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Upper-Intermediote. After completing Skills Round-up read each statement and
write the number Of ticks (V) that is true for you. DO the same again after
Skills Round•up I —10.
I need more practice. I
sometimes find this difficult. NO problem!
English I tan
understand the main points of speech
about familiar topics and follow the main points Of an extended discussion.
IA. 2C, IOC
discussions on familiar topics and identify speaker viewpoints. SC. 6C, 8A
understand and react to
current affairs radio programmes. 4A. 5C.6C
follow complex lines of
argument on familiar topics. 2C, 'C, SC, 6C
understand detailed and
linguistically complex descriptive and narrative passages. IC, 5D, 9C
understand a wide range Of
broadcast material and identify finer points of detail. 3B, 8A.9A
understand the description
Of events and feelings. 1C. ID. 3D.90
scan quickly through long
and complex texts. locating relevant detail. 50.60. ID, 80.90
magazine articles about current issues in which writers adopt particular
articles and reports. 80, IOD
understand long and
complex factual and literary texts. 40, 60, 7D, 80
express personal views on
familiar topics. IA, 2A. 2E, 6F
give detailed accounts Of
events, real or imagined. 5E, 7E, 8B
descriptions on a variety Of familiar topics. SD, 7A
take an active part in a
discussion On familiar topics. 1B, 2B.3D
a clear argument, Supporting my views at some length With relevant examples.
1 G, 2D.4A, 9E
explain a viewpoint on a
topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages. 3C, 7C, 8A, I OG
formulate ideas and
Opinions and present them skilfully and coherently to Others. 5E, 6A, 6C, ID
Write accounts Of
experiences, describing feelings and reactions in a simple text. 5G, 9G
descriptions on a range of familiar subjects. IG, 66. IOG
writea review of a film,
book or play. 7G
descriptions of real or imaginary events in a clear connected text. 2G, 5G,
write an essay which develops an argument. giving
reasons in support Of Or against a particular point ofview. 3G, 86
write an essay Which develops an argument, explaining
the advantages and disadvantages of various options. 3G
expand and support Views
With subsidiary points, reasons and examples. 8G
write formally correct
your progress O
Oxford University Press
THIS UNIT INCLUDES
the photos. What mental qualities do adjectives?
the people need for doing
these activities? Which of those
qualities do you have, in
the three adjectives from exercise 2 which
the meaning of the adjectives below. Which could you use to describe the
people in the photos?
best describe you, in your
opinion. Explain your choices to your partner.
to six people discussing personality traits.
question is each person answering? Whose answer
conventional creative dedicated
surprises you most?
organised outgoing responsible
Which personality trait:
selfish sensible serious
a do you find most
you most admire? Why?
you like but don't have? Give reasons.
D VOCABULARY BUILDER 1.1:
d would you prefer not to
have? Give reasons.
Complete the sentences With adjectives from exercise 2.
e is the most important to
become rich? Why? f is the most important in a friend? Why?
I My brother is so !
He screams like a baby if he
1.02 Listen again and
complete the compound
loses at a game.
My aunt is very . If a conversation isn't about
adjectives I —6.
her, she isn't interested.•motivated•tempered
3 You're so If
I give an opinion, you always•mean•ng-skinned
disagree with it!
suppose I'm quite . don'twantto go Out,
Work in pairs. Ask and
answer all the questions in
impossible to persuade
5 My best friend is very
If her parents have to
exercise 6. Give your own
ideas and reasons.
work late, she looks after
her little brothers.
D VOCABULARY BUILDER 1.2:
Complete each sentence
people need to climb mountains?
the text and find the name, age and nationality Of the person it is describing.
Then give your own answers to the two questions at the end Of the text.
AT FIRST GLANCE, Jordan appears to be a
typical American teenager, but for the past three years he has not been leading
an ordinary life. Since he was ten. he's had a single goal: to climb the
highest mountain on every continent in the world.
Now thirteen, Jordan has already climbed
seven ot the eight mountains on his list including Mount Everest he is due to
climb the last, Mount Vinson in Antarctica. next month. He's been using
Facebook and Twitter to publicise his climbs arui raise money. And recently,
Jordan has been giving motivational talks to schoolchildren around the world
via an online link. Tve learned a lot about setting goals. healthy eating and
living and Of Course climbing mountains: He has also tpen appearing on TV chat
But some experts have been voicing
concerns about the climbs. Have Jordan and his family been consldering the
risks? Or have they been thinking more about the publicity?
the Learn this! box. Then underline all the examples Of the present perfect
continuous in the text in exercise 2 and match them With uses 1, 2 and 3.
perfect simple and present perfect continuous
We use the present perfect continuous form for an action in progress and, the
simple form for a completed action.
been learning Russian, but / can't speak it well.
I've learnt a new piece On
the piano. / can ploy it now.
We use the continuous form for something which has been happening recently
/ haven 't been doing my homework this term. But we use
the simple form for one occasion or an exact number Of Occasions:
I haven't done my
proiect/my last three projects.
3 We can use the simple or
continuous form with for or since to say how long a Current action has been
in progress. The continuous form is more frequent: I've been waiting/"ve
waited for hours!
GRAMMAR BUILDER 1.1: PAGE 115
Out of the ordinary
simple and continuous. Explain the
(read) the new Stephenie Meyer novel.
2 We (not
play) football for a long time. 3 She (do) well in her exams this year.
(finish) his science homework.
My parents (go) to the new gym. 6 You
(eat) my crisps!
State verbs are verbs
which describe States, whereas dynamic verbs describe actions. We do not use
State verbs in continuous tenses.
X I've always hated
dogs. Some verbs can be State or dynamic verbs, depending on the meaning: e.g.
taste is a dynamic verb when it means try.
We've been tasting different cheeses.
Does it taste funny?
the Look out! box. Then find a verb in the text in exercise 2 which is used
once as a state verb and once as a dynamic verb. What is the difference in
D GRAMMAR BUILDER 1.2: PAGE 115
the sentences about Jordan using the present perfect continuous, affirmative or
negative. or the present perfect simple form when the continuous is not
correct. His dad and Step-mum (help)
mountain-climbing since he was
(climb) the highest mountain in Australia.
(not climb) the highest mountain in
(not go) to school very regularly this year.
(appear' on TV a lot recently.
at the prompts and write questions using the present perfect continuous if
possible. If it is a State verb, use the present pertKt simple
I what / you / watch on TV / recently?
long / English?
/ work hard / recentty?
long you / teacher?
best friend seem I happy / recently?
much / it / rain / this month?
7What time / / goto bed / recently?
understand this grammar lesson?
pairs, make a list Of books, films or TV shows 1.04
Read an extract from TO Kill A Mockingbird,
and answer the questions in about adolescents. HOW many can you think of in
Listen to a radio programme about two writers. Think Of at least two things
they have in common.
you do a multiple choice listening task, mark the answers you know after the
first listening. When you listen again, focus mainly on the answers you still
the Exam tip and mark the answers Which you think you know for questions 1—5.
Then listen again and choose the best answers. 1 The novelist l. D. Salinger
went to university but a was asked to leave.
b received poor grades in his first
year. c left before finishing the first year.
d did not regard getting a degree as
famous novel about adolescence was a popular mainly because it was
controversial. b only popular with younger readers. c extremely popular but
condemned by some people. d not taught in many schools at first.
Salinger refused to be in the public eye, a people stopped asking him for
interviews. b nobody was even sure What religion he was. c he was rarely talked
d his fame actually increased.
Lee's education was a not as successful as she had hoped. b more successful
than Salinger's. c not as successful as Salinger's. d very similar to
did Harper Lee find time to write herfirst novel? a A friend paid for her to
take a year off work. b A friend got her work as a songwriter in New York. c
She couldn't find a job in New York.
d She wrote slowly for ten years in total.
the chart using a dictionary to help you if necessary. Which four religions did
J. D. Salinger follow during his life, according to the radio programme?
narrated by a girt called Scout. find two
separate implications in the text that Aunt Alexandra will be staying for a
'Put my bag in the front bedrcÄMn,
Calpurnia,' was the first thing Aunt Alexandra said. 'Jean Louise, stop
scratching your head,' was the second thing she said. Calpurnta picked up
Aunty"s heavy suitcase and opened the door. 'I'll take it,' said Jem, and
took it. I heard the suitcase hit the bedroom floor with a thump. The sound had
a dull permanence about it. 'Have you come for a visit, Aunty?' I asked. Aunt
Alexandra's visits from the Landing were rare, and she travelled in state. She
owned a bright green square Buick and a black chauffeur, both kept in an
unhealthy State of tidiness, but today they were nowhere to be seen.
'Didn't your father tell you?' she asked.
Jem and I shook our heads.
' ProbÖ• he forgot. He's not in yet,
is he?' 'Nome, he doesn't usually get back till late afternoon,' said Jem,
'Well, your father and I decided it was
time I came to stay with you for a while. '
a while' in Maycomb meant anything from three days to thirty years, Jem and I
exchanged glances. 'Jem's growing up now and you are too,' she said to me.
"We decided that it would be best for you to have some feminine influence.
It won't be many years, Jean Louise, before you become interested in clothes
and boys. I could have made several answers to
this: Cal's a girl; it would be many years before I would be interested in
boys; [ would never be interested in clothes but I kept quiet.
evidence in the text Which implies that:
Alexandra is bossy.
and Jern•s father is absent-minded. 4 Scout is a tomboy.
7 Work in pairs. Choose one book, film or
from your list in
exercise I. Give an example Of how it deals With one or more of these topics:
and arguments between friends. the relationship between teenagers and
adults. rebellion and breaking the rules.
an adult and taking responsibility for your life. 1 Outofthe
ID READING A
I can understand and react to a text
about a high achiever.
BAD SCHOOL LIVES
in pairs. Discuss the quotation below. What personality adjectives could you
use to describe this person? Does it sound like you?
I'm desperate to achieve. I'm desperate to
get high margs. I'm too hard on m•fself_
Thompson, fourteen•gear-old mathsprodigy
Read the text opposite about Cameron Thompson. DO you think the adjectives you
chose in exercise I are accurate? What Others could you add to your
description? Justify your answer with evidence from the text.
When you do a multiple
choice reading task, read the options carefully and choose the one which
matches the text in terms of information. DO not be distracted by specific
words or phrases. focus on the meaning.
the Exam tip. Then choose the correct answers for the questions (1—5).
I Between the ages Of four and ten, Cameron a
demonstrated outstanding ability in maths. b allowed his passion for numbers to
dominate his life. c excelled at various school subjects.
really fulfil his promise at maths.
problems With communication a have been getting worse recently.
haven't been affecting his popularity at school. c are irrelevant when he's
doing maths, d have been interfering With his ability to do maths work.
met a boy at his new school who a has something in common with him.
b has even more severe problems With
communication. c is even better at maths.
a strong dislike to him from the first day.
Leader thinks Cameron should a continue With his degree.
have a temporary break from his degree. c give up maths completely for a few
years. d try to increase the speed Of his progress.
Cameron has noticed a a deterioration in his relationship with his parents. b a
loss of ambition academically. c an improvement in his social life.
d a sudden improvement in his school life.
Out ofthe ordinary
noticed Cameron Thompson's talent for numbers when he was four years old and at
pre-school. Throughout primary school, Cameron Thompson's best subject was
maths. Then. When he was eleven, he took a maths test prior to entering
secondary school. The test was Out of 140; Cameron scored 141. 'l broke the
system,' he recalls.
Since then. he has
continued to progress quickly. He passed two GCSEs (maths and further maths) at
the age Of eleven and then got the highest grade in his maths A-Ievel before
the end Of that same academic year. He is now fœ•rteen years Old and
studying for a degree in maths, a remarkable achievement bearing in mind his
But his academic
achievements have not always been matched by social Success. 'I have the social
ability Of a talking potato,' he admits. In other words. he feels more at ease
with numbers than among Other teenagers. 'Most people my age do despise me. rve
been like this for years.'
Communication is not one of Cameron's
strong points and, aside from the problems this causes socially. it is now
beginning affect his marks in mathematics. This is because. at undergraduate
level, he is expected to give
at the prepositions and prepositional phrases (1—10) below. Match them With
the highlighted prepositions in the text.
considering 5 before 9 because of
with 6 apart from 10 regarding
Choose the correct
preposition in these sentences. Then say if you agree or disagree.
better to maintain the same extra-curricular activities right through /
Doing a hobby usually means spending more time about / among people your own
impossible to devote your energy to hobbies alongside / aside from schoolwork
4 It's essential to
develop non-academic skills prior to / regarding starting your career.
reasons for his answers
alongside the answers themselves.
teenagers can't pursue their hobbies easily
difficulty is that he Often doesn't know how he
considering / Owing to a
lack of facilities.
has arrived at the
answers, even though the answers are
6 Doing hobbies can help
develop useful skills among /
aside from the ones you
need for the hobby itself.
Cameron and his family
have recently moved house and
in pairs. Agree on three out-of-school
is due to start at a new school. He regards it as
activities which would be
best for developing a person's
chance to make a fresh start and make some friends.
social skills. Give
reasons for your choices. Use the activities
his mother, Alison, has a few worries concerning his lack Of social skills.
While she describes Cameron as •very
below or your own ideas.
she also acknowledges that he is socially naive
activities doing drama doing karate
often oblivious to signals from Other people.
doing yoga going dancing
The new school specialises
in dealing with students
a choir jogging learning an instrument
like Cameron, excel academically but find it difficult
playing basketball playing
relate to other students. And indeed, on his first day.
did make a new friend — a boy called Tim — mainly
to a shared dislike Of lustin Bieber's music.
Recently, a maths
professor from Cambridge University
Student A: You are a
teenager who, like Cameron, has poor
been looking at Cameron's work. His advice to
social skills. You want
advice on how to improve them.
is perhaps surprising. professor Imre Leader
Student B: You are giving
Student A advice on how to
Cameron should slow down. Stop taking maths
improve his/her social
skills. Suggest activities to achieve
and wait until he is eighteen before doing a degree.
quite an important distinction,' he explains,
your role-play to the class. Together. you
taking lots of exams as fast as you can, and
should agree on one
activity for Student A to try. Use the
relaxing and enjoying the
level that you are at — What we call enrichment.' Professor Leader believes
below to help you.
better in the long run if he Stops trying to progress so
And although Cameron does want to finish his
How about taking up ? It's
realty good for (building
degree. he isn't making any academic plans beyond confidence/meeting people/
getting fit, etc.) that. He goes to a weekly karate class after school. And Or
what about recently. he went to a computer games convention with In
that case, why don't you try ? some friends from karate.
Since turning fourteen,
Cameron's feelings towards girls 0b ectin
disgusted by them.' He's even been on a first date — without his parents. And
in general, he feels less isolated and unusual than he did before. 'There are
other people me — high maths abilities, bad school lives — I am not
be my thing/would suit me).
Maybe you've got a point./That's not a bad idea./l
could try it, I suppose./l might give it a go.
Save changed. As he puts it,
'I started to like them instead TO be honest, I don't
realty like not that keen on ...Il don't feel happy about don't
Work in pairs. Discuss how strongly you
agree With this Statement: I prefer to be in the background than in the The
verbs remember, forget, stop and try can be followed
spotlight. Give it a mark between 5 (strongly
agree) and 0 (strongly disagree).
in pairs. DO questions 1—3 Of a personality quiz. Are the results So far
similar to your ideas in exercise I?
in or STANDING OUT: Which do YOU prefer?
Take the personality
quiz and find out!
More a's than b's?
You like to stand out!
Do you let your friends to-row your clothes?
Sure - ant I hen them choose! b No W3/!
want your decorated do you invite friends to come tor a
Dainting ;nrty•? decide to paint it yourself one weekend?
If a stranger seems tabe upset in the
street doyou ,offet to help immediately?
b avoid helping because you teel shy?
the Learn this! box. Complete the second example of each pattern With phrases
from the quiz in exercise 2.
Verb pattern S
I verb + infinitive a They
failed to finish the race.
+ •ing form a / gave up doing karate school.
+ Object + infinitive a They forced him to get into the Cor.
+ Object * infinitive without to a She made me wait outside her office.
+ Object + past participle a Let's get your bike repaired tomorrow.
three more examples Of verb patterns in questions Of
exercise 2. Which pattern does each one belong to?
you remember if the verbs below are followed by (A) an infinitive or (B) an
•ing form? Label them A or B then check your answers in the Grammar Builder 1.3
on page 116.
avoid can't help can't stand consider deny enjoy feel like finish hope imagine
keep (on) miss practise pretend refuse risk spend (time) suggest
by an infinitive or •ing form, but with
different meanings: I remembered to vote. / / don't remember voting (but I
never forget visiting the Tate. I forgot to visit the Tate. She's stopped
smoking. / She stopped to light a cigarette. / tried to stand up but /
couldn't. / tried standing up but / still couldn't see the stage.
The verbs see, hear,
watch and feel are followed by an Object ± -ing form for ongoing actions, or an
Object infinitive without to for completed
can felt him staring at me. / felt the ball brush mvarrn. / saw two cats
fighting. / Did you see him steal the car?
the Look out! box. Then explain the difference in meaning between each pair Of
sentences. 1 a heard my neighbour shout.
b heard my neighbour shouting.
She tried smiling at the policeman.
b She tried to smile at the policeman.
The busker stopped chatting With the crowd. b The busker stopped to chat With
the crowd. 4 a You must remember to speak to Sam. b You must remember speaking
D GRAMMAR BUILDER 1.3: PAGE 116
questions Of the quiz. Use the infinitive (With or Without to),
past participle or •ing form Of the verb in brackets. Then answer the
pairs. write two more questions for the quiz.
Include at least one verb pattern from the Learn this! or
Look out! box. Swap With another pair and answer their questions.
I can describe a photo and answer
questions about it.
at the photo.
three adjectives below to describe the couple's overall appearance. Then
compare your ideas in pairs. Do you agree?
the words below to the mind map. Then add as many other words as you can in two
bracelet crouching dyed eye-liner mascara
moody piercing spiky tie tights
hair clothes make-up
Listen to a candidate describing the photo in exercise
1. How many of the words in exercise 2 does
When you describe a photo, talk about
what you can see and also what you can guess Or deduce. For guesses and
deductions. avoid repeating think and instead use phrases like; should think
they are Mavbe/Perhaps
They look as if... They
look as though They are obviously I'd say they are
They could be/may be/might
Read the first Exam tip. Then listen to the
candidate again. Which of the phrases in the box does she use?
The examiner's first
question in the picture description task usually asks you to interpret the
picture, the second usually requires you to give a more general opinion.
Listen carefully to each question and make sure you really answer them.
the second Exam tip. Then read the phrases below and decide if each one would
be more useful in answering question 1 or question 2 in the exam.
a Judging by , I reckon b By and large,
c Looking at . I'd say that d Personally, I think„ e In my experience, f Jr s
clear from the photo that
at the examiner's first two questions for the photo in exercise I. Discuss them
in pairs and note down your ideas. Do you think the boy in the photo cares
about his appearance? do you think so?
2 How much can you tell about a teenagers
personality just from looking at their appearance?
NOW listen to the candidate answering the questions. Do you agree with her
answers? Why?'Why not?
Listen again. Which phrases from exercise 5 does the candidate use?
pairs, describe the photo below. Then take turns to ask and answer the
examiner's first two questions. Include at least two phrases from exercise 5.
impression do you think these women want to give other people?
do some young people want to dress in a way that older people find shocking?
the saying below and its definition. DO you Match four adjectives from the
words below With Connor
agree or disagree? Give examples to support
four with Bess. Justify your answers using phrases from
People Who are very
different tend to get on well together.
Read the text. Can you explain the title?
these contrasting pairs Of phrases
CÐ/LZ and CHEESE
for describing character and behaviour.
Use the verbs below. Which phrases are in the text in exercise 2?
count get give keep let
look play take wear
character and behaviour
up for anything/ it safe
(always) on the bright
side expect the worst speak your mind your Opinions to yourself things in
your stride / get stressed your heart on your sleeve / not much away
never be lost for words / tongue-tied me down / I can't on you
Complete the second sentence So that
it means the same as the first. Write 2—5 words, including the word in
and Bess are completely different from each other.
She takes everything in
both seventeen years old, but that's about all
got in common!
You can always count on
For a teenager, Connor
comes across as very confident.
He finds it easy to talk
to people and is never lost for words.
a Suddenly, I got
He's got a good sense of
humour and really enjoys making
He doesn't give much away.
As far as clothes go,
Connor dresses in quite an unusual
doesn't his sleeve. (heart)
and buys a lot Of his outfits in second-hand markets
a I usually expect the
and charity shops. He
Often changes his hairstyle too.
Connor is really good fun
to be With. He's up for anything,
rarely side. (bright)
and when you go out with
him, you end up doing some
Read the Look out! box below. Find an example Of this
crazy things. Having said
that, he isn't that reliable. We
Often make plans to go out
at the weekend, but he's always
the present continuous in
the text in exercise 2.
phoning me at the last
minute to change the arrangement.
Unlike Connor, Bess hates
being the centre Of attention
We normally use the present simple for describing
and isn't particularly
interested in fashion. When it comes
actions. However, we can use the present continuous
to clothes, Bess usually
plays it safe. And Whilst Connor
always or forever to
regularly changes his
hairstyle, Bess's hair has looked the
Tom always goes home by
same since I first met
Lucy is always asking me
for money. (disapproval)
Bess is with close friends. she tends to be very talkative, but she often gets
tongue-tied in social 7 In pairs, discuss which
person in the text, Connor
However, she's a very good friend. She always thinks Of Others and she never
lets you down.
and Bess are complete opposites. Nevertheless, I get on well With both of
them — and surprisingly, perhaps, they get On well together.
or Bess, is more like you,
in your opinion. Who would you rather be friends with? Give reasons.
You are going to do the
following exam writing task. Look at
the list Of topics you might include in the description.
Which ones are mentioned in the text on page 12?
Write a description of two people you know Who are very
different. Write 200—250 words.
exercise 2. To make
your writing more sophisticated, include four different ways to make
contrasts from the Learn this!
your descriptions ot people's personalities more subtle by using the phrases
She tends to verb
He has a tendency to verb
She has a habit 4 •ing form
He comes across as ± adjective
People regard her os adjective
People consider her + adjective Some people find her adjective
She can be (adjective) at times.
annoying habits clothes hair hobbies likes and
dislikes personal traits talents
2 Choose the two people you are going
to write about. Make notes about them in the chart. Use four topics from
exercise I or your own ideas.
6 Read the Exam tip. Find two Of the phrases in the model text
Read the Learn this! box below.
Underline examples Of these words and phrases in the text on page 12.
on page 12. Then suggest two other
places in the text where you could use phrases from the tip.
Rewrite these sentences in a more
subtle way. Include the
You can use a variety Of phrases for
making contrasts, not just but and however.
Unlike Sara, Jade is tall.
In contrast to Sara, Jade is tall.
Sara is short, but/whereas her sister Jade is tall.
While/Whilst Sara is short, lade is toll.
Sara is short. lode, on the other
hand, is tall. lade is tall, and yet her sister Sara is short. Jade is tall.
However, Sara is short.
word in brackets.
My dad is immature. (across)
2 My neighbour talks too much. (tendency)
My friend George is an ambitious student. (regard)
4 Lucy's brother offends people. (tends)
My best friend is argumentative.
6My mum is
71'm trustworthy. (consider)
8He says the wrong
8 Do the writing task in exercise 1.
4 Choose the correct
words in these sentences.
CHECK YOUR WORK Have you:
followed the writing plan? written
different phrases for making contrasts? included phrases from the tip box?
checked your spelling and grammar?
I Luke is eccentric. unlike / whereas
his sister is conventional.
2Whilst / In
contrast to my brother is hard-working, I'm quite lazy.
3Ryan is very
popular, and yet / while he's quite shy.
easy-going, but / however his brothers aren't.
5Charlie is quite
generous. His cousin, whereas / on the Other hand, is very penny-pinching.
1 Get Ready for your Exam
If you're looking for a really
summer camp, then Pali i?CAMP Adventures in
Califiynia offers a
to learn the of a Hollywood stunt in a sate and closely-3
environment, You can learn sworfflay, • combat. falls arud safe landing under
the s eye Ot professional Stuntmen.
With the 6, offering the Chance to a 7 fall from a
ten•metre The camp including dance circus skills. watersports fashim_
Friday night. the B pali Shcywcase eiues different the
oppœtunity to dernmstrate skills to each other.
decide which you would most like to attend. Then explain your choice to your
intensive English course in the USA b a survival course in the Arctic c a
meditation and martial arts course d a performing arts course (music, dance,
the exam task.
91.08 You will hear information about
various summer courses. Match each extract to the correct summary sentence
(A—F). There is one extra sentence.
4 Which Of a summer activity
course are most important? put ideas below in order from Exercising your mind
could be the answer to Vour I (most important) to 4 (least important). everyday
the chance to mix and make new friends Join the fast track to personal safety.
fitness and/or strength
C Go back to the beginning
to discover the true c learning a new skill or improving an
existing one meaning.
d having fun and avoiding boredom
D This year, exciting fun in the water is
available to all.
you know the basics, refine your skills and train 5 Do the
income repay save waste (v) Say if
you agree or disagree, and why.
Work out your total money decisions.
Tips for parents
worry if your child
What might seem a
poor decision to you can sometimes be a valuable lesson for the child.
teenagers in family finances. Discuss big decisions (e.g. Can we to take a
holiday this year?) and weekly or monthly like food and power bills.
teenagers how to Wisely but allow them the freedom to make mistakes.
get what you pay for. If something is probably
isn't worth having.
more you are, the easier your life is. 4 Being will help you
to get rich.
and match each speaker with a statement (A—E). There is one statement you don't
spend money just to have nice things.
been raised to be careful with his/her money.
probably be more careful with his/her money.
that having a bank account isn't necessary.
good with his/her finances but likes spending, too.
7 Discuss in pairs. Give reasons and
money burn a hole in your pocket?
you keep some money back for a rainy day?
you buy something, do you shop around?
D VOCABULARY BUILDER 2.1: PAGE 135
two tips do you think are most useful? Give reasons.
you know anyone Who has won money on the lottery? Do•
Some Of these sentences
are incorrect. Correct them.
you think buying a lottery
ticket is a good idea? Give reasons.
Dan use to work in a bank. X
Read the text and answer the questions.
Dan used to work in a bank
1'm not used to wear glasses, butl do now.
I Has Molly always been
Did you use to have long hair?
2 What was her life like
MV dad would have a beautiful old sports car.
3 Why didn't Molly check
whether she'd won the lottery?
Sally used to be a teacher for ten years. 6 Joe used to smoke. He'd smoke 30
5 Complete the sentences with would, used to
or the past LI.J@K'V simple. Sometimes more than one answer is
dad (have) a credit card. He (use)
NUMBERS! for buying expensive things. But two
years ago he
rid of it. The credit card company (charge) a
Higgins is a very rich woman and the proud owner very high rate of interest
and he (end) up deep in of a ten-bedroom mansion near London. But
she didn't debt.
use to be rich. She used to live in a
small flat in a run• 2 My grandad (be) a factory worker. He
area of Bristol and get by on state benefits. Every (work)
in a car factory for 30 years. He (have
Molly would buy a EuroMillions lottery work long hours and he (not
earn) very much ticket. She'd always choose the same numbers but she money.
But he (do) the lottery every week and didn't usually look at the winning eventually
he (win) enough money to buy a car.
numbers the following evening. D
GRAMMAR BUILDER 2.1: PAGE 117
'l never used to win anything, and I'd
sometimes forget to LOOK OUT!
the results,' says If we stress would, it suggests irritation and
criticism. Molly. But one Friday, when In this case, we don't use the
contracted form 'd.
checked the results He would wear those old jeans to school every
day. she couldn't believe her
She'd won the jackpot 6 01.10 PRONUNCIATION Read the Lookout! box. Then - €10
million! listen, repeat. and say if the speaker is irritated.
the second Sentence So that it has the same meaning as the first. Use no more
than five words
Read the Learn this! box.
Then underline all the examples Of
including the word in
to and would in the text.
I It was typical Of Sue to
interrupt all the time!
used to and would
1We use usedto and would to talk about habits and
situations that are now finished.
We used to live in London. But now we live in Brighton.
When I was at primary school I'd always play football after school.
2We don't use wouldwith state verbs.
I.wauldheve•c-cat X / used
to have a cat.
don't use used to or wouldto say how long a situation or habit continued. We
use the past simple.
She worked in a bank for
4Never used to and would never are common negative
used to save any money.
He would never admit he
all the time! (would)
I was in the habit Of spending all my pocket money. all
my pocket money. (used)
In the '90s my dad always drove to work.
In the '90s my dad work.
(would) 4 In the past was your hair much longer? much longer hair?
There wasn't a bank at the end of the
bank at the end of the street. (never)
8 Work in pairs. Think about
when you were younger. Using would or used to, tell your partner about: 1
something ridiculous you often wore when you were little.
boring you did at weekends.
you did that annoyed other people.
• and poor
In July property developer lim Lock bought a
a nursing home, through a downstairs window that had been left open. The
group, includes three small
children, is sleeping on
the floor in sleeping bags. There's
Decide Which opinion is
not expressed by the
no heating or furniture.
Mr Lock went to the police but
squatter in the interview. Then listen again and check
they said they could do
nothing. Squatting in commercial
What she says.
properties isn't a
criminal offence in England squatters
I Rented accommodation is
don't actually break into
an empty property or cause criminal
2 Property developers are
wrong to leave houses empty
damage. 'I was
astonished that the police evict them,'
and wait for prices to
rise before selling them.
said an exasperated Mr
Lock. 'They're just a bunch Of lazy
3 Private property is
hippies. I'll have to go
to court to get them evicted. It'll cost
4 Everybody has the right
me thousands in legal
5 Squatters are using
something that would Otherwise go to waste.
in pairs. Describe the photo and answer the
6 Squatters contribute to
Complete these buying and
1 Are there a lot Of
homeless people in your country? What
With the verbs in the box.
about in your town Or
2 Why do people become
homeless, do you think?
become do get make make
pay rent take
building in Bath With plans to convert it into three luxury flats. He's
planning to sell the flats for £400,000 and expects to t _ a profit Of
about £250,000. However, before building work started. a group Of twenty
squatters moved into the house and claimed they were 'looking the empty
property. They climbed into the building, which
(of) 3 Think of five problems homeless people face.
the correct words (a, b, cimprovements or d) to complete the text. Then listen
for b after C c bringat d d makeinto 6 Discuss this question in pairs: Who do
feel 1 a do b take
3a was to b would c used to d had to more sympathy with,
Jim Lock or the squatters? Give reasons. Then take a class vote.
4a that b Whichd whose
as long as b although c as much as d apart from 7Work in pairs. prepare this
role-play. Make notes. 6 a can't b shouldn't c didn't use to d wouldn't
Student A: You have been homeless for two years and have
3Listen to a radio reporter interviewing one Of the
recently joined a squat With some friends. Explain to the squatters. Are the
sentences true (T) or false (F)? owner Of the property Why you should be
allowed to stay there.
Listeners can hear the interview on the radio
as it takes
Student 3: You are the property owner.
Explain to place.
squatters can't afford both rent and living expenses. the squatter
Why you think he/she should move Out immediately.
3According the squatter, there aren't enough properties in
the UK to house everybody. 8Work in pairs. Have a conversation using your
4The squatters were certain that the house was notes from
exercise 7. Include as many phrases as you can unoccupied When they first saw
it. from exercise 5. Student starts the conversation. The squatters have
improved the house since moving in.
squatters won't move out under anv circumstances.
D VOCABULARY BUILDER
2.2: PAGE 135
How the other half live
I can understand and react to a story
about millionaire philanthropists.
Look at the text title and
the photos only. What is happening
In the programme,
millionaires go undercwer to deprived areas
in the photos? What do you
think the text Will be about? Then
Britain, where they volunteer in the local community. For
look quickly through the
text to check your ideas.
a fortnight they give up
their affluent lifestyle and live with little money in substandard
accommodation. Their experiences
Read the introduction to the text and mark the sentences true
Often prompt them to hand
over life-changing sums Of money to deserving individuals and institutions.
At the end, they
I The people who meet the
millionaires know that they are
reveal who they actually
rich straight away.
There have been eight
series Of the programme in the UK so
2 The millionaires have to
live differently for a While.
with millions Of pounds being given away to good causes.
3 The millionaires have to
donate lots of money.
While watching the
programmes, it's sometimes hard to tell
4 The socially
disadvantaged people benefit more than the
is benefiting most from the relationship. All of the people
rich people in the
have talked about how it has changed their lives. But
The millionaires don't Stay in touch with the people they meet.
interestingly. it seemed
that it was the millionaires Who found their experiences the most rewarding.
Some discovered that
there are more important
things in life than making money,
For multiple matching
tasks, look quickly through the
and forged lasting
relationships with the people they met.
texts to geta general idea
of their meaning. Then read
HILARY DEVEY, who, as a
single mother. risked everything
the questions that you
have to match With them. It may
start up a now hugely successful transport company, lives
be easier to work through
texts A—D in order, matching
on her Own in her enormous
the questions to them as
vou go, and underlining the
She returned incognito to
the place she
relevant parts Of the
text, rather than working through
grew up in, and one of the
the questions in Order and
searching through all four
got involved in was a
texts each time.
support centre which was
in danger Of
Secret Millionaire is a
reality TV show with a difference. The participants come on the programme to
possibly give away thousands of pounds.
The centre provides marriage counseling,
support for single parents
and homeless people and so on. She funded the centre
below. They are all
in the text.
provided more facilities for it. Hilary is still a regular visitor
to the centre, and feels she now has friends who value her for the person she
is, not her money.
LESLAU is one of Britain's wealthiest property tycoons
and lives in luxury With his family in London. He went to Glasgow and worked in
a poor area with severely disabled people. He was astonished at how friendly
and kind everyone was, even though they didn't know
anything about him.
he has always donated money to various charities, he found it immensely
rewarding to get involved directly for once.
He said he felt privileged to have met some Of society's genuine heroes —
people Who work tirelessly to help others.
OBEROI is a 38-year-old IT millionaire whose sole
interest in life, apart from her family, was making money. views
completely changed when she went to a centre for disadvantaged
girls in Manchester. She used to believe that people
were poor because they didn't try to improve their lives. When she got involved
with the girls' centre, she realised that people Often need help and support to
do their best. She realised that her Own mother had sacrificed a lot so that Kavita
could have a good education. Kavita became a director of the group and is
helping it to go national to support more young
BENAMORE, a tough financial dealer now worth £77
million. used to have a drug problem himself. He waved goodbye
to his wife and children and went to a crime-ridden area of Manchester. He
worked in a centre for teenagers who excluded
from mainstream education and found that
had no confidence in themselves, nor any belief that any effort they made would
make any difference. James donated
to the centre so that children who worked hard earned rewards in the form of
trips and outings. He also offered some for
from in in in Of to to With
benefit 5 value
a relationship 6 donate money
involved 7 wave goodbye
4be danger 8
5Work in pairs. Each choose one of the
millionaires. Read the relevant text again for one minute, then cover it and
tell your partner as much about the millionaire as you can remember.
6 What do you think about the programme?
Is it a good idea? Are there any bad aspects to it? Decide on at least
two positive and two negative things with
the Learn this! box and complete the rule.
I We use the second
conditional to talk about unreal situations and events.
If / was o secret millionaire, I'd
visit a homeless charity. Perhaps he wouldn't be so stingy if he had more
We use the in the if clause and the base form Ofthe verb
in the main clause.
D GRAMMAR BUILDER 2.2: PAGE 117
8 Discuss this question in pairs: If you
had €50,000 to give away, who would you give it to, and why? Use the second
conditional. Agree on three good causes and make
your ideas to the class. The class votes on
tænagers a month's work experience
at his company. He was
&lighted to see how their attitudes
changed, and has set up scheme permanently.
þRAMMAR Past perfect simple and continuous
I can talk about actions and events and their
consequences in the past.
Read the text. Underline the examples Of the past perfect and past perfect
RAGS TO RICHES in
1994, J.K. Rowling, creator Of the Harry
Potter books, was living in Scotland,
and feeling a complete failure. She had just returned from Portugal, where she
had been living for two years. She had been teaching English in Porto, and had
married a Portuguese man there. But the marriage had only lasted for a few
years, and she had moved back to Britain with her baby daughter. She hadn't
been feeling well for months and was eventually diagnosed with depression. SO,
there she was: a jobless, penniless, depressed single mother. She decided that
the only thing she wanted to do was write a story that had been going around in
her head for a long time. And the rest, as they say, is history.
the Learn this! box. Choose the correct alternatives to complete the rules.
Then match an example from the text to each rule.
Past perfect simple and continuous
use the past perfect simple / continuous fora completed action that happened
before a specific time in the past.
use the past perfect simple I continuous for an action in progress before a
specific time in the past.
Th's Often shows the cause of something in the past.
state verbs (know, be, like. etc.), we use the past perfect simple / continuous
with for or since to say how long an action had been in progress.
action verbs, we use the past perfect simple / continuous with for or since to
say how long an action had been in progress.
D GRAMMAR BUILDER 2.3: PAGE 118
the correct tense.
long had you had / been having a credit card when you got rid Of it?
road was flooded because it had rained / been raining for hours and showed no
sign of stopping. She had learnt / been learning English
for three years before she visited Britain.
you ever eaten / been eating Japanese food before you visited Japan?
was thirsty because I'd run / been running all morning. Martin
told me that he hadn't seen / been seeing the Champions League final On IV. 20
2 • andpoor
Complete the sentences
With the verbs below. Use the past perfect simple Or past perfect continuous.
Say which use Of the tenses in the Learn this! box each sentence follows.
go out know learn not have wait work I
The grass was slippery because
drive for two years when he took his test.
JO finally arrived, we for Over an hour.
each other for many years when they got engaged, but they only for a year.
was thirsty because I a drink for hours.
hands were muddy. She in the garden.
the text with the verbs in brackets. Use the past perfect simple or past
Now in his 70s, American designer Ralph
Lauren is a multi-millionaire, but he wasn't born into fame and fortune. In
1967 Lauren was looking for a job in fashion, but he didn't have any
qualifications at all. Earlier that year, he (drop Out) Of night school. He 2
(study) for a business degree in the evenings, but he (not finish) it. By day
he (sell) glcwes, but he knew he had to make a change. As a child growing up in
New York, fashion-conscious Ralph s_ (not have) much money for nice
clothes, so he 6 always (work) after school in department stores. It was this
experience that eventually led to his own huge clothing empire. In 1967 he
started working for a tie maker, and by the end of 1968 he (start) his own tie
design company. By the 1970s Lauren (design) his own ties for several years,
and they were very popular. so he started designing suits to match.
in pairs. Think about the last time you were: delighted embarrassed exhausted
irritated relieved soaking wet starving
Find out Why your partner felt that way. Use
I'd been listening to some fantastic music.
I can describe a photo and
answer the examiner's questions.
Work in pairs. Describe the photo. Use the
words below to help you.
decoration dressing gown lid surprise
pairs. What is the boy thinking and feeling, and Why? Make notes about your
listen to a candidate answering the question in exercise 2. Compare your ideas
from exercise 2 With the candidate's ideas. How are they similar and different?
two extreme adjectives meaning surprised and happy did the student use?
BUILDER 2.3: PAGE 135
In the picture description
task, the examiner can ask you to talk about a personal experience. You will
need to use narrative tenses, e.g. past simple, past continuous, past perfect
and past perfect continuous, used to and would.
the Exam tip. Then listen to the candidate answering the examiners question.
Which of the tenses mentioned in the tip does the candidate use?
I Why did the girl choose to buy her sister a
How does she think she came to select
the wrong size? Why didn't she see the hoodie herself
before giving it to her sister?
How did her sister react when she saw
5 How did the girl feel then? Have her feelings changed?
adverbs and adverbial phrases
Comment adverbs give the speaker's opinion.
Unfortunately, we can't afford a holiday this year. ro my surprise, he sold
Some adverbs can be used as both comment adverbs and as
adverbs Of manner. Frankly, / don't believe you.
He spoke frank/v about his
financial problems. We usually put comment adverbs at the Start Of the
sentence, although they can go with the verb.
Foolishly, left my wallet
/ fochlishly left my
wallet at home.
the Learn this! box. Then complete the sentences with five Of the comment
adverbs below. Listen again and check.
fortunately hopefully ideally luckily
Obviously stupidly to be honest
1 1 found a great one on a website, but
I ordered the wrong size.
didn't realise my mistake until she Opened
the present on her birthday.
she saw the funny side.
, I didn't think it was very funny at
the time. , Iwas able to return it.
BUILDER 2.4: PAGE 135
pairs. Take turns to ask and answer the
examineds questions. Try to use some comment adverbs.
is the girl thinking and feeling, and why?
you like spending money on Other people? Why?/Why not?
me about a really good present that you once received.
examples in the Look Out! box. Use the correct
or found any money? When? Where? What
the story. Where do you think the money came from?
It was a day like any Other and Graham Hill
was doing his normal round as a waste collector. He was putting bags Of rubbish
onto his handcart, when he noticed something unusual in one of the dustbins.
Leaning over the bin, he took a closer 100k and saw a filthy plastic bag with
what looked like money inside. As he pulled it Out, he gasped. It was money.
Inside the carrier bag were lots of banknotes! But they were all Cut into
pieces! As soon as he realised What he'd found, Hill called the police, Who
quickly arrived on the Scene. Having looked in the bag, they calculated that
there must be about £10,000 in torn notes. The police thanked Hill and
said that the money must have come from a robbery that had gone wrong. As they
were leaving, the police told him they would find Out what had happened.
Six months later, Hill had forgotten all
about the incident. Out Of the blue the police phoned with some unexpected and
wonderful news. Surprisingly, after investigating for a long time, they had
been unable to discover anything about the bag Of notes. There was no crime or
robbery that they could link the money to. Apparently, under British law, the
bag Of money now belonged to Hill. What's more, the Bank Of England said that
for every note that he could put back together, Hill would receive a new one. He
had been given the ultimate jigsaw puzzle!
the following Stages in the story in exercise 2.
information that sets the Scene
first event, often a problem, that triggers the action
events that follow from the first event
final resolution or Outcome
• and poor
tenses. Then find examples Of each use in the
Story in exercise 2.
OUT! Past simple and past continuous
We can use the past continuous to set
(rain) and the Wind (blow). We
use the past simple for actions that happened one after another.
up), (open) the door and (leave).
3 We use the past simple for an action or
event that interrupted a background event; we use the past continuous for the
background event. While (read) my book, my phone (ring).
D GRAMMAR BUILDER 2.4: PAGE 118
the Learn this! box. Find an example Of each type of sequencing clause in the
an action which happens before another action, we can use:
ager + •ing
After losing his wallet,
he called the police.
2 having + past participle
Having found the money, he took it to
the police station.
an action Which happens at the same time as another action, We can use: 3 as
+ past simple
As he put his hand in his pocket he realised his wallet
the moment/os soon as +
The moment I Saw his face,
/ knew he'd been crying.
5 a present participle
Looking up, she Saw a police Officer
approaching. The subject of the participle clause and the main clause must be
Crossing the rood, she was
hit byo car.
the pairs Of sentences into single sentences. Use the sequencing clauses in the
Learn this! box. More than one answer is possible.
I •I've lost my wallet,' said Mary. At the
same time, she closed her handbag.
stepped outside. At the same time, it started to snow.
He sat down. Then he opened the
walked to the shops. At the same time, thought about what my mum had just said.
She had lunch. Then she went out.
a Story. use a mix of long and short sentences. The short ones can make
events more dramatic.
moment he arrived home, be made o cup Of tea and, sitting down on the sofa,
turned on the television to watch the news. Suddenly, he jumped up. Somebody
wCs in the room.
are going to do the following exam writing task. first think Of some ideas for
your Story. Use the questions below to help you.
Wrlte a story with a happy ending about a
character Who loses or finds something valuable. Write 200—250 words. 1 Does
the character lose or find something?
2 Where does he/she lose
Or find it?
Find the following
features which make the writing style
If the character loses something, does he/she find it again? If the character
finds something. does he/she get
interesting in the Story
on page 22.
to keep it?
1 two extreme adjectives
How does the story end?
examples of comment adverbs
examples Of reported speech
Look again at the stages
Of a Story in exercise 3 on page 22.
how your ideas will fit into paragraphs. Use your ideas
Write the middle
paragraphs Of the story. Tell the later events
from exercise I to make
notes under paragraph headings.
in a logical order.
Remember to make the language dramatic
need more or fewer than four paragraphs.)
varied. Link events together to show time and sequence.
CHECK YOUR WORK
written 200—250 words?
used a variety of
sequencing clauses and Other time expressions? used a mix of short dramatic
sentences and longer Ones?
extreme adjectives, comment adverbs, and/or reported speech?
a last sentence that links to the title?
at the title and the last sentence of the Story on page 22. Think of a good
sentence to finish your story. Then write a title for your story which links
the final paragraph of the story. Give the resolution or final outcome Of the
Story. End With a good sentence.
Write the first paragraph Of the Story. Set the scene briefly With background
information, then tell the first event Of the story. Remember to use
appropriate narrative tenses.
Complete the sentences With a suitable
adjective. (More than one answer may be possible.)
I Lucy is very :
she only thinks about herself.
dad is so : nothing gets him angry or excited.
very : I want to be CEO Of a big company.
dad is 42 but acts like he's 12: he's so
is very : he writes songs and paints too.
Mark: _ 15
the sentences With the present perfect simple or continuous Of five of the
belong do go read remember stay want
where you put the tickets?
The Hobbit; I'm about half way through
it. 3 My English teacher to England three times. 4
My parents at that hotel every year since it -opened.
5 Karen a
horse since she was a little girl.
Mark: _ 15
the email. Use the infinitive, the infinitive without to, the -ing form or the
past participle of the verbs given.
went into town this afternoon because 1 needed to get my phone (repair).
The man at the shop said it would take an hour didn't feel like (stand)
around, 50 decided
toa coffee shop instead. saw some friends of
cards, so I sat down with them, They let me
the game and We played for ages. When I got back to the phone Shop, it was
Complete the dialogue With the words below.
could like say should though
you seen this photo of dad when he was young?
NO, I haven't. Let me see!
He looks he's feeling sick!
Boy NO, he doesn't. I'd 2 he's
just trying to look cool.
He looks as he's getting ready to go out.
How old do you think he
think he's about fifteen.
the best word (a, b or c) to complete each sentence.
A broken mirror is a priceless b
worthless c mean My grandfather owns three shops, and the rentfrom those gives
him a good a ncome b budget c allowance
hotel isn't expensive; in fact, it's very a extortionate b pricey c reasonable
wouldn't say I'm rich, but I'm certainly not _ a comfortably Off b affluent c
I love that jacket. but I can't buy it —
it's too a dear b valuable c precious
the sentences With the verbs below.
didn't use to used to would wouldn't
I My grandmotherwork.
but now she's got a job in a bookshop.
2 1 be a football fan, but I prefer
basketball now. 3 We had somegreat parties in those days, but the neighbours
at-ways complain about the noise!
time my uncle went abroad, hebuy a painting.
bought a chocolate bar every day after school, but eat
it until she got home.
Mark: _ 15
the best verb forms.
Elena 'had looked / had been looking forward
to the day Of the garden pany for weeks. Now. finally. it 'had arrived / had
been arriving. She Yhad got up / had been getting up early to give her more
time for the preparations. Anxiously, she looked Out Of the Window to check the
weather, Which 'had got / had been getting worse and worse each day, even
though it was June. To her dismay. she saw that the apple tree by the back wall
Shad fallen / had been falling down during the night.
an extreme adjective Which means:
very angry: 4 very ugly: 2 very dirty: 5
very funny: 3 very clean:
Yes, I agree. He be getting ready to go on a date
Language Review 1—2
are you? hope you're enjoying your job in Warsaw. HOW long have you been
doing it now? It must be six months or so, reckon, because you'd been working
there for a few days when I got back from backpacking holiday
in Australia. Let me know hcwit's going and what the people there are like,
you ever hear from Mike these days? Maybe YOU just want to forget about him
and your time in Liverpool, He really wasn't right for I mean, it'5 OK
to be ambitious, but he was just selfish. And there Was something Strange
about him For example, why did he decide to Change his name
from Jack to Mike? kncp,v we British people are supposed to be eccentric, but
that'S just ridiculous!
has been looking for a place to live, 1 think found one or two
possibilities. We've loved having him here, and he's welcome to stay as long
as he wants, but he's determined to find his own place, He'S Very
single-minded, your brother, isn't he? I suppose pu are too, now 1 think
about it, so maybe it n.'ns in the family! AnyAqay, I guess he can afford to
rent somewhere nice, working in the financial sector — he must be on a good
salary. (I've asked him what he earns, but he won't tell me!) I hope he won't
get lonely, living on his Win, He isn't as outgoing as you are, so I don't
think he'll meet people as easily. gut Still, everybody needs Company. He
doesn't talk about people from work much, so 'guess he hasn't made many
friends I've tried to persuade him to play basketball a few times, but he's
refused. He Says he'S rubbish at ball games, but he might start going
swimming when he's got more free time. That's better than nothing, I suppose
— OK for keeping fit, but not a great way to meet
I shouldn't worry about him, I'm Sure he can look after himself. Please send
me an email with your news— and some pictures of your new flat. You haven't in
very similar to Anna. b needs to be more Outgoing. c is
d is similar to Anna in some ways but different in
Libby's opinion, swimming isn't the ideal hobby for Stefan because a it's
something he'll do on his own. b it requires tCH) much free time. c it won't
make him as fit as basketball. d he'll probably give up Soon.
Listen. Does Spikey sound more friendly or less friendly towards Stefan by the
end Of their conversation? What is the reason for this, in your opinion?
.17 Listen again. Are these sentences true (T) or false (F)?
is planning to buy or rent a flat.
events take place on a Thursday.
started learning English ten years ago.
tells Stefan that he's sharing with seven or eight friends.
describes squatting as a criminal activity. 6 Spikey is not his real name.
6 Tell your partner about an occasion when
you met somebody for the first time.
Imagine you are Stefan. Write an announcement to be put in a newsagent's Window
to help you find a flat to rent. Include this information:
What you are looking for and when you
want to move in. some personal details about you: job, nationality, etc. Why
you would be a good tenant. the best way to contact you.
2 Get Ready for your Exam
I Talk in pairs about the following
questions. Then report your ideas to the class.
you think you are influenced by advertising?
Give reasons for your answer.
different marketing techniques do companies use to make us buy their products?
do you think the term 'neuromarketing' might mean?
2 Do the exam task.
Complete the text with the missing sentences
(A—EL There is one extra sentence that is not needed.
Big business has always wanted to see
inside our heads. The marketing and advertising departments of the major
corporations spend millions every year trying to work out what we want and then
find ways to try and sell it to us. The more accurately businesses can predict
What we, the consumers, are likely to buy and when and how much for, the more
money they can get us to spend.
Understanding consumers has not been
particularly easy. Marketing teams have watched what we buy in supermarkets,
they have measured how we have responded to their various promotional
campaigns. and they have carried Out endless Surveys asking us why we buy what
we do. However, it is not by any means an exact science. 1 And even if they do,
they do not always tell the truth.
This is where •neuro' or brain science
steps in. For the first time researchers have begun to wire consumers up to MRI
(magnetic resonance imaging) machines to watch what actually happens inside
people's brains when they are faced With consumer choices. The researchers
followed the areas of activity lighting up inside the shoppers' brains.
Something Which is definitely Of interest to the marketing specialists.
This new area of science is called
•neuromarketing•. Marketing departments Of companies say they won't need to
watch us shopping or ask us what we'd buy, they'll just •read our minds'. This
is good news for companies, as their massive marketing budgets can be used more
effectively, but where's the benefit for us?
If businesses can know more about how we
think than we do ourselves, they'll have the power not just to influence us,
but also to manipulate us. so far, advertising regulations have merely
restricted companies from making unsupported claims for their products. In
future. they may have to go one step further and assess whether the marketers
are having our behaviour as consumers altered in ways we cannot ourselves
Get Ready for your Exam 2
Advertising will be cleverly
deployedtOÞer4 us more accurately to buy the products on show.
They also need to keep
in mind that increased activity in the brain doesn't necessarily mean increased
preference for a product.
This Cannot be a good thing for the general
public and something will have to be done about it.
It seems that people do not always know What
they are thinking.
Eventually they found that they could predict
buy in a jewellery shop. Which pair can write the most in two minutes?
the exam task.
Describe the picture. Then answer the
Why do you think this couple is buying
something in this shop?
What are the advantages and disadvantages Of
having expensive possessions?
Tell me about the most expensive thing you
have ever bought.
pairs. Find out as much information about each other's families as you tan in
three minutes. Use the ideas below and add your own.
how many in immediate family? extended
family? brothers / sisters / twins? (how many? ages? names?) Oldest / youngest
family members? cousins / aunts / uncles / in-laws, etc.?
relatives living in your home / nearby /
faraway / abroad?
pairs, put the expressions below into two groups: negative and positive. (In
some cases, it is a matter of opinion.)
Relating to people
admire adore be on the same wavelength (as) be (very) close (to) be wary of
despise envy feel sorry for have a lot in common (with) have nothing in common
(With) 100k down on
100k up to not see eye to eye (with) respect
Listen to six people discussing members Of their family. Complete each summary
with an expression from exercise 2 and a reason.
arianna admires / trusts her mother,
despises / doesn't see eye to eye with his father, because
is very close to / has a lot in common with her grandfather, because
envies / respects his cousin, because Ella
looks down on has nothing in common with her twin brother, because
6 David feels sorry for / is wary of his
out more about your partner's relationships with family and friends. Ask three
questions using expressions from exercise 2. Ask for reasons. v•lho do you
admire and *hi?
pairs, Check the meaning of the verbs below using
a dictionary. Then test each other. Can you remember the translations?
bicker (with sb) boast (to sb about sth) confide (in sb about sth) flatter (sb)
flirt (with 5b) insult (5b) lecture (sb about sth) nag (sb about sth)
praise 6b for sth) tease (sb about sth)
tell (sb) Off (for 5th) warn (sb about sth)
•a'hat mean? It means
the questions With the correct prepositions.
does Brianna bicker
can Ryan always confide 3 What does Sophia's mum nag her
does Isaac's cousin boast
does Ella's dad tease her
does David's aunt praise him
7Listen to the extracts again. Answer the
questions in exercise 6.
1.19 Listen to six monologues. What
is each speaker doing? Choose the best verb from exercise 5.
ipeaker l: praising: Speager
9 01.19 Listen again. Write a one-sentence
summary to describe What each speaker is doing.
ipeaker I is praising somebody for winning a
prepare a monologue like the ones in exercise
8. Choose a verb from exercise 5 and invent your own situation.
Perform your monologue to the class.
Can they describe what you are doing?
You're boasting to somebodi about esarn
results Yet. that" right. NO,
D VOCABULARY BUILDER 3.1: PAGE 136
Tom 0K. fine.
Ava Thank you. First, I
need a few details about you. old you are?
Tom I'm twenty.
Tom I'm a web designer.
you work for?
Tom I'm self-employed. I
work at home.
Great. so. question one. What do you argue about most in your family?
Tom Er whose turn it is to
use the car.
Ava OK. Question two. Who cooks most of the meals in
Tom We don't have family
meals. We help ourselves.
And finally, question three. Who do you get With hest in your family?
My sister, definitely. We've got a lot in common. Ava That's all. Thanks very
much for your help. Tom NO problem. I can ask you a question.
Ava Sure. Go ahead.
free this evening.
you tell me whether you share a bedroom?
Subject and Object
Questions with Who,
What or Which can be subject Or object questions.
Object questions include the normal
interrogative form Of the verb. The answers are the object of the verb.
What did you buy? (l
bought a scarf.)
Who did vou sit with? sat
Subject questions include the normal affirmative form
of the verb. The answers are the subject of the verb. Who bought this DVD?
(Darren bought it.)
the six indirect questions from the dialogue in exercise as direct questions. 1
Could Nou spare moment?
BUILDER 3.1: PAGE 119
the questions below as indirect questions. Use a different phrase from the
Learn this! box for each one. Do you share a bedroom?
do you bicker with most at home?
you the only teenager in your home?
often do you all have a meal together at home?
goes to bed first in family?
pu Often alone in your home? 7 Do you help with the housework?
5 In pairs, ask and answer the indirect
questions in exercise 4. Add three indirect questions ofyour own.
the Learn this! box. Are the underlined questions in the dialogue in exercise
subject or Object questions?
BUILDER 3.2: PAGE 119 01.20 Read, listen and complete the
dialogue. Does Tom like Ava? How do you know? 7 Write questions in the present
simple using the prompts below. Is each question a subject or Object question?
2 Read the Learn this! box. Then look
again at answers in exercise 1. Which of these indirect
questions include a 1 Who / live / next door to you? question word and Which
include if or Whether? Who lives ne.xt door to •iou?
2 What / you / have / for breakfast?
are more polite and more formal than direct questions. They use the same word
order and verb form as a statement. They begin with a phrase like: Can / ask
(you) ? Can/Could you tell me
I'd like to know.„ I wonder
Would you mind telling me
These phrases are followed by a question word (what,
how, etc.) or, in yes/no questions, by if or Whether. Can / ask where Emma
lives? Do know if she's in?
Which letter / your surname / start
4 Which month / have the fewest days?
Which subject / you / have / first on
Mondays? Who / buy / your clothes?
make / you laugh?
Who / you / admire most / in the world?
Who / have the most in common with you?
8 In pairs, ask and answer the questions
in exercise 7.
CULTURE Ageing population
can talk about the elderly.
in pairs. Describe the photo opposite. Then agree on a definition Of elderly.
Compare with the class.
pairs, read the facts box and guess the missing numbers.
• AGEING POPULATION: THE FACTS
For the first time in history, there are more
people in the UK aged over 65 than undert
Average life expectancy for people born
today in the UK is about 78 for men and 2 for women.
Forty years ago, life expectancy was for men
and 75 for women.
The retirement age for all UK workers
will rise to probably by 2027.
to the first part Of a radio interview and check your answers to exercise 2.
What is the most interesting piece of information, in your opinion?
to the whole interview. Choose the correct answer: a, b, c or d.
I Professor Clark believes people a
don't like thinking about getting Old.
mind the idea of getting old. c are frightened of the elderly. d cannot explain
their own view Of Old age.
Classical times, most people a died during infancy or childhood.
around the age of 28.
between 60 and 70.
ill for more than half their life.
expectancy has increased mainly because people a still go jogging when they're
in their eighties.
their State pension on food and exercise. c worry less about having poor
d have better healthcare and a healthier
Clark's personal opinion is that a soon, most people Will reach the age Of 100.
b the human lifespan has a natural limit.
the future will be fitter than 80•year• olds
Will have to take up keep-fit in their fifties.
Britain and North America, elderly people a have to work after the retirement
not treated as well as in most other places.
Often abandoned by their families. d prefer to live in nursing homes.
modern cities in China and India, families are a taking better care of the
elderly than they used to. b allowing elderly people to lead independent lives.
C asking grandparents to 100k after children. d taking worse care of the
elderly than they used to.
two halves nouns and write them correctly as one word Or two. (All
the nouns are in exercise 4.)
expectancy 4 elderly span nursing age retirement pension state age
8 life relatives
the sentences using the compound nouns from exercise 5.
to rise, we won't be able to feed everyone.
people should only live in if they have no families to look after
The average human could
be 200 years if
scientists continue to make advances in
4 We won't have enough money to pay
retired people the if the number of elderly people
You can learn a lot by spending more
time With your
should be 75 or older.
pairs, ask and answer about the Opinions in exercise 6. DO you agree or
disagree? Give reasons.
of elderly people. Then share your ideas With
the class. Try to include nouns from exercise 5.
READING Closing the generation gap
I can talk about relationships between parents and
the quotation below and say ifyou agree or disagree. At what age do people
become adults, in your opinion? Give reasons.
A boy becomes an adult three before his
parents think he does, and about two pars after he thin" he
the title and the last sentence Of the text opposite.
Predict which sentence (a—d) best summarises
Of the text's writer.
should let their teenage children spend more time alone.
should treat their teenage children more like adults.
should remember that their parents are trying their best.
teenagers want to be treated like adults, they should behave like adults.
the text, ignoring the gaps, and check your answer to exercise 2. Do you agree
with Ellie's view? Why?'Why not?
When you do a gapped
sentences task, look for connections between the missing sentence and the
sentences around the gap. Focus on words that Often refer logically to
ideas in other sentences:
(we, it. this, etc.) — What do they refer back
for example — does it exemplify what comes before? comparatives — What is
more / the same — What idea is being
repeated? but / however — what ideas are being contrasted?
the text contain mainly facts or mainly opinions? Find evidence in the text to
support your answer.
5 Read the Exam tip. Match
the gaps (1—6) in the text with the sentences below (A-H). There are two extra
was it such a big deal?
more worrying was the fact that my parents weren't talking to each Other.
A few more rows later and written more
than 10,000 words Of advice for parents.
But part Of being a teenager is feeling free to take Steps down new paths and
learning from our own mistakes. After
that. the arguments with my dad just got worse. lust
last week, for example, I persuaded Mum to buy me a pair of shoes that she had
said I couldn't have.
makes me not want to confide in you.
we all share similar views on What our parents
are doing wrong.
a teenager's guide
Sixteen year old Ellie, who lives with her
parents, Louise, 38, and Peter, 43, has written a book to tell us what parents
of teenagers are doing wrong
All adults think
teenagers are a nightmare. According to them. we're moody, argumentative, rude
and disruptive. But have any adults ever stopped to think that perhaps they are
resmsible for the unpredictable and confusing way we behave?
me, for instance. I may be a teenage nightmare. but this
is all to do with my parents, not me. With my mother, I stamp my feet. storm
out ot shops in the middle of arguments and moan until I get my own way.
C]But my father, On the other hand, turns me nto a shining example of teenage
perfection. I do as he asks, I dont answer and I happily accept
that means no.
My parents have very
different parenting styles. While my dad brino out the best in me, by being
calm and reasonable and treating me like an adult. my mum, like so many other
parents of teenagers, inadvertently makes me want to rebel by being combative
and speaking to me as though I'm still a child. Last summer. after yet another
row in a shop with my mother, I decided to start writing down the way I felt
about things. 2 C]
December, having contacted uarious publishers, I signed a book deal. My
parenting book, HOW Teenagers Think. is going to be published next year, the
firstot its type actually written by a teenager. Much of my book is based on my
own experiences, but I've also interviewed my
friends about their patents. s C] And it usually comes down
to the fact that our parents care too much about us and don't want to let us grow
For example, mum drove
me crazy a few weeks ago when she kept worrying I'd broken my neck after I fell
off my bike, Yes, my neck hurt. but I'd been to the doctor and he'd told me I
was fine, so why did she want to take me to hospital?
of fussing around teenagers like we're small children,
could be using Our desire to feel grown-up to their Eantage, If were behaving
badly, why not tell us straight an that we don't deserve to be treated like an
adult? Then try to earn your And why not reward us when behave
maturely? Recently, I wanted to take a train
to see a friend - a journey rd done with Mum W.e. Dad was fine with the idea of
me going alone, but it Æeks Of arguments before Mum agreed.
to learn to trust teenagers, And when parents
wried about us, there is no point becoming angry - that things worse. A few
months ago, Mum lost her when I told my parents I'd been receiving emails from
rd met in a chatroom. She instantly banned me trom S-€tne Internet and we ended
having a huge row. But rm
teenagers know talking to strangers online is a pod idea. so I'd told them What
was happening - I don't get abducted, just as much as they don't want me to.
angry with me. Mum? Surely its better for won't be angry, so I can talk to
friends feel the same way. They end up not parents What they're up to because
theVII be cross.
I interviewed for my book bved the idea
Of being to their parents, Despite the way we behave, we relationships with our
parents. We also all know that our parents usually do know best. s Our ha•e to
unwrap the cotton wool they place around us what is just a natural phase ot
in pairs. Listen and check your answers to exercise 5 and say Which words
helped you to work out the
the phrasal verbs highlighted in the text with the definitions below.
2 gradually become an adult 3 do
something Without interruption
be explained by
at a situation (often unintentionally)
a certain type of behaviour in somebody
quickly and angrily
impolitely to somebody in authority
the meaning Of the underlined phrases in these Sentences from the text. Rewrite
the sentences using different words.
adults think teenagers are a nightmare.
moan until I germeown_way.
few weeks ago.
of being a teenager is feeling free to take steps down
the two parts of the words to make adjectives from the text. Which adjective
best describes (a) most teenagers? (b) most adults? (c) you? Compare your ideas
Work in pairs. HOW
could relationships between teenagers and their parents be improved? Think of
three things that (a) parents and (b) teenagers should do. Use the ideas below
to help you.
Present your ideas to
the class. Include as many words and phrases from exercises 7—10 as possible.
Use the phrases below to structure your presentation.
e first thini i teenageþþþogld do is
in my opinion parents/ teenagers should
nallý, it would
help if parents teen tense)
D VOCABULARY BUILDER 3.2: PAGE 136 HOW
do you and your friends speak compared with Read the Look out! box. Then
complete the sentences with a
people Of your parents' generation? Discuss
the ideas below in pairs and decide on the biggest difference.
grammar pronunciation slang speed vocabulary
the text. HOW many comparative and superlative forms can you find? Are they
adjectives or adverbs, regular or irregular?
teenagers in the UK generally understand about 40,000 different words, the
number Of words they actually use is far smaller than you might think —
sometimes only 800 words. An inability to distinguish between formal and
informal language is almost as worrying. Ever since the 1950s, speaking correct
English has been nowhere near as important for teenagers as sounding cool. But
experts are worried that today's teenagers are even worse at talking in formal
situations than previous generations were.
The language that teenagers use is nothing
like as varied as,vou would imagine, With the twenty commonest words representing
about a third Of all words spoken. And if you 100k at younger age groups, the
situation is just as worrying: children are developing speech problems more and
more frequently. Children watch a lot of IV. as do adults. This creates
background noise; and the noisier their surroundings. the harder it is for
babies to hear conversations around them.
the Learn this! box. Find at least one example in the text in exercise 2 for
each point (1—5) in the box.
I We can qualify
comparatives using far, much, even. a little or no:
She's no better at
swimming than her sister.
can qualify comparatives with as as
usingjust, almost/ nearly or nowhere near/ nothing like; I'm almost as tall
os my dad.
3Comparatives often have a clause after than. She's less
argumentative than she used to be. It's much hotter today than realised.
4We can use double comparatives for changes:
He's getting taller and
taller/more and more handsome.
5We can use the following Structure to say that two
things change together because they are connected: The faster he works, the
more mistakes he makes.
We can use a clause beginning with os an
auxiliary or modal verb or the correct form Of be to show similarity.
attention to the word order:
She's a great singer, as is her
clause to show similarity. Use the words
in brackets. I I love Lady Gaga, do friends. (my friends)
sold our house, . (our neighbours)
can speak Russian, . (her dad)
school will be closed, . (the pre-school) 5 She loved the film, . (her
the two halves of the comparative sentences.
speak far more clearly
2 1'm much more intelligent 3 The harder
you work, 4 I love sport.
I'm nowhere near as moody
dessert is even more delicious
getting more and more confident, 8 This exercise isn't nearly as difficult
than everyone thinks I am.
as do most of my friends. c as some
people I know.
than used to.
e than I thought it would be.
the next one.
g the more successful you'll
be. as are most teenagers.
D GRAMMAR BUILDER 3.3: PAGE 120
new beginnings for in exercise 5.
a far more
stubborn than everyone thin" I am.
sentences below using a different comparative or superlative form. Include the
word in brackets and do not change the meaning. There is more than one possible
answer. I Nobody in my class is as Outgoing as I am. (most) I'm the mott
outgoing person in class.
is far more talkative than Sam. (nowhere)
online is becoming easier and easier. (less)
sister drives badly. My dad drives badly too. (as)
in the class sings better than I do. (singer)
plays football much better than he thinks. (badly)
town centre is much emptier than it used to be. (busy)
8 In pairs, think of an appropriate way
to finish each sentence. Then compare your ideas with the class.
The longer people live,
It's getting more and more difficult to
The hardest thing about being a
01:26 Read the role-play task and listen to a student doing the task with an
examiner. What conclusion do they reach for each Of the four issues? Complete
the chart below.
A teenage foreign friend
is coming to visit your town with
his/her grandfather. Talk to your friend
about the visit, remembering to make plans and arrangements Which are suitable
for both visitors. Cover these issues:
they should Stay
recommended place to eat out
daÝtrip or excursion that both would enjoy
best wayto getaround
Complete the phrases using the words below.
I Suggesting a course of action could
got idea know Other think
don't we ? 7
an : . Let's it. How about ? we should always 8 thing we should do is
see you're saying that, but not a bad idea but I think , we
Listen to the role•play again. Which of
the phrases in exercise 3 do they use?
Read the Learn this! box and complete
the examples. Then listen and check.
tags turn statements into questions. We use affirmative tags after negative
verbs and negative tags after affirmative verbs. Tags include a modal verb or
auxiliary pan of a verb form (have, do, did. etc.). Your grandfather is
You haven't got a big
Thai food is spicy,
likes Italian food,
should 100k online,
D GRAMMAR BUILDER
3.4: PAGE 120
and repeat the sentences in exercise 5. Does the intonation go up or down at
the end Of each one? HOW does that affect the meaning?
pairs, prepare to do the role-play task from exercise 2. Decide which part you
will each play and what conclusions you will reach. Make a chart like the one
in exercise 2 and write your ideas in it.
Do the role-play task in pairs. Make
sure you include some question tags.
Ask and answer these
questions in pairs.
I DO you think you have enough freedom and
independence from your family?
are the positive effects of giving teenagers more freedom and independence?
are the negative effects?
2 Work in pairs. Read the task below and
agree on one advantage and one disadvantage.
Many teenagers spend time looking after
themselves at home while the adults are away. Write an essay which presents the
advantages and disadvantages Of being 'home alone' When you're a teenager.
the essay. Does the candidate mention your ideas from exercise 2?
Scme parents happy to their teenage
chilWen in the tE:ause they trust ttHn to ttunseh,es. There can drawbacks. Exit
situation can also out the best r.
Firstly. itk a to hcw to
favcx_rite c:nüne ftÿ, say.
c.cuk:in't it means ncbody is there to nag
tell What to do. Which — even thCROh you may two little things. Thirdly, not
acuts arcond is a chance to prcyve that you can inc8Jendent and even deal with
difficult situaticns occasionally.
hand, there we definitely cisadvantages to at WNe your
parents are away. Although sceparing yCMr own fcod may fun, Will end up
eatrg k)ts ot snacks and no meals.
it your parents arent there to renind you, forget something impœtant. a
doctor S apçnntn-ult. Thny, wthout your parents at home, you need to
Cc*ye With any domestic emergenciœ yourself. For example, f the bathrocyn
roods, ytl' næd to it Out!
I the advantages fix teenagers Ot sÇmding a tine home ame the
risk 0t its an part of grcywing up.
sure your essay is divided into paragraphs and has a clear and logical
Structure. For example:
Paragraph 1: (introduction) Rephrase
the question and / or give an example of the situation it describes to show
that you have understood it.
Paragraph 2: (pros) List
two or three advantages.
Paragraph 3: (cons) List
two or three disadvantages.
Paragraph 4: (conclusion) Sum up the
most important points and / or give your own opinion.
4 Read the Exam tip. Answer the questions in
relation to the essay in exercise 3.
I Does the essay follow the structure in the
many different (a) advantages and (b) disadvantages does the candidate mention?
all the places where the candidate gives examples. How are the examples
phrase does the candidate use to introduce a personal opinion in the
We can use although Or even though to introduce a
He won the race even
though he'd hurt his foot.
he'd hurt his foot, he won the race.
and in spite Of also express concession but are followed by a noun or •ing
form. not a clause. Despite/ln spite Of his injury, he won the race.
Read the Learn this! box. Underline all the
examples Of concession in the essay in exercise 3.
the sentences without changing the meaning. Include the word in brackets.
I Even though they get on well, they're
Despite getting on well, theft-e splitting
2 Even though they're friends, they often
argue. (despite) Although we tease each other, we're actually very close.
(in spite on
spite of the rain, they walked home together.
parents watch too much TV, despite lecturing their children about the same
thing. (even though)
doesn't respect her dad, even though he's got a well• paid job. (in spite on
pairs, discuss the conclusion Of the essay in
exercise 3. Do you agree or disagree? Give
Essay: pros and cons
I can analyse and express the pros and cons of a
an essay which presents the advantages and
disadvantages of going on holiday With friends your own
age rather than with your family.
Plan your essay in pairs.
A: Think Of as many advantages as you can.
Student B: Think Of as many
disadvantages as you can. Make notes using the ideas below to help you.
be on the same wavelength eat unhealthy food get ill
get lost get mugged make mistakes make new friends
miss your family run out ot money stay up all night
stay in hostels
ideas with your partner. Agree on the best two or three advantages and
disadvantages. then think Of examples where possible. Complete the plan for
paragraphs 2 and 3.
are going to do the following exam writing task. Read the task and discuss Some
ideas for advantages and disadvantages with your partner.
Paragraph 3: disadvantages
I: Point 2: point 3:
Paragraph 4.• conclusion
In pairs, translate
the underlined phrases in the sentences below. Think about how you could use
the phrases in your essay. Which section of the essay might they belong to?
You might live on junk food for the
Ifyou comedown with food poisoning,
find a doctor.
It's important to stick together.
family are only a phone call away.
can be a bonding experience.
Teenagers can be anvasytarget for criminals.
If things go wrong. you may need to grow
LID overnight. It could be the holidav Of a lifetime.
In pairs, write the introduction to your
essay by completing the outline below.
Some teenagers have the opportunity to go on
hol"day with friends their own age. Although this can be it can also
Agree on a conclusion
with your partner. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, or vice versa?
Make a note of your opinion and the reasons for it.
Look back at the essay in exercise 3 on page
34 and complete these three different ways Of expressing the idea Of being
chance to prove you can be independent there
are definitely disadvantages to being at home
, you need to cope With any domestic
Do the writing task in exercise I. Follow the
essay plan you made With your partner in exercises 3—6.
CHECK YOUR WORK
given your essay a clear and logical
structure? used at least one concession clause?
some expressions from exercises 2 and 4? rephrased the wording Of the task in
different ways? written 200-250 words?
your spelling and grammar?
Ready for your Exam
spend your weekends:
alone or with company? With friends or
family? indoors or outdoors? being active or relaxed?
2 DO the exam task.
You Will hear five people talking about
how they spend the weekend. Match each sentence in the table to the correct
speaker(s). Which speaker
loves to expand his/her wardrobe?
spends his/her weekend glued to the
loves to chill Out?
has an expensive hobby?
has a hobby which annoys his/her family?
doesn't mind getting dirty?
9 has a role model? appreciates nature?
weekends with a
Use of English
3 Do the exam task.
USE OF ENGLISH exam task
the text. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for each gap to create a
logical and grammatically Correct text.
LIK life expectancy has risen quite
dramatically, despite concerns over Obesity and its attendant health problems.
reports published this month, average life expectancy has risen 80 years Old,
eight years higher than in the 1970s. What has made the most difference to the
population's health? Has it been increasing the government budget for
hospitals, staff and medical equipment? Has it been the in medicine with
exciting breakthroughs in new treatments for tackling disease? Has it been the
fact that we're more conscious Of staying healthy these days? These factors
have obviously contributed to the health Of the nation. But one thing in particular
has been an enormous contributing
Get Ready for your Exam 3
factor — it was a simple public health
campaign about the dangers of smoking.
In 1971, many thousands of men in their early
60s died 3 smoking-related heart disease. 2000 the figure for this age group
had halved, while for cancer the number had gone down by a third, and
strokerelated deaths had fallen by two-thirds. The dramatic fall in these
numbers can be attributed to the first generation Of non-smokers arriving at
But what is the likelihood of life expectancy
increasing? Health professionals are concerned that this trend by the time
today's youth reach old age. Smoking has been replaced by the equally unhealthy
habit Of over-eating, and unless a similar public health campaign takes soon,
who knows what the future may bring?
Due to B According to C Based on
D Apart from growth B acceleration C
D advances on B from C at D for
4 A Since B In C By D After is reversing
B has been reversed
C Will be reversed D reverses
6 A effect B result C action D control
better at as they get older? What do
they get worse at? In pairs, make two lists.
the exam task.
DO you agree or disagree With this Statement?
In Our society, we do not attach enough value
to the wisdom and experience Of the Old.
PO L I T 1 Co HOW MUCH DO
at the four politicians in the photos. a What nationality are/were they? b Name
one thing they are famous for.
Name three members of the government
in your country.
3How old do you have to be to vote in
4How many countries are there in the
EU? Who is the current a President of the US? b British Prime Minister? c
President of the EU Commission?
Work in pairs. DO the political awareness
quiz. HOW well-informed are you?
the text with the correct form Of the verbs below. Then listen and check.
call for change gauge influence join
launch sign tackle take part write e-petitions
aritish teenagers aren't very interested in politics. Very few have in a
demonstration Or a letter of protest, let alone a political party. But with the
advent of the Internet, a new wav of • a campaign Or government policy has
emerged: e•petitions. Any British citizen can start a petition on the British
government website. If more than 100,000 people the petition, it could be
debated in the House Of Commons. Recent popular petitions have a referendum on
British membership Of the EU, Or demanded action to 8 problems
like drug addiction and homelessness. But could a petition ever lead the
Government to actually 9 law? Or is it just a cynical way for the
government to public opinion or. worse, to fool voters
into thinking that the Government is actually listening to them? Time will
pairs, check the meaning Of the collocations in red. Then test each other.
launch? a campaign
DVOCABULARY BUILDER 4.1: PAGE
to five teenagers being interviewed about their attitude to politics. Match the
statements (A—F) with the speakers. There is one statement that you don't need.
don't think that politicians ever listen.
believe people have a duty to get involved in politics.
want to have a say in who governs the country.
don't believe that young people care enough to vote.
don't think our voting system produces fair results. F I'll never change my
attitude to politics.
again. Identify one reason that each teenager gives to explain their attitude.
the meaning Of these political terms?
How many can you explain?
public / general election mainstream politics / single-issue politics electoral
system I political system left-wing / right-wing public opinion / public Office
in pairs. Say whether you agree or disagree with the opinions in exercise 4.
don't agree that politicians never
lislen. They have to listen in order to get elected.
DVOCABULARY BUILDER 4.2: PAGE
Read and listen to the dialogue. Answer the questions.
I Who are Sandy and Ryan?
happening and why?
Hey Sandy, move it! Hurry up! Grab a placard and some water. Chances are
we'll be Out all day.
Sandy OK. Where are we off
Ryan The university
library. Thousands of students will be heading there right now. Hurry!
Sandy OK, OK. Blimey, there
are loads Of us! People must be wondering what's going on.
That's the idea! Come on!
What's the plan then?
at least a hundred students are likely to occupy the library. The rest of us
could march to the Town Hall, or it might be better to Stay in the centre of
town to protest there. Either way. people are bound to sit up and take
Crowd No to student fees!
No to student fees!
And the TV cameras should be here today as well! The Government can't ignore
us any longer. Come on! No to student fees! No to student fees!
the Learn this! box. Underline in the dialogue all the modal verbs and phrases
that express probability.
I We use will to make
predictions about the future.
/ don't think the
President Will be re-elected.
use the future continuous and the future perfect to make assumptions about
It's 8.00. Carolyn Will be
driving to work.
think Emily Will have left
the Office by now.
use must to conclude that something is certain. Dad isn't at home. He must be
use can't to express impossibility.
He can't be at work. His
use may, might and could to talk about the possibility Of something
Where's Max?' 'He
could be doing his homework. • It may rain later, so we might not play tennis.
use should to say that something will probably happen, in our opinion.
Spain should beat England.
can use Other phrases to express probability.
It's so cold. It's bound to snow
tonight. certain) Chances are it'll rain tomorrow. very probable) Are you
likely to go to Jeff's party?
D GRAMMAR BUILDER 4.1: PAGE 121
the correct answers. Where more than one answer is possible, explain the
difference in meaning.
I This exercise shouldn't / mustn't / won't take you too
long to complete if you've read the learn this! box.
2 'It's freezing in here. The window must /
could / should be open.'
'Where's Aidan?' 'I'm not sure. He
might / should / will be playing football.'
The plane left London for Paris six
hours ago. It Will arrive / have arrived / be arriving by now.
5 You shouldn't / mustn't / can't be
listening to the teacher if you are whispering to the student next to you. Emma
has revised very hard for her exams so she should / may / won't do well.
7 Bring warm clothes to the barbecue
next Saturday. The weather mustn't / can't I might not be as warm as it's been
4 Rewrite the sentences using the words
in brackets. Keep the meaning the same.
The phone's ringing. think it's Tom.
The phone.@ ringiny It'll be Torn
certain that the Government will be defeated. (bound) I
rang Liam at home but there was no answer. There's no way that he's at home.
vou think that lash will arrive soon? (likely)
really don't expect Sam Will fail his driving test.
is probably lying. (chances)
one o'clock. I assume she's having lunch. (will)
5 Work in pairs. Describe the photo.
Discuss What is happening now and what might happen. Use language from the
Learn this! box.
.32 Read the text. What is the significance Of these 6 I
.33 Listen to two teenagers talking about Northern Ireland. Choose the correct
a 1922 c 1969 e 1998 a Neither of them
wants a united Ireland. b the 1960s d 1985 b One Of them wants a united
c Both Of them want a united
Ireland. Read the text again. Answer the questions.
again. Are the sentences true (T) or false (n?
proportion of the population of Northern Ireland is
has some happy childhood memories.
did the Catholic community feel aggrieved following 2 TWO Of
William's relatives were killed by terrorists.
partition of Ireland? 3
William can't help thinking Of Catholics as enemies. C]
4Niamh thinks the IRA made a mistake when it gave up its
90% Of children in Northern Ireland go to faith schools.
will probably send her children to a Catholic
independence in 1922.
the North, united again and started killing British soldiers.
The British government of the population were Protestants. remained part Of the
UK. For acknowledged the Catholics' grievances, but insisted that
Northern after, the minority Catholic population in the North felt badly Ireland
would remain part of the UK as long as that was what the
f•ated. They ware less
well off and were often excluded from public
Most of them wanted an end to British rule in Northern
the some Protestants reacted violently to Catholic demands
civil rights, and police used force to break up Catholic
—onstrations. Rioting and civil unrest
followed and in 1S9the Brmsh ETV was sent into restore law and order.
Catholic and Protestant groups started planting bombs and murdering people.
that they were •protecting their communities'. One of these the Provisional
IRA (Irish Republican Army), wanted Ireland to be
Of its people wanted.
The British government was unable to Stop
the violence, Which lasted for nearly 30 years. This period saw a number at
failed peace initiatives, an attempt by the IRA in 1985 to murder Prime
Minister Margaret Thatcher, and the deaths Of aver 351 people, including
1,100 British soldiers.
people in both communities were tiring of the spiral of violence and IRA
agreedto give up its armed struggle and seek to achieve its goal by peaceful
means. Northern Ireland is still part Of the UK, butnow has its own
government, made up of Catholics and Protestants.
READING Freedom of speech
understand a text about freedom of speech.
Freedom of speech and information
how much should we have?
WILSON - libertarian
We libertarians believe that the Gwetnment should
interfere in peoplek lives as little as gnssible That means that peoples right
to free should not law unless what they are saying is certain to incite
violence, I tvlie•e that extreme right-wing or left•aing views and extreme
religious views should all be allowed even though most people find them
abhorrent This is the es§ence of a free society. Extreme views should be
expressed That the only wav to defeat them
ROMFORD - comedian
Its difficult to be polite in comedy
because you are usually making tun Of people. so you're to offend somebody at
some point. But just somebody is OffeMed doesrft mean they are right. I believe
that have right to Offend you. and if you are offended. thats rot a problem.
That doesn't mean that I try to offensive. don't I tri/ to be funny. try to be
honest try to make people think. If sœneone feels Offerded at something I
say. that's too bad That's their ;yoblem. JANE SIMMONS - politician
Governments have the right to cansot
information and restrict free speech in the interests Of national secu:ity, for
yeservinç public safety. or for the prevention of disorder or crime. For
example. its a crime to incite people to carry Out acts of terrorism Most
geople agree that this is sensibla However. there is a danger that governments
will use •the defence Of national security' as an excuse to silence legitimate
protests and stifle to their polities Ifs imgœtant therefore that
l*ople are able to challenge the limits ot free speech in a court 0t law
GREENWOOD - civil rights activist
There's a danger that people can use tree speech to
undermine the human rights of others. Liberalism is a good thing. butwe should
limit people's to express racist. sexist. ageist or homophobic views There are
lessons we must learn from history If had been no free speech for the Nazi
pan,' in Germany during the early 20s. it is possible that fascism may not have
grown in power and influenca The lesson is: be intolerantot intoleraxe.
MATTHEWS - online activist
Contribute to a website called
Wikileaks, where anonymous volunteers leak confidential government information
hack into government cunøuler files worldwide and put them on the
Internal. GD•ærnments say Our actions are dangero•as. I think they just
want to conceal their tram us. I want expose the truth. people have tt-æ
right to know everything that their Weernment is doing I'm absolutely opposed
to censorship Of the
Have you or someone you know ever signed a petition or demonstrated against
something? If So, why? If not, would you? Give reasons.
2 2.01 Read through the texts quickly. Decide who believes
that there should be limits to freedom of speech. Which keywords/phrases helped
Simon Wilson — M: unless incite violence
interfere as little as possible ntrme views be allowed
read the text before you read the multiple choice questions in Order to get the
general meaning. Then read each question and identify the part of the text that
contains the information you need.
Reject any options that are clearly wrong and identify the correct answer
by looking carefully at the relevant part of the text.
are unsure which of two answers is correct, make an intelligent guess.
THATCHER - journalist The press must not invade peoples privacy. nor can say
things which hurt a personS reputation without clear evidence ttk2t they are
true. But is it fair to investigate the private lives of figures? Journalists
tend to justify their intrusion into the lives Of famous mple claiming that
certain information is 'in the public interest' las opposed ta something the
public is interested ink For example. thew argue. if the captain Of the England
football team is having an affair. the public should know atX)ut it as he is in
a position of authority and respect and a role model tor young boys.
Ultimately. though. some of the press will print anything that sells
newspa¥.rs — if they can get away with it
the Exam tip on page Then read the texts again and choose the best answer.
I Simon Wilson says that a libertarians
don't believe in government.
has extreme views.
cannot ever restrict free speech. d we should fight against extreme views.
Romford a always tries to be polite.
that comedians are always offensive.
upset When he thinks he has offended someone. d wants to entertain people.
Simmons thinks that a we need to be able to restrict free speech to guard people's
are always right to restrict free speech.
are free to carry out terrorist acts.
shouldn't question any government's actions.
Greenwood a wants restrictions On what people say about others. b thinks that
we have learned something from history. c says that the Nazi party restricted
d thinks that people have become more
Matthews wants a governments to conceal confidential information. b to reveal
what governments are doing.
to hack into government computer documents.
to read the Wikileaks website.
Thatcher believes that a the press isn't allowed the right to freedom of
speech. b the press always reports information responsibly.
have the right to Say What they like about celebrities.
dthe press generally
argue that they print What the public needs to know.
suffixes -ism and -ist
1We often use the suffix -ism for beliefs, ideologies
and behaviour (Buddhism, Marxism).
often use -ist for people who have those beliefs and ideologies (a Buddhist,
a Marxist) and for adjectives GMarxist ideology, a Buddhist temple). 3 There
(n. belief), a liberal (n, person), liberal (adj) criticism (n, behaviour), a
critic (n, person), critical (adj)
We also use •ism and •ist for some occupations.
(Journalism, a journalist)
the texts and find the suffixes for these
words. Which category does each one belong to?
1 activ 5
D VOCABULARY BUILDER 4.3: PAGE 137
statements A—F. On your own, score them from I (z disagree strongly) to 5 agree
strongly). Think of reasons for each opinion.
should know everything the Government is doing or plans to do.
is right for hackers to try to access government files.
have the right to know everything about celebrities' lives.
should be careful What they make jokes about.
People should be allowed to express any
opinion, however extreme.
Racist. sexist. ageist. anti-religious
and homophobic views should not be tolerated.
6 Work in small groups. Compare your
scores for exercise 5. Justify your opinions and give examples to back them up.
Work in pairs. Discuss these questions.
Lennon's vision (a) worth striving for? (b)
realistic and achievable? Give reasons for your opinions.
can use the future continuous to make enquiries. Will you be voting in the
the flyer. What sort Of things do you think the School
Council does? Do you have a group like this
at your school?
D GRAMMAR BUILDER 4.2: PAGE 122
NEEDS*OU!School Council 4
Read the Learn this! box and rephrase the questions using
the future continuous to make polite
I What time are you leaving school?
do you plan to do this evening?
to improve your school 3 Who are you going
to see at the weekend?
4 Where will you go for your next holiday?
By the end Of this week we'll have been
running 5 What are you intending to wear to school tomorrow? your new School
Council for a whole term.
We've already had an impact on the way
the 5Ask and answer the questions in pairs. Use the future continuous in the
questions. school is run. We asked to have a say in the new school uniform and
the teachers agreed. 6 2.04 Listen to the conversation. What Will have Next
term, we'll all be wearing a uniform happened by tomorrow afternoon?
by you. 7 2.04
Complete the Sentences with a verb in the correct
And by the end Of the year we'll have
made tense. Then listen again and check. our school even better. We'll be
next term. Come along With ideas on 2 By the time
I arrive home I'llfor eight hours.
to improve our school. 3
Will you something to eat when you arrive?
SEE YOU THERE! 5 By five O'clock, be hungry. we'll
I'll down to a lovely meal. 4 NO, I won't
8 Complete the predictions.
Use the future continuous or the future perfect of the verbs below.
go live melt speak spread
four examples Of the future continuous, future perfect and future perfect
continuous in the text. Then match each example With a use in the Learn this!
continuous, future perfect and future perfect continuous
use the future continuous to:
atalk about something we expectwill happen.
btalk about an action in progress in the future.
use the future perfect to talk about a completed action in the future.
use the future perfect continuous. usuallywith for ,
to say how long an action will have been in progress in the future.
the meaning Of these sentences. Translate them into your language.
I At 4 p.m. we'll watch the film.
4 p.m. we'll be watching the film.
4 p.m. we'll have watched the film.
4 p.m. we'll have been watching the film for an hour.
Complete the phrases with the words below. Check
help you. you
understand the expressions. Then listen again. Which phrases don't they use?
advantage don't it maybe persuadin
The bigof (my idea) is
Wouldn'tbe better to ? you think that ?
, but I still think
decided persuaded right
How is the noun protest (in exercise 6) pronounced? How would it be pronounced
if it were a verb?
D VOCABULARY BUILDER 4.4: PAGE 137
Work in small groups. You are planning to
launch a campaign. Follow the instructions.
Decide which issue you are going to protest about. Choose from the ideas in the
box below or think of your own.
Discuss What form Vour protest Will take and
agree On three types of action. (See exercise 6.)
building of a new road through a rural area popular With tourists a plan to
build a nuclear power station near your town
the closure Of a youth club Which you attend a global issue such as poverty,
disease, endangered species or the arms trade
and decide Who Will be responsible for each.
in pairs. Imagine there are plans to build a massive car park in the centre Of
a small town near you. Brainstorm reasons Why you might object to this.
Listen to two teenagers, Ollie and Emma, discussing their Objections to the car
park. Compare your ideas With theirs.
Complete the lines from the conversation With the verbs in brackets. Use the
present continuous, the present simple, going to and Will. Then listen and
They (build) a massive car park in the
The council (meet)
in a month's time so we need to mcwe quickly.
(go) out this evening.
What about tomorrow evening?
(ring) Jane and get her
5 Match the sentences
(1—4) in exercise 4 With the descriptions
GRAMMAR BUILDER 4.3: PAGE 122
2.06 Listen to Ollie, Emma
and Jane discussing What form their protest Will take. Which Of these do they
decide to do? Which do they reject, and why?
a an arrangement b a
timetabled event c an intention d an instant decision
I draw up a petition
2 hand out leaflets 3 organise a march make placards
a letter Of protest
set up a website
would the beginning and the end Of the letter be 3 different if June
didn't know the name of the person she was writi ng to?
writing to protest against the planned Of the public library in the centre
Of Greenford. I understand that it is to Close at the end of the year.
particularly about the primary and secondary students
who currently use the library to research
assignments and It is to tha t the library is Of crucial
importance to people in
addition, many elderly and less well-off people might not able
to affcmå to buy many The fact is the Closure
is bound to adversely affext such people Who rely on the library as their
only source of reading matter.
the library Serves as a social centre Where people dmp in to read the papers
and meet their friends. The consequences of the Will be Very
damaging to people who use the library tn this way. 4
is for these reasons that think the should reconsider its decision and keep the
library open for the benefit of all the citizens o f Greenford.
forward to response.
Tune Knight 5
Find and underline in
the letter nine phrases from the list below.
phrases for a tetter of protest opening the letter
I am writing to protest against wish
to register my opposition to I am writing to express my concern about
introducin ur reasons for
rotestin am very worried about/that
I am particularly concerned about
' fear that (it) Will lead to „ It is clearly
unfair to/that In addition ...'Furthermore
making a point forcefulÿ
It 's important to recognise that
fact is that What you don't seem to realise is that
describinz ill effects will
do serious damage to
„ will lead to the
collapse:'destruction/death etc. of
„ is bound to adversely affect The
consequences Of will be very damaging
It is for these reasons that I think...
put immediate) Stop to
Please do everything in your power to
Add one of these phrases to each group in
a It is/l find it
unacceptable that b I would like to point out that c I
wish to object in the strongest possible terms to d I
urge you therefore to reconsider your decision/proposal
(to e will
have a devastating effect on
Complete the Exam tip. Find the features in
the letter. Check you understand the key features of formal letters.
EXAM TIP at the top
on the right, address just below on the left and below that.
Start and end the letter correctly: Dear
/ name Yours faithfully / Avoid s language and , direct
questions and marks.
the end, sign yours , then print it underneath.
2 Read the letter.
Answer the questions.
I What is the council planning to do, and
2 How many objections does June raise in
her letter? 3 How do many students currently use the library?
Will the closure affect elderly and less affluent people?
else do people use the library, apart from to borrow books?
action does June request?
Describe the photo. Do you or your town
retail parks? Why?/Why not?
Work in pairs. Choose two
reasons for Objecting to the
Read the newspaper article. Answer the questions.
proposed retail park from the list below, or think of
1 What does the council
have to decide?
ideas. Expand the two
ideas and make notes.
2 Who is paying for the
new retail park?
3 HOW big Will it be and
how much will it cost?
effect on shops/toss Of
jobs in the town centre
4 What two possible
advantages of the plans are
mentioned in the text?
destruction of a beautiful
5 What two possible
disadvantages are mentioned?
effect on wildlife
Write the second and third
paragraphs ofyour letter, using
£20M RETAIL PARK
the notes you made in
exercise 5. Use phrases from exercise 3 on page 44.
Work in pairs. Decide What
action you would like the council to take. Choose ideas from the list or
thinkofyour own. Expand the ideas and write notes.
COUNCIL are the centre Of town to the park.
next June to decide The plans are likely to be
or not to approve plans Controversial. Councillor Mike
find an alternative
200-hectare retail park on Nesbit. Who is in favour of the
abandon the proposal
of the town. The development. said it would
hold an enquiry and
consult local traders
include department a massive boost to the local
clothing Outlets, media economy. creating hundreds Of
build new shops and a car
park in the town centre
and electrical jobs and attracting major retailers
Write the fourth paragraph
Of your letter, using the notes you
to the new park. However.
Hærington the traders
are reported to be upset
plans to develop the at the effect the retail park Bill
in exercise 7. Use phrases from exercise 3 on page 44.
CHECK YOUR WORK
your letter following the task in exercise 3? included some phrases in each
section from page 44? used a polite, formal style?
the correct layout and language to start and finish letter?
Written 200—250 words?
that the have on town centre shops, will cast £20 million A and
environmentalists say it spokesperson said. 'The will destroy fields and
create Over 300 jobs noodland We want to consult the construction phase local
people,' said Cllr Nesbit. permanent jobs •and in the coming months we it is
open: The retail park Will be holding a number of grking for cars. A public
meetings at which people service Will run from can air their views.'
Unit 4 Taking a stand
I Read the sentences. Describe what is
happening using the verbs below and correct prepositions.
boasting confiding praising telling warning
sit! Good boy, Rover!' said Joe.
was his dog obeying him.
can play football better than any of you.' Brandon said. Brandon was his
'You can't swim here, there are rocks,'
said the lifeguard.
lifeguard was the rocks.
I'm scared Of cats,' Kurt said to his son.
was his son his fear Of cats.
Put those crisps away!' said the teacher.
teacher was Tom off eating in class.
Mark: _ 15
the missing questions.
Keira went to Spain with her sister.
A: Her sister.
They stayed in a hotel for
two weeks. ? A: Two weeks.
They were unhappy about their room.
A: Their room.
complained to the hotel manager.
? A: The hotel manager.
told the maid Off for not cleaning the room.
? A: For not cleaning the room.
the text. Write one or two words in each gap.
Thanks to technology, it's getting harder for
teenagers to experience independence. In the past,
travelling abroad without your parents was
one Of effective ways Of learning survival
skills. But today, going
abroad is nowhere liberating as it used to be
because teenagers can stay in touch via texts, as their
parents. The more connected the world becomes, easy
it is for teenagers to find space to grow.
question tags to the dialogue.
Boy Let's go out for dinner this weekend.
Good idea. We should book somewhere,
Boy Yes. I'll do that. How
Girl You haven't been there before, 3
Boy NO. Nobody said anything bad about it,
Girt OK! Don't forget to ask about vegan food,
the sentences With the verbs below.
gauge influence launch tackle take part in
youthe demonstration last night?
surveys are a good way to public opinion. Local
politicians have done nothing to vandalism
in this city.
4 Can you government policy by donating
money to political parties?
The Government plans to a
new antismoking campaign focusing on teenagers.
Marv — /5
the dialogue with the words below.
bound chances might must won't
Boy Where's our taxi? It 1 be at
least half an hour since I called.
it's stuck in traffic. It is rush hour.
Boy The gig starts at 7.30. We ' miss the
Girl Don't worry. There's to be a
support act on first. We s miss the main band.
Mark: _ 15
the correct verb forms, a or b.
to bed yet. it's only 9 p.m. a won't have gone b won't have been going I
can't text you tomorrow afternoon, I an exam. a 'Il have done b 'Il be doing
on holiday. She a great time, I expect. a 'Il have had
b 'Il be having
for a year this December.
a 'Il have gone out b 'Il have been going out
need to say it again. He a won't have heard b won't have been
the dialogue With suitable words.
Boy Here's an t . Why don't write
a letter to the newspaper?
Girl I'm not about that. They probably won't
print it. I ' we should launch a campaign on Facebook. It's easy and effective.
We always get our friends to join
Boy I sees you're saying that, but
Will anyone notice a campaign on Facebook?
Find Out if your
partner prefers shopping in small, local shops or giant superstores. Agree on
two pros and two cons for each type Of shop.
Listen. Where does the conversation take place? Choose one, two or three Of the
in a superstore in the squat outside a shop
Listen again. Choose the correct answers. I Why does Stefan assume Daisy is not
English? a Her English is worse than his. b Her appearance is not typically
c She doesn't seem to know anyone.
lives a in the same squat as Spikey. b in a flat on Western Avenue. c with her
Spikey tells Stefan he shouldn't buy bananas, Stefan a suggests Spikey has got
his facts wrong. b agrees not to buy any bananas.
c does not understand how not buying bananas
Will make a difference.
left home because a she didn't like living with a capitalist.
b she had a big argument with her
father. c she wanted to live with Spikey.
the text. What is it from? Choose from a—d.
b a leaflet
d a magazine article
D CHECK YOUR PROGRESS:
a a newspaper report c
a formal letter
in exercise 4?
Wesley's are planning to build a car
park next to an existing row of shops.
An Official decision to allow the
development has already been made.
Of complaint should focus on the fact that local people were not asked to
discuss the plans.
supermarket chain has already bought a playing field from the local council.
There are already traffic problems in
you are planning a protest for the campaign against
Wesley's. Which Of the options below Will you
Why are you rejecting the other options? Take turns to
Write a letter, in an appropriate Style, to in
her for letting stay.
'Our new flat.
invite her to visit your new flat.
Spikey and Daisy.
chain are planning
demolish a row Of shops in Williams and build a new, massi Ve superstore
underground car park in the same
have already received planning permission for the development the local
council, Who own the land, we believe it is not too late to stop it, campaign —
write and complain! asking people to write to their ICRaI of to
development , and in particular, the lack with local residalts
We feel the decision to appmve
the plan was taken
without considering its negative impact on the environment and the community.
Fiv e good reasons to the developmen t:
The site for the new superstore includes
a 10,mOm: playing field which the local government plans to sell off Our Children
need spaœs for Sports and exercise!
Shops, the profit from a big superstore goes to its shareholders, who do
not live locally. The money is not reinvested in area _
around world. which
causes polluticm and is Our small,
Shops produce Whenever
and traffic are already a big -prc&m in this part Of London. A new
superstore will make it worse, especially as park is small for the expected
number of customers.
keep their p I ow by exploiting workers in developing countries Many
banana-growers, for example. earn less than El a day.
4 Get Ready for your Exam
they be part Of our lives in the future?
/ Why not?
you think the future looks bright or bleak for the human race?
2 DO the exam task.
READING exam task
Read the extract from Do Androids Dream
Of Electric Sheep? by Philip K Dick. Complete the text With the missing
sentences (A—E). There is one extra sentence that is not needed.
In a great empty apartment building far from
the centre Of San Francisco a single television played. There were few people
left to miss them.
Nobody reallv remembered why the war had
started or who, if anyone, had won. The radioactive dust that covered the Earth
had come from no country and nobody had planned it. Under United Nations law
each person Who left was given an android to work for them. It became very easy
to go and difficult to Stay. The few thousands who remained moved into areas
where they could live together and see each other. There were only a few Odd
individuals who stayed alone in the suburbs. John Isidore, listening to the
television as he shaved, was one of these.
'Let's hear from Mrs Maggie klugman,' the
television presenter was saying. •She emigrated to Mars a short time ago.
MrsKIugman, how does your exciting life in New New York compare with the
difficulties of your previous life on Earth?'
There was a pause, and then a tired
middle-aged voice said, •3 And before we left, my husband and I were always
worried that we might become specials. NOW Our worries have gone for ever.'
me too, John Isidore thought, and I didn't have to emigrate. He had been a
special now for over a year. Snce he had failed even a basic intelligence test,
the popular name for him and Others like him was 'chickenhead' — but he
survived. He had a job driving a truck for a false-animal repair company, and
Mr Sloat, his boss, accepted him as a human being. There were chickenheads who
were much more stupid than Isidore.
Isidore had finished shaving, and turned the
television off. Silence. • He experienced the silence with his eyes as well as
his ears. It almost felt alive.
Get Ready for your Exam 4
the war the animals had died, the sun had stopped shining and most people were
encouraged to emigrate.
World War Terminus the building had been well looked after, but now the owner
Of this and Other apartments had died or emigrated to other planets.
came from the walls. the floor. the ceiling and from all the machines in the
apartment that had stopped working years before.
used to be so easy and carefree and leaving Earth behind was such an ordeal.
Oh, it's wonderful have an android that you
can depend On.
Use of English
3 Do the exam task.
Complete each gap in the text with a word
formed from the word in brackets.
The number Of people
Without jobs in the UK has risen by 28,000 to 2.67 million during the three
months to January, according to the (LATE) figures, Which the
government says show signs Of stabilising. It is the lowest rise in over a
year, but 8.4% Of the population is still affected. (EMPLOY) amongst
the female population accounted for most of the rise in the number (JOB)
people. They have been most s (SEVERE) hit, making up nearly 80% Ofthe
increase. The figures also underlined the extent to Which the increase in the
number Of part-time jobs is masking the problem. They are Often (ADEQUATE)
paid and therefore cannot replace the full-time (EARN) that people generally
require. Meanwhile, the government continued to emphasise that despite the
latest Cuts in public sector jobs, more jobs were being created in the private
sector. However, there is some (COURAGE) data for the UK economy. (SURPRISE),
retail sales rose by an unexpected 0.9% in January, as fears of a recession
• active and pa"ive • passive; all forms • participle clauses Technology
• future in the past
Speaking • stimulus description
Writing • story
at the photos. Which of these websites do verbs
below. Then use some
you visit regularly? What do you do there?
the chart using the verbs below. Then in pairs.
translate all the phrases. Which words are
the same in your Own language?
download join log on post stream update upload
phrases your profile/ status/ personal
details/ contact details/ preferences
(on Facebook/ MMSpace/Amazon, etcJ
sign in or
a comment/an entry
(on YouTube/a blog/ an
a chat/a Wi-fi network,
app/a film/a file,
a video/a photo, etc.
(to your phone/TV/ computer. etc.)
to five conversations. Describe what the people are doing using phrases from
to complete the sentences from the
conversations. Computing: useful verbs browse cancel click/double-clitk
delete enter highlight key press (a key) scan scroll up/down search swipe tap
see what they've written underneath,the video.
were we going to for?
don't need to in my card details.
on that button.
so we can see him more clearly.
left to right, thenthe red button with your finger.
the cursor tothe name of the film and then the
can't wait that long. HOW do wethe download?
again. Check your answers to exercise 4.
in pairs. Using the language in exercises 2 and 4 to help you, explain to your
partner how to:
I add a new contact to your phone.
a song from the Internet. 3 find and watch a video clip Online.
First, you need to open the address book app by tapping
the icon. Then you tap the plus sign.
you key in the name and address
D VOCABULARY BUILDER 5.1: PAGE 138
Choose one or two
words from below or your own
mirrors have been a common feature in children's stories ever since the
fairytale Snow White ma" (make / famously) into a film by Disney. aut
recently, real •magic mirrors' (install) in several stores in the UK. Thanks
to these neat devices. whole outfits
/ try on) without having to undress or even find the items in the store.
The mirror is in fact a computer
screen. Stand in front of it and your body (scan / instantly). An image Of
yourself (display) on the screen and your measurements (calculate /
automatically). Once this (do), items of clothing (can / choose) from the
on-screen menus. These 9 (superimpose) onto your Own image. Shoes and
accessories (may / add) to complete the outfit. And because a second opinion
(often / need), your new look (can share / instantly) With your friends:
ifyou click on an icon, it (post) on Facebook a few seconds later.
the moment, magic mirrors (not find I often) in independent
clothes shops, but they (introduce / quickly) in larger stores across the
in pairs and give reasons.
put them immediately
before the past participle:
things on when you go shopping for clothes is
The results Will be
a chore embarrassing
essential exciting fun
In compound tenses,
adverbs of frequency usually go
between the auxiliary and
be or been:
They'll never be told.
She's often been warned.
the sentences With the words below.
Prepositions which belong
with the verb go immediately after the past participle:
bought closed done introduced returned tried
About Of clothes which have beenonline
Will she be listened to?
MV laptop is being looked at.
far more than Other goods.
Read the Look out! box.
Then complete the text with the
2 The advantage of high
street clothes stores is that the clothes can be
forms Of the verbs in brackets. Use the correct tense.
to complete this sentence. Then compare your opinions When we use adverbs
With passive verb forms, we Often
technology is being to stores to make shopping easier.
4By 2025, most shopping Will beonline and many high street
stores will have been
the sentences in exercise 2 and say:
Passive: all forms
can form the passive of any tense by using that tense of the verb be plus the
has been/is being/will be installed at school.
use the past continuous and present continuous forms of the passive, but we
don't use Other continuous forms because they are very clumsy. I'm being
Someone has been watching
can use the passive with present and past forms Of modal verbs.
Shoes must be worn. This puzzle can 't be solved. may
have been burgled. You would have been told.
which different tenses the passive forms are in. 2 which passive form includes
a modal verb.
D GRAMMAR BUILDER 5.1: PAGE 123
4Read the Learn this! box. Then rewrite the sentences in
the passive, unless they contain a tense not used in the passive.
A giant asteroid might destroy the earth.
testing our theories about the universe at CERN.
Chinese mav have invented gunpowder.
have completed the new Metro lines by the time
they hold the Olympics.
In pairs, think Of an
appropriate way to finish each
Someone had been reading all my emails, I realised.
sentence. Then compare
your ideas With the class.
If they'd received your complaint, they would have
1 Shopping could be made
easier by (t -ingform)
all shopping was done Online,
from clothes shopping, a magic mirror could be
can join the Wi•Fi network free of charge.
In pairs, complete
the definition using the words below.
embryo engineering fertilisation genes
baby born after IVF (in vitro
Some people see
designer babies as a step forward in technological development. However, many
people see it as a negative step for technology.
to five people talking about designer babies. Is each speaker generally for or
against them? Write F (for) or A (against).
3below. Translate the other four words.
advance (n, v) diagnosis DNA experiment (n, v) injection laboratory laser
patent (n, v) procedure side effects technicians test tube
I I don't think a technological is the
same as progress.
rich will pay to genetically improve their babies.
3I think all babies
will be created in a one day.
shouldn'tWith human embryos.
We could accidentally change human forever.
6 I think it's just a medical , like any Other.
again. Check your answers to exercise 3.
Workin pairs. Find out whether your partner
agrees Or disagrees With the sentences in exercise 3.
Do you agree thatwe
d) to complete the text then listen and check. Does the text contain mostly
fact or opinion?
2 a keep
4 a regard
now have the ability to that children are born free Of any one Of
hundreds of serious genetic disorders. from cystic fibrosis to early-onset
cancers, aut children to be born with these diseases. All would-be
parents should be offered screening to alert them to any genetic disorders they
passing on to their children. Those at
risk should then be offered IVF with tests to ensure embryos are healthy before
they are implanted. Why isn't it happening? Because most people still attempts
to influence Which genes our children inherit as taboo. But fears of •designer
babies' are misplaced. You cannot select for traits the parents don't have. and
the scope for choosing specific traits is very limited. aut you can make sure
children do not end 5 With disastrous genetic disorders.
Nearly 150 years after Darwin unveiled
his theory* of evolution, we have to grasp one of its most unsettling
implications: having diseased children is natural
as having healthy ones. Thanks to technology. we are no longer entirely at the mercy
Of this callous process. 8 than regarding this ability With
suspicion. we should be celebrating it and encouraging its use. But instead. we
continue to allow children to be born with terrible diseases because of our
collective ignorance and superstition.
•an opinion or idea that somebody believes is
true but that is not proved
7 Which sentence best sums up the text
in exercise 6? a We shouldn't select traits for babies even though we have the
technology to do so.
should use all the technology we have in Order to prevent diseases in babies.
shouldn't use technology unless we know that a child has a serious genetic
In pairs, discuss the opinions in
exercise 7. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons.
Computer hackers rarely show their faces in
public, allowing the
When you do a gapped sentences task, check your
answers by reading each relevant part ofthe text with the missing sentence
in place. Does it flow? Does it make sense logically and grammatically?
Double-check by trying the extra Sentences in each gap. They should not fit
any of the gaps well.
the Exam tip. Then match the gaps (1—6) in the text With the sentences below
(A—H). There are two extra sentences.
is easily enough to cover his computer science education so far at the
University of Georgia. He mowed people's lawns near his home in
Peachtree City, Georgia, to earn money to buy the parts for a computer he was
Apple was apparently so impressed with his jailbreaking skills that it
persuaded him to join the company instead. D Without those, it was impossible
to develop software for any of these devices.
His introduction into the world Of
jailbreaking was accidental.
However, many Other former hackers have
positions with software companies.
G That's something you can't do if you are an
unusual enough that he wrote about it on his blog.
stereotype Of the socially awkward loner
sitting in the dark in front of a computer screen to flourish. But the reality
is rather different - at least when it comes to jailbreaking. Jailbreakers do
not commit criminal acts like hacking into government computer
systems or writing malicious viruses.
Instead, they write code which removes the manufacturers' restrictions On
everyday devices like smartphones and games consoles. A 'jailbroken' device can
run unofficial software and be used in ways which the manufacturer did not
intend. Some of the big technology companies have taken legal action against
jailbreakers but with little success.
James Whelton, a smooth-talking
twenty-year-old from Cork, started messing around With computers at the age Of
nine, and began programming soon afterwards. It happened when he won a pink
iPod Nano. 'Basically I was on a plane and I was bored. so I just started
tinkering with it and found something interesting,' he explained.
He discovered a
vulnerability in the iPod's software that could possibly be exploited to
jailbreak the device. Within a few days he was contacted by another hacker
known as DarkHalIoc - in reality a sixteen year old from Wales called Joshua
Tucker. He introduced Whelton to Other hackers — big names in the hacking scene
like chronic and ih8snOw. Chronic - a teenager from the United States called
Will Strafach — is the founder of a jailbreaking team called Chronic Dev, while
ih8snOw, a sixteenyear-old called Steven from Canada, is the developer of
several well-known jailbreak-ing tools.
Instead Of taking up a
place at university earlier this month, Whelton decided to use the exposure
that his jailbreaking activities have earned him to help get investors for a
software company called Disruptive Developments that he founded in June. 'I did
my final exams on a Friday, and became a chief executive on the Monday.'
Aaron Ash is another
hacker-turned-entrepreneur. When Mr Ash was fourteen he got his hands on a
calculator which he
Answer the questions.
Why are jailbreakers less likely to end
up in prison than some Other types of hackers?
How did jailbreaking help James Whelton to Start a business?
Why did Aaron Ash start
writing apps for jailbroken
to do his homework. After teaching himself to
program it. he worked on
video games before getting an Apple
Why hasn't Aaron Ash earned millions Of dollars from his
iPhone and turning his
attention to that.
highly successful apps?
The young Mr Ash wanted to
write apps for his phone, but
Why is Aaron Ash thinking Of leaving full•time education?
it turned out that at
seventeen he was too young to sign up
6 In What way has the
jailbreaking scene •lost' many Of its
to Apple's Official iPhone development
program. That left him with no alternative but to become a hacker and write
apps for jailbroken phones. 'This was actually even cooler to my mind, it let