wilson says that a libertarians don't believe in government.

b    everybody has extreme views.

c    governments cannot ever restrict free speech. d we should fight against extreme views.

3   Jason Romford a always tries to be polite.

b    thinks that comedians are always offensive.

c    is upset When he thinks he has offended someone. d wants to entertain people.

4   Jane Simmons thinks that a we need to be able to restrict free speech to guard people's safety.

b    governments are always right to restrict free speech.

c    people are free to carry out terrorist acts.

d    people shouldn't question any government's actions.

4   Peter Greenwood a wants restrictions On what people say about others. b thinks that we have learned something from history. c says that the Nazi party restricted free speech.

d thinks that people have become more intolerant.

5   Sarah Matthews wants a governments to conceal confidential information. b to reveal what governments are doing.

c   everyone to hack into government computer documents.

d  everyone to read the Wikileaks website.

6   Annie Thatcher believes that a the press isn't allowed the right to freedom of speech. b the press always reports information responsibly.

c  journalists have the right to Say What they like about celebrities.

d the press generally argue that they print What the public needs to know.

The suffixes -ism and -ist

1    We often use the suffix -ism for beliefs, ideologies and behaviour (Buddhism, Marxism).

2    We often use -ist for people who have those beliefs and ideologies (a Buddhist, a Marxist) and for adjectives GMarxist ideology, a Buddhist temple). 3 There are exceptions.

liberalism (n. belief), a liberal (n, person), liberal (adj) criticism (n, behaviour), a critic (n, person), critical (adj)

4 We also use •ism and •ist for some occupations.

(Journalism, a journalist)

the texts and find the suffixes for these words. Which category does each one belong to?

      1 activ                                    5 age_

7    journal_

8    terror

D VOCABULARY BUILDER 4.3: PAGE 137

5     Read statements A—F. On your own, score them from I (z disagree strongly) to 5 agree strongly). Think of reasons for each opinion.

A     We should know everything the Government is doing or plans to do.

B     It is right for hackers to try to access government files.

C     We have the right to know everything about celebrities' lives.

D     Comedians should be careful What they make jokes about.

 People should be allowed to express any opinion, however extreme.

 Racist. sexist. ageist. anti-religious and homophobic views should not be tolerated.

6      Work in small groups. Compare your scores for exercise 5. Justify your opinions and give examples to back them up.

Work in pairs. Discuss these questions. Is John

Lennon's vision (a) worth striving for? (b) realistic and achievable? Give reasons for your opinions.


 

 

Future continuous

We can use the future continuous to make enquiries. Will you be voting in the election?

 

1  Read the flyer. What sort Of things do you think the School

Council does? Do you have a group like this at your school?

D GRAMMAR BUILDER 4.2: PAGE 122

            *out NEEDS*OU!School Council                                                      4 Read the Learn this! box and rephrase the questions using

the future continuous to make polite questions.

I What time are you leaving school?

2  What do you plan to do this evening?

                                 Helping to improve your school                                     3 Who are you going to see at the weekend?

4 Where will you go for your next holiday?

By the end Of this week we'll have been running 5 What are you intending to wear to school tomorrow? your new School Council for a whole term.

We've already had an impact on the way the 5Ask and answer the questions in pairs. Use the future continuous in the questions. school is run. We asked to have a say in the new school uniform and the teachers agreed. 6 2.04 Listen to the conversation. What Will have Next term, we'll all be wearing a uniform happened by tomorrow afternoon?


                     designed by you.                                                                        7      2.04 Complete the Sentences with a verb in the correct

And by the end Of the year we'll have made tense. Then listen again and check. our school even better. We'll be meeting more

 We'll in Birmingham soon.

                   regularly next term. Come along With ideas on                               2 By the time I arrive home I'llfor eight hours.

                    how to improve our school.                                                         3 Will you  something to eat when you arrive?

SEE YOU THERE!        5 By five O'clock, be hungry. we'll I'll             down to a lovely meal. 4 NO, I won't

8 Complete the predictions. Use the future continuous or the future perfect of the verbs below.

find go live melt speak spread

2     Find four examples Of the future continuous, future perfect and future perfect continuous in the text. Then match each example With a use in the Learn this! box.


Future continuous, future perfect and future perfect continuous

1     We use the future continuous to:

a    talk about something we expectwill happen.

b   talk about an action in progress in the future.

2     We use the future perfect to talk about a completed action in the future.

3     We use the future perfect continuous. usuallywith for  , to say how long an action will have been in progress in the future.

3     Explain the meaning Of these sentences. Translate them into your language.

I At 4 p.m. we'll watch the film.

2    At 4 p.m. we'll be watching the film.

3    By 4 p.m. we'll have watched the film.

4    By 4 p.m. we'll have been watching the film for an hour.


2.06 Complete the phrases with the words below. Check


help you.                                                                                                        you understand the expressions. Then listen again. Which phrases don't they use?

advantage don't it maybe persuadin

The bigof (my idea) is

Wouldn'tbe better to ? you think that ?

, but I still think

agree decided persuaded right

OK, you've

0K. Let's

That's s

PRONUNCIATION How is the noun protest (in exercise 6) pronounced? How would it be pronounced if it were a verb?

D VOCABULARY BUILDER 4.4: PAGE 137

Work in small groups. You are planning to launch a campaign. Follow the instructions.

• Decide which issue you are going to protest about. Choose from the ideas in the box below or think of your own.

Discuss What form Vour protest Will take and agree On three types of action. (See exercise 6.)

the building of a new road through a rural area popular With tourists a plan to build a nuclear power station near your town

• the closure Of a youth club Which you attend a global issue such as poverty, disease, endangered species or the arms trade


Discuss and decide Who Will be responsible for each.

Takingastand


banner chant (v) demonstration demonstrator march (v) megaphone placard protest (v) slogan

2    Work in pairs. Imagine there are plans to build a massive car park in the centre Of a small town near you. Brainstorm reasons Why you might object to this.

3    2.05 Listen to two teenagers, Ollie and Emma, discussing their Objections to the car park. Compare your ideas With theirs.

2.05 Complete the lines from the conversation With the verbs in brackets. Use the present continuous, the present simple, going to and Will. Then listen and check.

They (build) a massive car park in the town centre.

The council           (meet) in a month's time so we need to mcwe quickly.

*                       (go) out this evening. What about tomorrow evening?

*                      (ring) Jane and get her involved.

8

2

9

5 Match the sentences (1—4) in exercise 4 With the descriptions


D GRAMMAR BUILDER 4.3: PAGE 122

2.06 Listen to Ollie, Emma and Jane discussing What form their protest Will take. Which Of these do they decide to do? Which do they reject, and why?

a an arrangement b a timetabled event c an intention d an instant decision


I draw up a petition 2 hand out leaflets 3 organise a march make placards

6    write a letter Of protest

7    put up posters

8    contact the media

set up a website

9    hold a rally

 HOW would the beginning and the end Of the letter be         3 different if June didn't know the name of the person she was writi ng to?

Mary Jones

JK4 7GH

4 April 2013

r Mrs Jones,

I am writing to protest against the planned      Of the public library in the centre Of Greenford. I understand that it is to Close at the end of the year.

am particularly   about the primary and secondary students who currently use the library to research

homework assignments and              It is          to tha t the library is Of crucial importance to     people in

In addition, many elderly and less well-off people might not able to affcmå to buy many              The fact is               the Closure is bound to adversely affext   such people Who rely on the library as their only source of reading matter.

Furthermore, the library Serves as a social centre Where people dmp in to read the papers and meet their friends. The consequences of the              Will be Very damaging to people who use the library tn this way.     4

It is for these reasons that think the should reconsider its decision and keep the library open for the benefit of all the citizens o f Greenford.

1100k forward to          response.

Yours sincerely,

Tune Knight                                                                                              5

June

Find and underline in the letter nine phrases from the list below.


Useful phrases for a tetter of protest opening the letter

I am writing to protest against wish to register my opposition to I am writing to express my concern about

introducin            ur reasons for rotestin  am very worried about/that

I am particularly concerned about

' fear that (it) Will lead to „ It is clearly unfair to/that In addition ...'Furthermore

making a point forcefulÿ It 's important to recognise that

The fact is that        What you don't seem to realise is that

describinz ill effects  will do serious damage to

„ will lead to the collapse:'destruction/death etc. of

„ is bound to adversely affect The consequences Of will be very damaging

requesting_aqggon

It is for these reasons that I think...

Please put        immediate) Stop to

Please do everything in your power to

Add one of these phrases to each group in exercise 3.

a It is/l find it unacceptable that b I would like to point out that c I wish to object in the strongest possible terms to d I urge you therefore to reconsider your decision/proposal

(to e             will have a devastating effect on

Complete the Exam tip. Find the features in the letter. Check you understand the key features of formal letters.

EXAM TIP at the top on the right, address just below on the left and below that.

• Start and end the letter correctly: Dear

Madam / name Yours faithfully / Avoid s           language and        , direct questions and    marks.

At the end, sign yours   , then print it underneath.


2 Read the letter. Answer the questions.

I What is the council planning to do, and when?

2 How many objections does June raise in her letter? 3 How do many students currently use the library?

4    HOW Will the closure affect elderly and less affluent people?

5    How else do people use the library, apart from to borrow books?

6    What action does June request?

Describe the photo. Do you or your town retail parks? Why?/Why not?


 

5

Work in pairs. Choose two reasons for Objecting to the

2 Read the newspaper article. Answer the questions.

 

proposed retail park from the list below, or think of your own

1 What does the council have to decide?

 

ideas. Expand the two ideas and make notes.

2 Who is paying for the new retail park?

 

Possible objections

3 HOW big Will it be and how much will it cost?

 

effect on shops/toss Of jobs in the town centre

4 What two possible advantages of the plans are

 

increased traffic

mentioned in the text?

 

destruction of a beautiful rural area

5 What two possible disadvantages are mentioned?

 

effect on wildlife

 

6

Write the second and third paragraphs ofyour letter, using

£20M RETAIL PARK

 

the notes you made in exercise 5. Use phrases from exercise 3 on page 44.

FOR AYLESMARSH

7

Work in pairs. Decide What action you would like the council to take. Choose ideas from the list or thinkofyour own. Expand the ideas and write notes.

AYLESMARSH COUNCIL are                 the centre Of town to the park.

—Eing next June to decide                The plans are likely to be

 

Possible actions

*ether or not to approve plans            Controversial. Councillor Mike

 

find an alternative location

        a 200-hectare retail park on         Nesbit. Who is in favour of the

 

abandon the proposal

        outskirts of the town. The           development. said it would

 

hold an enquiry and consult local traders

          will include department            a massive boost to the local

•es. clothing Outlets, media                economy. creating hundreds Of

 

build new shops and a car park in the town centre

             computer and electrical         jobs and attracting major retailers

8

Write the fourth paragraph Of your letter, using the notes you

to the new park. However. local

      Hærington       the                      traders are reported to be upset

.ith plans to develop the                      at the effect the retail park Bill

 

made in exercise 7. Use phrases from exercise 3 on page 44.

CHECK YOUR WORK

structured your letter following the task in exercise 3? included some phrases in each section from page 44? used a polite, formal style?

used the correct layout and language to start and finish                 letter?

Written 200—250 words? your spelling

site, that the   have on town centre shops, will cast £20 million A      and environmentalists say it spokesperson said. 'The        will destroy fields and ancient


Will create Over 300 jobs noodland We want to consult the construction phase local people,' said Cllr Nesbit. permanent jobs •and in the coming months we it is open: The retail park Will be holding a number of grking for cars. A public meetings at which people service Will run from can air their views.'

Unit 4 Taking a stand


unit 3

I Read the sentences. Describe what is happening using the verbs below and correct prepositions.

boasting confiding praising telling warning

1   •Rover, sit! Good boy, Rover!' said Joe.

           Joe was his dog              obeying him.

2   •I can play football better than any of you.' Brandon said. Brandon was his friends.

 'You can't swim here, there are rocks,' said the lifeguard.

           The lifeguard was                                    the rocks.

4    'Actually, I'm scared Of cats,' Kurt said to his son.

           Kurt was                           his son                his fear Of cats.

5    'Tom! Put those crisps away!' said the teacher.

           The teacher was             Tom off             eating in class.

Mark: _ 15

2    Write the missing questions.

 Keira went to Spain with her sister.

            Q:                     ? A: Her sister.

They stayed in a hotel for two weeks. ? A: Two weeks.

They were unhappy about their room.

            Q:                     ? A: Their room.

4   They complained to the hotel manager.

? A: The hotel manager.

5   He told the maid Off for not cleaning the room.

? A: For not cleaning the room.

Mark: _

3    Complete the text. Write one or two words in each gap.

Thanks to technology, it's getting harder        for teenagers to experience independence. In the past,

travelling abroad without your parents was one Of effective ways Of learning survival skills. But today, going

abroad is nowhere liberating as it used to be because teenagers can stay in touch via texts, as their parents. The more connected the world becomes, easy it is for teenagers to find space to grow.

4    Add question tags to the dialogue.

Boy Let's go out for dinner this weekend.

Girl Good idea. We should book somewhere,

Boy Yes. I'll do that. How

Girl You haven't been there before, 3

Boy NO. Nobody said anything bad about it,


Girt OK! Don't forget to ask about vegan food,

Language Review

Unit 4

5    Complete the sentences With the verbs below.

gauge influence launch tackle take part in

1    Did youthe demonstration last night?

2    Online surveys are a good way to      public opinion.  Local politicians have done nothing to           vandalism

in this city.

4 Can you       government policy by donating money to political parties?

 The Government plans to a new antismoking campaign focusing on teenagers.

 

Marv — /5

6    Complete the dialogue with the words below.

bound chances might must won't

Boy Where's our taxi? It 1          be at least half an hour since I called.

       Girl                 are it's stuck in traffic. It is rush hour.

Boy The gig starts at 7.30. We ' miss the beginning

Girl Don't worry. There's            to be a support act on first. We s    miss the main band.

Mark: _ 15

7    Choose the correct verb forms, a or b.

gone to bed yet. it's only 9 p.m. a won't have gone b won't have been going     I can't text you tomorrow afternoon, I  an exam. a 'Il have done b 'Il be doing

3    Sue's on holiday. She a great time, I expect. a 'Il have had b 'Il be having

4    Theytogether for a year this December.

a 'Il have gone out b 'Il have been going out

5    You need to say it again. He a won't have heard b won't have been hearing

Mark; —

8    Complete the dialogue With suitable words.

Boy Here's an t            . Why don't write a letter to the newspaper?

Girl I'm not about that. They probably won't print it. I ' we should launch a campaign on Facebook. It's easy and effective. We always get our friends to join

Boy I sees     you're saying that, but Will anyone notice a campaign on Facebook?  

Find Out if your partner prefers shopping in small, local shops or giant superstores. Agree on two pros and two cons for each type Of shop.

Listening

2    2.08 Listen. Where does the conversation take place? Choose one, two or three Of the places below.

in a superstore in the squat outside a shop

3    2.08 Listen again. Choose the correct answers. I Why does Stefan assume Daisy is not English? a Her English is worse than his. b Her appearance is not typically English.

c She doesn't seem to know anyone.

2   Daisy lives a in the same squat as Spikey. b in a flat on Western Avenue. c with her Spanish mother.

3   When Spikey tells Stefan he shouldn't buy bananas, Stefan a suggests Spikey has got his facts wrong. b agrees not to buy any bananas.

c does not understand how not buying bananas Will make a difference.

4    Daisy left home because a she didn't like living with a capitalist.

b she had a big argument with her father. c she wanted to live with Spikey.

Reading

 Read the text. What is it from? Choose from a—d.

b a leaflet

d a magazine article

D CHECK YOUR PROGRESS: PAGE'

 

S-O-S- SAVE

OUR SHOPS!

      a a newspaper report            c a formal letter

in exercise 4?

Wesley's are planning to build a car park next to an existing row of shops.

 An Official decision to allow the development has already been made.

3    Letters Of complaint should focus on the fact that local people were not asked to discuss the plans.

4    The supermarket chain has already bought a playing field from the local council.

 There are already traffic problems in the area.

Speaking

6   Imagine you are planning a protest for the campaign against

Wesley's. Which Of the options below Will you choose and


Why? Why are you rejecting the other options? Take turns to

7   Stún. Write a letter, in an appropriate Style, to    in

   thank her for letting               stay.

   describe 'Our new flat.

 invite her to visit your new flat.

   describe Spikey and Daisy.


chain are planning demolish a row Of shops in Williams and build a new, massi Ve superstore underground car park in the same

They have already received planning permission for the development the local council, Who own the land, we believe it is not too late to stop it, campaign — write and complain! asking people to write to their ICRaI of        to development , and in particular, the lack with local residalts

We feel the decision to appmve

the plan was taken without considering its negative impact on the environment and the               community. Fiv e good reasons to        the developmen t:

The site for the new superstore includes a 10,mOm: playing field which the local government plans to sell off Our Children need spaœs for Sports and exercise!

2                                                                    Unlike     Shops, the profit from a big superstore goes to its shareholders, who do not live locally. The money is not reinvested in area _

3                                                                    from all

around world. which causes polluticm and is Our small,

              Shops                produce Whenever

4                                                                    Parking and traffic are already a big -prc&m in this part Of London. A new superstore will make it worse, especially as park is small for the expected number of customers.

5                                                                    Large keep their p I ow by exploiting workers in developing countries Many banana-growers, for example. earn less than El a day.

Skills Round-up


4        Get Ready for your Exam


Reading

pairs:

1    What are androids?

2    Will they be part Of our lives in the future?

Why? / Why not?

3    Do you think the future looks bright or bleak for the human race?

2 DO the exam task.

READING exam task

Read the extract from Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep? by Philip K Dick. Complete the text With the missing sentences (A—E). There is one extra sentence that is not needed.

In a great empty apartment building far from the centre Of San Francisco a single television played. There were few people left to miss them.

Nobody reallv remembered why the war had started or who, if anyone, had won. The radioactive dust that covered the Earth had come from no country and nobody had planned it. Under United Nations law each person Who left was given an android to work for them. It became very easy to go and difficult to Stay. The few thousands who remained moved into areas where they could live together and see each other. There were only a few Odd individuals who stayed alone in the suburbs. John Isidore, listening to the television as he shaved, was one of these.

'Let's hear from Mrs Maggie klugman,' the television presenter was saying. •She emigrated to Mars a short time ago. MrsKIugman, how does your exciting life in New New York compare with the difficulties of your previous life on Earth?'

There was a pause, and then a tired middle-aged voice said, •3 And before we left, my husband and I were always worried that we might become specials. NOW Our worries have gone for ever.'

For me too, John Isidore thought, and I didn't have to emigrate. He had been a special now for over a year. Snce he had failed even a basic intelligence test, the popular name for him and Others like him was 'chickenhead' — but he survived. He had a job driving a truck for a false-animal repair company, and Mr Sloat, his boss, accepted him as a human being. There were chickenheads who were much more stupid than Isidore.

Isidore had finished shaving, and turned the television off. Silence. • He experienced the silence with his eyes as well as his ears. It almost felt alive.

Get Ready for your Exam 4

A     After the war the animals had died, the sun had stopped shining and most people were encouraged to emigrate.

B     Before World War Terminus the building had been well looked after, but now the owner Of this and Other apartments had died or emigrated to other planets.

C     It came from the walls. the floor. the ceiling and from all the machines in the apartment that had stopped working years before.

D     Life used to be so easy and carefree and leaving Earth behind was such an ordeal.

Oh, it's wonderful have an android that you can depend On.

Use of English

3 Do the exam task.

Complete each gap in the text with a word formed from the word in brackets.

The number Of people Without jobs in the UK has risen by 28,000 to 2.67 million during the three months to January, according to the            (LATE) figures, Which the government says show signs Of stabilising. It is the lowest rise in over a year, but 8.4% Of the population is still affected.           (EMPLOY) amongst the female population accounted for most of the rise in the number (JOB) people. They have been most s (SEVERE) hit, making up nearly 80% Ofthe increase. The figures also underlined the extent to Which the increase in the number Of part-time jobs is masking the problem. They are Often          (ADEQUATE) paid and therefore cannot replace the full-time (EARN) that people generally require. Meanwhile, the government continued to emphasise that despite the latest Cuts in public sector jobs, more jobs were being created in the private sector. However, there is some   (COURAGE) data for the UK economy.           (SURPRISE), retail sales rose by an unexpected 0.9% in January, as fears of a recession disappeared.


THIS UNIT INCLUDES

Vc-zabulary • comm.tins: phrases and useful verbs •                 components • crime

Grammar • active and pa"ive             • passive; all forms • participle clauses                                                                                       Technology

• future in the past

Speaking • stimulus description

Writing • story

                Look at the photos. Which of these websites do                                                         verbs below. Then use some


you visit regularly? What do you do there?

2    Complete the chart using the verbs below. Then in pairs.

translate all the phrases. Which words are the same in your Own language?


download join log on post stream update upload

Computing:

edit or

phrases your profile/ status/ personal details/ contact details/ preferences

(on Facebook/ MMSpace/Amazon, etcJ

sign in or

to Faceb00k/H0tmail/your account,

 

a comment/an entry

(on YouTube/a blog/ an Internet forum)

 

a chat/a Wi-fi network, etc.

 

an app/a film/a file,

(from iTunes/the

Internet, etc.)

 

a video/a photo, etc.

(to YouTube/

Facebook/Flickr, etc.)

 

music/video

(to your phone/TV/ computer. etc.)

3    Listen to five conversations. Describe what the people are doing using phrases from exercise 2.

to complete the sentences from the conversations. Computing: useful verbs browse cancel click/double-clitk delete enter highlight key press (a key) scan scroll up/down search swipe tap zoom in/out

I Let'sand see what they've written underneath,the video.

2    What were we going to          for?

3    1 don't need to        in my card details.

on that button.

so we can see him more clearly.

6   Justfrom left to right, thenthe red button with your finger.

7   Use the cursor tothe name of the film and then the return key.

8   We can't wait that long. HOW do wethe download?

5                               Listen again. Check your answers to exercise 4.

6                               Work in pairs. Using the language in exercises 2 and 4 to help you, explain to your partner how to:

I add a new contact to your phone.

2    domload a song from the Internet. 3 find and watch a video clip Online.

First, you need to open the address book app by tapping the icon. Then you tap the plus sign.

you key in the name and address

D VOCABULARY BUILDER 5.1: PAGE 138

5


Choose one or two words from below or your own


Magic mirrors have been a common feature in children's stories ever since the fairytale Snow White ma" (make / famously) into a film by Disney. aut recently, real •magic mirrors' (install) in several stores in the UK. Thanks to these neat devices. whole outfits

(can / try on) without having to undress or even find the items in the store.

The mirror is in fact a computer screen. Stand in front of it and your body (scan / instantly). An image Of yourself (display) on the screen and your measurements (calculate / automatically). Once this (do), items of clothing (can / choose) from the on-screen menus. These 9 (superimpose) onto your Own image. Shoes and accessories (may / add) to complete the outfit. And because a second opinion (often / need), your new look (can share / instantly) With your friends: ifyou click on an icon, it (post) on Facebook a few seconds later.

At the moment, magic mirrors              (not find I often) in independent clothes shops, but they  (introduce / quickly) in larger stores across the country.

 

in pairs and give reasons.

 

put them immediately before the past participle:

 

Trying things on when you go shopping for clothes is

 

The results Will be thoroughly checked.

 

a chore embarrassing essential exciting fun

 

In compound tenses, adverbs of frequency usually go

 

inconvenient oft-putting uncomfortable

 

between the auxiliary and be or been:

They'll never be told. She's often been warned.

2

Complete the sentences With the words below.

 

Prepositions which belong with the verb go immediately after the past participle:

 

bought closed done introduced returned tried

1 About           Of clothes which have beenonline are

 

Will she be listened to? MV laptop is being looked at.

 

 , far more than Other goods.

5

Read the Look out! box. Then complete the text with the

 

2 The advantage of high street clothes stores is that the clothes can be

 

passive forms Of the verbs in brackets. Use the correct tense.


ideas to complete this sentence. Then compare your opinions     When we use adverbs With passive verb forms, we Often


3    New technology is being to stores to make shopping easier.

4    By 2025, most shopping Will beonline and many high street stores will have been

3    Study the sentences in exercise 2 and say:

 

Passive: all forms

1    We can form the passive of any tense by using that tense of the verb be plus the past participle.

Wi•Fi has been/is being/will be installed at school.

2    We use the past continuous and present continuous forms of the passive, but we don't use Other continuous forms because they are very clumsy. I'm being watched.

Someone has been watching me.

3    We can use the passive with present and past forms Of modal verbs.

Shoes must be worn. This puzzle can 't be solved. may have been burgled. You would have been told.

 

 

 

 

1 which different tenses the passive forms are in. 2 which passive form includes a modal verb.

D GRAMMAR BUILDER 5.1: PAGE 123

4    Read the Learn this! box. Then rewrite the sentences in the passive, unless they contain a tense not used in the passive.

A giant asteroid might destroy the earth.

They're testing our theories about the universe at CERN.

The Chinese mav have invented gunpowder.

 They'll have completed the new Metro lines by the time

 

 

they hold the Olympics.

6

 In pairs, think Of an appropriate way to finish each

6 Someone had been reading all my emails, I realised.

 

sentence. Then compare your ideas With the class.

7 If they'd received your complaint, they would have

 

1 Shopping could be made easier by (t -ingform)

notified you.

 

2   If all shopping was done Online,

3   Apart from clothes shopping, a magic mirror could be

You can join the Wi•Fi network free of charge.

used for

5

In pairs, complete the definition using the words below.


embryo engineering fertilisation genes implanted

baby born after IVF (in vitro

Some people see designer babies as a step forward in technological development. However, many people see it as a negative step for technology.

2   Listen to five people talking about designer babies. Is each speaker generally for or against them? Write F (for) or A (against).

3   below. Translate the other four words.

Science advance (n, v) diagnosis DNA experiment (n, v) injection laboratory laser patent (n, v) procedure side effects technicians test tube

I I don't think a technological     is the same as progress.

2    The rich will pay       to genetically improve their babies.

3    I think all babies will be created in a            one day.

4    We shouldn'tWith human embryos.

 We could accidentally change human   forever. 6 I think it's just a medical , like any Other.

Listen again. Check your answers to exercise 3.

Workin pairs. Find out whether your partner agrees Or disagrees With the sentences in exercise 3.

Do you agree thatwe shouldn't

?

 

 

 


or d) to complete the text then listen and check. Does the text contain mostly fact or opinion?

 a make

b ensure

c certify

d convince

2 a keep

b allow

c go on

d continue

a warn

b risk

c threaten

d endanger

4 a regard

b think

c imagine

d 100k

 

b by

c for

d up

6 a already

b just

c yet

d ever

 a just

b so

d exactly

8 a Better

b Rather

c Sooner

d Instead

We now have the ability to        that children are born free Of any one Of hundreds of serious genetic disorders. from cystic fibrosis to early-onset cancers, aut children          to be born with these diseases. All would-be parents should be offered screening to alert them to any genetic disorders they passing on to their children. Those at risk should then be offered IVF with tests to ensure embryos are healthy before they are implanted. Why isn't it happening? Because most people still      attempts to influence Which genes our children inherit as taboo. But fears of •designer babies' are misplaced. You cannot select for traits the parents don't have. and the scope for choosing specific traits is very limited. aut you can make sure children do not end 5              With disastrous genetic disorders.

Nearly 150 years after Darwin unveiled his theory* of evolution, we have to grasp one of its most unsettling implications: having diseased children is  natural as having healthy ones. Thanks to technology. we are no longer entirely at the mercy Of this callous process. 8  than regarding this ability With suspicion. we should be celebrating it and encouraging its use. But instead. we continue to allow children to be born with terrible diseases because of our collective ignorance and superstition.

•an opinion or idea that somebody believes is true but that is not proved

7 Which sentence best sums up the text in exercise 6? a We shouldn't select traits for babies even though we have the technology to do so.

b    We should use all the technology we have in Order to prevent diseases in babies.

c    We shouldn't use technology unless we know that a child has a serious genetic disorder.

 In pairs, discuss the opinions in exercise 7. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons.


5


Computer hackers rarely show their faces in public, allowing the


d    three hi-tech companies.

 

EXAM

TIP

 

 

 

 

 

 

When you do a gapped sentences task, check your answers by reading each relevant part ofthe text with the missing sentence in place. Does it flow? Does it make sense logically and grammatically? Double-check by trying the extra Sentences in each gap. They should not fit any of the gaps well.

3  Read the Exam tip. Then match the gaps (1—6) in the text With the sentences below (A—H). There are two extra sentences.

A That is easily enough to cover his computer science education so far at the University of Georgia.  He mowed people's lawns near his home in Peachtree City, Georgia, to earn money to buy the parts for a computer he was building.

C Apple was apparently so impressed with his jailbreaking skills that it persuaded him to join the company instead. D Without those, it was impossible to develop software for any of these devices.

 His introduction into the world Of jailbreaking was          accidental.

 However, many Other former hackers have taken up

positions with software companies.

G That's something you can't do if you are an official

developer.


     was unusual enough that he wrote about it on his blog.         

5

stereotype Of the socially awkward loner sitting in the dark in front of a computer screen to flourish. But the reality is rather different - at least when it comes to jailbreaking. Jailbreakers do not commit criminal acts like hacking into government computer

systems or writing malicious viruses. Instead, they write code which removes the manufacturers' restrictions On everyday devices like smartphones and games consoles. A 'jailbroken' device can run unofficial software and be used in ways which the manufacturer did not intend. Some of the big technology companies have taken legal action against jailbreakers but with little success.

James Whelton, a smooth-talking twenty-year-old from Cork, started messing around With computers at the age Of nine, and began programming soon afterwards. It happened when he won a pink iPod Nano. 'Basically I was on a plane and I was bored. so I just started tinkering with it and found something interesting,' he explained.

He discovered a vulnerability in the iPod's software that could possibly be exploited to jailbreak the device. Within a few days he was contacted by another hacker known as DarkHalIoc - in reality a sixteen year old from Wales called Joshua Tucker. He introduced Whelton to Other hackers — big names in the hacking scene like chronic and ih8snOw. Chronic - a teenager from the United States called Will Strafach — is the founder of a jailbreaking team called Chronic Dev, while ih8snOw, a sixteenyear-old called Steven from Canada, is the developer of several well-known jailbreak-ing tools.

Instead Of taking up a place at university earlier this month, Whelton decided to use the exposure that his jailbreaking activities have earned him to help get investors for a software company called Disruptive Developments that he founded in June. 'I did my final exams on a Friday, and became a chief executive on the Monday.'

Aaron Ash is another hacker-turned-entrepreneur. When Mr Ash was fourteen he got his hands on a calculator which he


 

4

Answer the questions.

Why are jailbreakers less likely to end up in prison than some Other types of hackers?

2 How did jailbreaking help James Whelton to Start a business?

Why did Aaron Ash start writing apps for jailbroken

programmed to do his homework.         After teaching himself to

 

phones?

program it. he worked on video games before getting an Apple

 

4 Why hasn't Aaron Ash earned millions Of dollars from his

iPhone and turning his attention to that.

 

highly successful apps?

The young Mr Ash wanted to write apps for his phone, but

 

5 Why is Aaron Ash thinking Of leaving full•time education?

it turned out that at seventeen he was too young to sign up

 

6 In What way has the jailbreaking scene •lost' many Of its

to Apple's Official iPhone development program. That left him with no alternative but to become a hacker and write apps for jailbroken phones. 'This was actually even cooler to my mind, it let me

 

senior figures?

 

 

noun — the activity

noun — someone who does it