MILLATLARARO TOTUVLIK VA DINIY BAG'RIKENGLIK O'ZBEK XALQINING YUKSAK QADRIYATIDIR
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MILLATLARARO TOTUVLIK VA DINIY BAG'RIKENGLIK O'ZBEK XALQINING YUKSAK QADRIYATIDIR

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07.05.2022
MILLATLARARO TOTUVLIK VA DINIY BAG'RIKENGLIK O'ZBEK  XALQINING YUKSAK QADRIYATIDIR
Maqolada eng avvalo, millatlararo totuvlik va diniy bag'rikenglik o'zbek xalqining yuksak qadriyatligini koʻrsatilgan. Fuqarolarning jinsi, irqi, millati, tili, dini, ijtimoiy kelib chiqishi, e'tiqodi, shaxsiy va ijtimoiy mavqeidan qat'i nazar, teng huquq va erkinliklarini, ularning qonun oldida tengligini ta'minlash alohida e'tiborga olinganligi yoritib berilgan.
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Interdisciplinary Conference of Young Scholars in Social Sciences

Table of Content

No

Paper Title

Author Name

Page No

1

WHY DO WE NEED SMART PEOPLE?

Dilfuza Muratjanovna Abidova

1-3

2

THE PROBLEM OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN UZBEK SOCIETY

Naima Ziautdinovna Rasuleva

4-6

3

FORMS OF ORGANIZATION OF LESSONS INFORMATICS AND INFORMATICAL TECHNOLOGIES AT SCHOOLS

Dildora Sulaymanova

7-10

4

THYMUS MORPHOLOGY OF WHITE RATS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE TEMPERATURE FACTOR

Davronova Sh.R

11-12

5

CONTEMPORARY ART AND WORKS CREATED WITH MINIATURE COM

Salome Chelidze

13-15

6

СТРАХОВОЙ БИЗНЕС И ЕГО ВЫЗОВЫ В ГРУЗИИ

Маиа Аладашвили, Нанули Хизанишвили

16-19

7

INTERACTIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS IN SMALL GROUPS

Nilufar Abdurashidovna Abdurashidova

20-22

8

MODERN TEACHING METHODS IN TEACHING LANGUAGES

Shukurjon Farkhodovna Matyokubova

23-25

9

MODERN TEACHING METHODS AND WAYS TOWARDQUALITY IN EDU

Saodat Akmal-qizi Rahmonova

26-28

10

DEVELOPING THE MARKET OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES BY INCRE

M.O. Khudoyberdiev, Gafurov

Asilbek Gulom oglu Asilbek

Gulom o'g'li

29-34

11

FORMATION OF GENDER TOLERANCE AMONG PRESCHOOLERS

Guzal Kurbonova

35-37

12

Incessancy and Continuity Training Informatics and Information Tech

Zulaykho A. Marasulova

38-41

13

COGNITIVE APPROACH TO TEACHING TRANSLATION

Kasimova N. F.

42-44

14

COPPER CARVING IN THE HISTORY OF UZBEK FOLK ART

Ostonova Gulshod

Razzokovna, Gulomov

Shukhrat Shavkatovich

45-47

15

GENERAL AND NATIONAL-CULTURAL FEATURES OF MEDICAL PLANTS

Bobokalonov Odilshokh

Ostonovich

48-50

16

PECULIARITIES OF THE MECHANISM FOR MANAGING INVESTMENT A

Sayfulloev Oybek Olimovich

51-53

17

LEXICO-SEMANTICAL FEATURES OF MEDICAL PLANTS IN UZBEK AND

FBobokalonov Odilshokh Ostonovich

54-56

18

ГЕНДЕРНЫЕ ПРЕДРАСУДКИ И ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ

Мусаева Гузаль

57-59

19

THE USE OF THE PLURAL SUFFIX “MEN” (们) IN CHINESE AND THE PL

UIrgasheva Umida Asqarjon Qizi

60-61

20

РАЗВИТИE ДЕТЕЙ ДОШКОЛЬНОГО ВОЗРАСТА НАЗАНЯТИЯХИЗОБР

АМуллажонова Нигина Жамоловна

62-64

21

ТИЖОРАТ БАНКЛАРИНИНГ ИНВЕСТИЦИОН ФАОЛЛИГИНИ ОШИРИ

М. Ў. Худойбердиев, Ғофуров

Асилбек Ғулом

65-70

22

INVESTIGATION OF THE SORPTION PROPERTIES OF THERMAL POWER

Abdumalik Nabiyevich Rizayev,

Sardor Abdirasulovich Rejabov

71-73

23

СТРУКТУРА СИСТЕМЫ ДИСТАНЦИОННОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

Тураева Г. Ш.

74-78

24

THE ROAD FROM THE PAST TO THE FUTURE

Natela Tamoevi, Daduna

Gogilashvili

79-80

 

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Author Name

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25

FROM THE INHOSPITABLE SEA TO THE HOSPITABLE SEA

Natela Tamoevi, Tamar Goshadze

81-82

26

GENOA CONFERENCE AND AMBROSE KHELAIA

Head Madonna Kebadze, Irakli Sabanadze, Oto Sabanadze

83-90

27

SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR THE USE OF THE CREDIT-MODULAR SYSTEM IN

Kholbekov Ilhomjon Ganievich,

Jo`rayeva Shahlo Ilhomjon qizi

91-93

28

LEADERS OF POST-SOVIET GEORGIAN NATIONALISM: THE NATIONAL

 Keti Elizbarashvili, Madona Kebadze

94-97

29

CAPTIVE TRADE IN GEORGIA

Landa Chokhelishvili, Iakob Gogebashvili

98-100

30

ТHEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF INVESTIGATING THE CONCEPT OF “S

Lapasov Nizomiddin

Shakarboyevich

101-104

31

КИМЁ САНОАТИНИ РИВОЖЛАНТИРИШДА ИНВЕСТИЦИОН ИМКОН

Razikov Otabek Rustamovich

105-108

32

Genoa Conference and Ambrose Khelaia

Irakli Sabanadze, Oto Sabanadze

109-116

33

Leaders of Post-Soviet Georgian Nationalism: The National Movemen

Keti Elizbarashvili, Madona

Kebadze

117-120

34

Captive Trade in Georgia

Landa Chokhelishvili, Madona Kebadze

121-123

35

Definitions and Different Aspects of Public Private Partnership

Karimov Akramjon Ikromjon

ugli , Turayev Anvar Shokirovich

124-126

36

Разработка Технологического Процесса Для Производства Листа

Muxamedaminov Aziz Odiljon o’g’li , Daminova Guzal Dilshodjon qiz

127-131

37

The "Mass of People" in the Postmodern Perspective According to Jo

Eka Chaghalidze

132-134

38

РОЛЬ РИТМИЧЕСКОЙ ГИМНАСТИКИ В ДОШКОЛЬНОМ ОБРОЗОВА

ТЛатипова Нигора Исаковна,

Журабоева Мадина

Дилшодовна

135-140

39

Increasing the Role and Role of Export Services Infrastructure in Expo

Musayeva Shoira Azimovna

141-142

40

Athletics in the System of Physical Education of Student Youth

Kozlova Galina Gennadevna

143-145

41

The Concept of Justice in the Teachings of Nosiriddin Tusi and its Phil

Kushshaeva Nafisa

Mansurovna

146-148

42

Wellness Swimming as a Part of the Physical Education of Students

Ruziyeva Mahliyo Kayumovna

149-152

43

Optimization of Condition for Increasing the Quality of Papaya Seeds

 Adilov Hikmatilla

Abudkhalilovich, Ochildiev

Utkir Ollanazarovich

153-155

44

Юридическая Терминология - Письменный Носитель Юридическ

Ахмедова Хулкар

Олимжоновна

156-157

45

АЙДАРКЎЛ-АРНАСОЙ-ТУЗКОН КЎЛЛАР ТИЗИМИ БАЛИҚЛАРИНИ К

ОС. Яхшиликов, Э. Надиров, С.

Музаффаров, У. Пардабоев,

Ахмедов Али Усмонович

158-160

 

Interdisciplinary Conference of Young Scholars in Social Sciences

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No

Paper Title

Author Name

Page No

46

ГРЕК ЁНҒОҒИ (JUGLANS REGIA) МЕВАСИ АСОСИДА КОНЦЕНТРАТЛА

Холмурзаева Раъно

Муҳаммаджон қизи,

Донабеков Умид Тўйчи ўғли,

Ахмедов Али Усмонович

161-163

47

FIZIK JARAYONLARNI MODELL ASHTIRISHGA OID USLUBLAR

Aliyeva Maxsuda

164-167

48

THE ROLE OF PROSTHETICS IN THE TREATMENT OF DISEASES OF THE

 Bobodo’stov U. K., Saidov A. A.

168-170

49

САНОАТ КОРХОНАЛАРИ ВА НЕФТ КИМЁ САНОАТИ ҚУРИЛМАЛАРИ

Фарходов Суннатжон Умар ўғли, Долиев Шохаббос Қулмурот ўғли

171-172

50

ЭЛЕКТР ЭНЕРГИЯ КОМПАНИЯСИ БОШҚАРУВ ЖАРАЁНЛАРИГА АХБ

ОН.С. Тўйчибоев

173-175

51

WAYS TO IMPROVE THE FINANCIAL RESULTS OF ENTERPRISES

Nizomiddinov Jahonmirzo

Zukhriddin oglu, Burkhanov

Aktam Usmanovich

176-178

52

МИНЕРАЛО-БАЗАЛЬТОВАЯ ВОЛОКНА ВЗАМЕН КОНЦЕРОГЕННОЙ

АТурдибоев Илхомжон

Хаётжон угли, Ахмаджонов

Лазизбек Хасанбой угли

179-183

53

THE SIGNIFICANCE AND PROSPECTS OF JAPANESE ADVERTISING IN T

HOblokulova Ugiloy Abduraimovna

184-186

54

ORIGIN AND TYPES OF BORROWING WORDS FROM FRENCH TO ENGL

Safarova Khurshida Salimovna,

Mirzoyeva Munisa

187-190

55

“YANGI O`ZBEKISTON STRATEGIYASI”

Do‘Sjonova Nilufar Rustam

Qizi, Baxtiyorova Munira

Mansur Qizi

191-193

56

МЕТОДЫ АНАЛИЗА ХИМИЧЕСКОЙ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ ПИЩЕВЫХ ПР

ОСадикова Машхура Идиллоевна, Эшмирзаева

Малика

194-198

57

БЎЛАЖАК КАСБИЙ ТАЪЛИМ ЎҚИТУВЧИЛАРНИНГ АКМЕОЛОГИК К

ОА. Даукеева

199-200

58

YANGI OʻZBEKISTON MA’RIFATLI JAMIYATINI YARATISHDA YOSHLARNI

NAlisherov Shoxruxbek Mirzohidjon og'li

201-204

59

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF AMARANTH OIL IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

Dilshodjon Shodiev, Qurbonov Hojiali

205-208

60

SH. VOKHIDOV'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE HISTORY OF

Khatamova Zumradkhon

Nazirjonovna, Qurbonov Hojiali

209-211

61

OLIY TA'LIMDA TALABALARNING SHAXSIY MOTIVATSIYASINI OSHIRIS

HOltmisheva Nasibaxon G'ulomjonovna

212-216

62

БИОЛОГИЯ ФАНИ РИВОЖИГА ШАРҚ АЛЛОМАЛАРИНИНГ ҚЎШГАН

Турсунова Оқила

Жумабоевна

217-220

63

АНЕСТЕЗИОЛОГИЧЕСКОЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ ПАЦИЕНТА С ТЯЖЕЛОЙ Ш

Садикова М. А

221-226

64

MILLATLARARO TOTUVLIK VA DINIY BAG'RIKENGLIK O'ZBEK XALQINI

NOltmisheva Nasibaxon

G'ulomjonovna, Toshmatov

Ulugʻbek Qodirjon oʻgʻli

227-231

 

Interdisciplinary Conference of Young Scholars in Social Sciences

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Author Name

Page No

65

ЁШЛАРДА ТАБИАТГА ЭКОЛОГИК МУНОСАБАТЛАРНИНГ МАЪНАВИ

Алимова Шоҳиста

Муҳаммадовна

232-235

66

TECHNIQUES TO OPTIMIZE THE SALE OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Sharipov Ixtiyor Baxtiyorovich

236-238

67

GROWTH IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

Kodirov M. D.

239-240

68

ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЕ РИСКИ В МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЙ ИНВЕСТИЦИОННОЙ

Хошимов С. М.

241-242

69

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF GINSENG

Toyirkhon Saidxonov, Bobur Raxmatov

243-244

70

TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION OF SOFT CHEESES AND REQUIREMEN

Ilkhom Begimkulov, Elnara

Devletshayeva, Mirzabek

Nizomov, Islom Xujaniyozov,

Fakhriddin Khatamov, Nurali

Ergashev

245-248

71

LIMON O’SIMLIGINI MIKROKLONAL KO’PAYTIRISHDA O'SISHNI BOSH

QAkad. M. Mirzaev, Ibadulla o’g’li

249-252

72

AESTHETIC CULTURE OF THE EDUCATOR

Ashurova Oygul Anvarjonovna,

Yusupjonova Muslima

Bahtiyorjon qizi

253-255

73

DEVELOPING A PROFESSIONAL OUTLOOK FOR FUTURE TEACHERS AS

 Djumaeva Sanobar

Absaatovna, Umarova Gulzoda

Bahodirkizi

256-259

74

QISHLOQ XO’JALIGIDA RAQAMLI IQTISODIYOT

Salimov Esanjon Xusen Og’li,

Behruz Usmonov

260-261

75

ИЗУЧИТЬ КЛИНИЧЕСКИЕ АСПЕКТЫ ВИТИЛИГО В БУХАРСКОЙ ОБЛА

Шукуров И. Б., Яхшиева М. Ф., Бахшиллоева Р. Э.

262-263

76

DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY CONDITIONS IN EPILEPSY

Khudoynazarov Khaydarqul Sohibnazar ugli

264-266

77

ELECTROTHERAPY AND VACUUM EXPOSURE IN COMPLEX REHABILIT

AOxunjanova Madina Zafarovna

267-269

78

MILLATLARARO TOTUVLIK VA DINIY BAG’RIKENGLIK O’ZBEK XALQINI

NJumaboyeva Nilufar Soyibjon qizi, Nurmamatov Farhod Mamaniyozovich

270-271

79

ЁНУВЧИ СЛАНЕЦЛАР УЛАРНИ ҚАЙТА ИШЛАШ ДЕҲҚОНОБОД ЁНУВ

Б. Ш. Сирожов, М. С.

Самадов, Ж. Ҳ. Ҳамраев, Ш.

Қ. Долиев

272-274

80

BUGUNGI KUNDA O`RASH QADOQLASH MAHSULOTLARINING JAHON

D. R. Safayeva, J. O.

Xudaybergenov

275-278

81

SOCIOLOGICAL METHOD AND ITS FEATURES

Safoyeva Sadoqat Nasilloyevna

279-280

82

THE EMERGENCE OF THE UNIVERSE

Adilova Xalida Shamshetdin qızı

281-283

83

REAKTIV ARTRIT

Jovlieva Mavluda Baxtiyorovna

284-286

84

ВЛИЯНИЕ ВОЗРАСТНЫХ ОСОБЕННОСТЕЙ ОРГАНИЗМА НА ОБМЕН

ВАтамухамедова Масъуда, Саидова Азиза

287-292

85

METHODS OF CLEANING MICELLES IN THE PRODUCTION OF VEGETA

BBarnokhon Sattarova, Alimov Xurshid

293-296

 

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Author Name

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86

ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ПРОЦЕССА РАЗЛОЖЕНИЯ НИЗКОСОРТНЫХ ФОСФ

Усманов Ботиржон

Сотиволдиевич

297-300

87

ПРИЧИНЫ АКУШЕРСКИХ КРОВОТЕЧЕНИЙ И ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТЬ ИХ

ЛБабаджанова Г. С.,

Уринбаева Н. А., Махкамова Ш. Х.

301

88

INCREASING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAM, DIRECTED AT IN

Ergashev Ilhomjon Ikromovich

302-307

89

THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF VOLUNTARINESS

Ibratova Feruza Babakulovna

308-315

90

THE CONCEPT AND ROLE OF MEDIATION IN UZBEKISTAN IN THE FIEL

DKhudaiberganova Fazilat Yakubovna

316-321

91

GRAMMATIK KATEGORIYA TUSHUNCHASI

Tilavov Shaxobiddin Abduraximovich

322-325

92

ОЛИЙ ТАЪЛИМ МУАССАСАЛАРИДА УСТОЗ-ШОГИРД МУНОСАБАТ

ЛМ. Т. Ахмедова, З. У. Мусратова

326-329

93

SCIENTIFIC FOUNDATION OF PRODUCING TECHNOLOGY OF NON-ALC

Farizakhon Alieva

330-333

94

THE ROLE OF THE STEVIA PLANT IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

Najmitdinova Guljakhon

334-338

95

ПСИХОСОМАТИК КАСАЛЛИК БИЛАН КАСАЛЛАНГАН БЕМОРЛАРНИ

Ю. К. Нарметова, М. Ш.

Ахмадова

339-342

96

УЧИТЕЛЬ МАТЕМАТИКИ – ТВОРЧЕСКАЯ ЛИЧНОСТЬ

Низамова Н. Н.

343-345

97

SHARQ UYG‘ONISH DAVRI MUTAFAKKIRLARINING PEDAGOGIK TA’LIM

Turdiqulova Nilufar To‘lqin qizi

346-350

98

ILLATLAR - JAMIYAT XAVFSIZLIGIGA TAHDID

Karimova Saida

351-352

99

STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS AND EXACERBATIONS IN CHILDREN WI

Mukhtorjonova Khusnigul

Nodirbekovna, Tukhtabayeva

Kamila Abrorovna

353-354

100

THE IMPORTANCE OF USING MULTIMEDIA IN PRIMARY CLASSES

Babayeva Barno Kholmuratovna

355-357

101

DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE INSTRUCTIONS IN TEACHING GRAMMAR

Bakiyeva Saodat Sharofovna

358-360

102

LEGAL FOUNDATIONS OF RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE

Kamilov Davron Zafarovich

361-362

103

DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

Olimdjon Elov Komilovich,

Nodirabonu Kurbanova

Fazliddin qizi

363-366

104

QIMMATLI QOG‘OZLAR BOZORINI TARTIBGA SOLISH OMILLARI

Sharopov Ilhom Ismoilovich

367-370

105

WAYS OF FORMATION OF CREATIVITY IN STUDENTS IN THE TEACHIN

GUmarova Nargiza Xudaynazarovna

371-374


 

Abstract

Already, in developed countries, they are discussing the emergence of a new era, respectively - new people for living in a new society - in a smart society. Of course, there are questions about these people - smart citizens who govern and live in a smart world.

Keywords: smart citizens, smart-skills, smart-education, smart-teaching methods.

 

Introduction

The Human Development Index is considered the most important aspect. The next most important parameter is the enrollment rate. The third most important attribute is skill level. Smart people must have a passion for lifelong learning and there must be social and ethnic diversity. Openness is another quality of smart people, as is flexibility to adapt to changes in the environment, and creativity to foster education. Smart people have a democratic character and participate in public life [10].

Learnability, creativity, flexibility, community participation and good decision making are some of the important qualities that make people smart (Giffinger et al., 2007) and increase their productivity [1, 2, 3, 4, 6].


The parameter of extraversion reflects the level of comfort of people in relationships and social life. Extroverts tend to be outgoing and assertive, enjoy the company of others, live happier lives, experience more positive emotions, do all kinds of work better, are willing to change, and actively participate in decision-making processes. People in a smart city need to be extroverts, not introverts, who are usually reserved, timid, and quiet [5, 8, 9].

The pleasantness dimension refers to very pleasant people who are cooperative, friendly, happy, romantic, part of an organizational team, and more satisfied with their work. This personality trait is required for interpersonal-oriented work, such as working with clients. Superior organizational skills improve the performance of an employee, artist, student, business owner, or celebrity [7]. People with this attribute can help improve the living environment of a smart city by involving residents in various city events [11].

And for this it is necessary to organize appropriate education, namely, smart education. Also, all types of smart technologies should be used in smart education, including smart teaching methods [9, 10, 7].

Smart education offers a paradigm shift in the way students access education. This is not just a change in the provision of education, it is much more. With radical changes in technology, it can be difficult for today's teachers to understand what the future will be like 20 years from now [11].

Intelligent Education solves this conundrum with the latest technology to help both students and teachers prepare for tomorrow [12].

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Smart education can be delivered in a virtual or physical environment [13, 14]. It could also be a mixed version of them. Smart education can also be characterized as the use of smart devices to improve the learning outcomes of traditional education.

By using advanced teaching methods such as virtual online classrooms, virtual learning environments, cloud servers, smartphones, and more, the Teacher can help students get more out of their learning.

Smart Learning aims to provide a holistic learning experience for students using modern technology to fully prepare them for a rapidly changing world in which adaptability is critical.

He hones their skills for a digital future with new ways of living and working [15]. Teachers also need to adapt to modern skills such as analysis and assessment techniques and learn to apply them in their traditional classrooms using information technology.

 

 

References:

 

1.      Angelidou, M. 2015. Smart cities: A conjuncture of four forces. Cities, 47: 95–106. 

2.      Castells, M. 1996. The Rise of the Network Society. Vol. 1 of the Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell. 

3.      Cattell, R. B. 1957. Personality and Motivation Structure and Measurement . Yonkers, NY: World Book Company. 

4.      Costa, P. T., McCrae, R. R., and Dye, D. A. 1991. Facet scales for agreeableness and conscientious-ness: A revision of the NEO Personality Inventory. Personality and individual Differences , 12, 9: 887 –898.

5.      Rustamova NR. (2021). Issues of Development of Students' Media Competence Based on Vitagenic (Life) Experience. Journal of Physical Education and Sport ® (JPES),Vol 21 Issue 6, pp 2599-2616.

6.      Rustamova NR. (2021). Vitagenic education and the holographic approach in the educational process. Таълим ва инновацион тадқиқотлар (2021 йил №1), 23-29.

7.      Rustamova, N. R. (2019). Technology for the development of media culture of secondary school pupils (on the example of grades 7-9). Dissertation of the doctor of philosophy (PhD) in pedagogical sciences.

8.      Rustamova, N. R. (2019). Technology for the development of media culture of secondary school pupils (on the example of grades 7-9). Author’s abstract of PhD dissertation.

9.      Ruzieva D. I., Rustamova N.R., (2021). Analysis of theoretical studies of the concepts of vitagen and vitagenic education. Таълим ва инновацион тадқиқотлар (2021 йил №4), 42-46.

10.  Shristi Gupta, Syed Ziaul Mustafa, and Harish Kumar, (2017). 3: Smart People for Smart Cities: A Behavioral Framework for Personality and Roles: Smarter People, Governance, and Solutions. In book: Advances In Smart Cities. DOI: 10.1201/9781315156040-4

11.  Zhu, ZT., Yu, MH. & Riezebos, P. A research framework of smart education. Smart Learn. Environ. 3, 4 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-016-0026-2.  

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12.  Bekturova Z.K., Vagapova N.N., Branch of JSC "NTSPK" Orleu "IPK PR for Astana, Astana 3 (2015)

13.  Dmitrievskaya N.A. Smart education. Access mode: http: //www.myshared. ru / slide / 72152 /

14.  Dneprovskaya, N.V., E.A. Yankovskaya, I. V. Shevtsov. Conceptual foundations of the concept of smart education. Open Education, 6 (2015)

15.  Tikhomirov V.P., Dneprovskaya N.V. Smart education as the main paradigm for the development of the information society.

 

 

Pedagogy, Tashkent State Dental Institute, 

Uzbekistan, email: [email protected] 

 

 

Abstract

The problem of domestic violence is a "closed" topic for the Uzbek society. Many see this problem as an “everyday problem” and believe that no one should interfere in family affairs. Recently, we have been witnessing various high-profile cases of domestic violence covered in social networks and the media. In response, the government created a special working group to prevent domestic violence and provide practical assistance to victims of domestic violence. Keywords: domestic violence, victim, family affairs, Uzbek society.

 

Introduction


2019 marked the 30th anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child worldwide. The Convention is the most widely ratified international human rights treaty that has significantly changed attitudes and attitudes towards children around the world. According to the Convention, children are considered not only as objects of passive care, but also as persons with special rights. Since 1994, as a party to the Convention, Uzbekistan has undertaken to ensure the rights of all children, including the right to survival, education, dignity and protection from all forms of violence and discrimination. 

Main Part

The Uzbek government has launched comprehensive socio-economic reforms and plans to take comprehensive measures to advance children's rights. There is growing recognition that all such efforts must be based on a comprehensive review and analysis of the situation of children and women in the country. In this regard, a comprehensive analysis of the situation of children in Uzbekistan was carried out in order to identify the most important priorities, as well as new challenges in the further advancement of children's rights in Uzbekistan. It is known that domestic violence is divided into several types: physical, psychological, sexual and economic [1].

Protecting children from violence, exploitation, abuse and discrimination is becoming one of the most important and significant challenges around the world as there is a growing awareness of the serious social and economic harm caused by violence against children. The components of the child protection system in Uzbekistan are at the institutional level, and child protection is governed by a comprehensive regulatory framework. National priorities for reforming the family and child protection system, as well as the judicial system are set out in the National Development Strategy

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for 2017-2021 and are part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) within the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development noted 16.2. stop all forms of violence against children [2].

Physical abuse includes severe trauma ranging from clapping hands, psychological abuse includes constant pathological fear in the family, humiliation of a spouse, complete control over another person, complete restraint from social life, and much more. Sexual violence involves forcing a person to have sexual intercourse against their will. The economic type of violence includes the fact that the spouse is not allowed to use family funds, he does not allocate funds for any of his needs, does not have equal rights to the house in which he or she lives, and so on [3, 4, 5, 6].

There is also a category of victims by types of violence: minors, women, elderly people.

It occurs in different parts of Uzbekistan as well as in other parts of the world, but their prevalence remains unknown. An assessment of the situation of children in closed educational institutions revealed the prevalence of domestic violence: a difficult family environment and lack of care, poor relationships between family members and lack of financial resources are factors that shape family life experiences in girls with special “antisocial attitudes behavior” [7].

In Uzbekistan, as in other countries, children face the justice system as victims or witnesses of crime. In 2018, the Prosecutor General's Office reported a decrease in the number of cases involving children - from 1101 cases in 2014 to 772 in 2018. Children who are victims or witnesses of crime are more likely to experience psychological pressure, as participation in criminal proceedings can be stressful and lead to psychological oppression and re-victimization. Thus, the successful investigation of a crime against a child often depends on how well the conduct of the criminal case meets the needs of the child. Legislation and practice in Uzbekistan provide for special protection of the rights and interests of children in civil, criminal and administrative proceedings. In 2014, a study of court cases in four regions of Uzbekistan identified 111 cases involving child victims of crime. In most cases, convictions were issued: in 88.3% of cases brought to court, the accused were found guilty. The majority of child victims of crime (67%) were girls aged 13-16 [2].

Parents' inability to communicate positively with their children, their ignorance of how to deal with hypersensitivity and difficult behavior in children, and changes in their behavior during adolescence also increase the risk of child abuse and violence and lead to the complete destruction of family relationships. Possible reasons. family conflicts. In addition, alcohol and drug abuse also increases the risk of direct harm to children [9, 10].

Although the problem of domestic and gender-based violence is not widely discussed in society, similar incidents occur in Uzbekistan. In the first half of 2019, 8,822 women applied for help to the Centers for Rehabilitation and Adaptation of Victims of Violence and Prevention of Suicide. Most of these appeals were registered in the Namangan region (24%), followed by Surkhandarya (19%) and Kashkadarya (11%), Andijan, Tashkent and Fergana regions (out of 8%), as well as Khorezm, Samarkand and Tashkent regions. (4%). Republic of Karakalpakstan, Bukhara, Jizzakh and Navoi regions (2%).

The political, legal and institutional framework needs to be strengthened, despite recent reforms in child protection legislation and the legal framework for child protection significantly expanded. The concept of “the best interests of the child”, the type of violence, the legal basis for

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the provision of services to children who are victims of violence should be additionally defined in the legislation. In addition, the complexity of child protection cases requires a multisectoral approach based on sufficient capacity and the need to ensure coherence between sectors such as social services, law enforcement, justice, health and education [2, 8].

Various child protection organizations in Uzbekistan often perform overlapping functions, which requires greater coherence and integration between them, and the child protection system is fragmented. The capacity to plan, monitor and regularly evaluate child protection programs and results should be further strengthened at the national level in the relevant ministries.

 

References:

1.      Alieva K. Domestic violence “digested” by society,  https://www.uzanalytics.com/jamiyat/9588/.

2.      ANALYSIS OF CHILDREN'S SITUATION IN UZBEKISTAN. United Nations Children's Fund, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 2020.

3.      How      to         help     families           where domestic         violence          occurs. https://deti.timchenkofoundation.org/2020/09/28/kak-pomoch-semjam-gde-proishoditdomashnee-nasilie/.

4.      Karimova V. Psychology of family life: a guide. T., 2006.

5.      Khojageldieva, N.M., & Rasuleva, N.Z. (2014). Scientific background for the study of psychology and pedagogy. The edition is included into Russian Science Citation Index., 148.

6.      Mamirova M, "We consider domestic violence as a family issue" - Interview with an independent   researcher       at         Tashkent         State    University. https://kun.uz/35378543?q=%2Fuz%2F35378543

7.      Rasuleva Naima Ziautdinovna Social and ethnopsychological characteristics of the motivation for remarriage // International scientific review. 2019. №LXIII. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/social-and-ethnopsychological-characteristics-of-themotivation-for-remarriage.

8.      Rasuleva, N. Z. (2019). SOCIAL AND ETHNO-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MOTIVATION FOR REMARRIAGE. Theoretical &

Applied Science, (10), 214-217.

9.      Rasuleva, N.Z.б Worldview of the child and its further development / NZ Rasuleva // Economy and society. - 2018. - No. 4 (47). - S. 542-545.

10.  Ziautdinovna, R. N. ETHNOPSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF RE-MARRIAGE MOTIVATION. EJRRES.

 

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FORMS OF ORGANIZATION OF LESSONS INFORMATICS AND INFORMATICAL TECHNOLOGIES AT SCHOOLS

                         

Dildora Sulaymanova

Almalyk branch of Tashkent State Technical University named after

 Islam Karimov, senior lecturer of the Department of 

Mathematics and Natural Sciences email: [email protected]

 

 

Abstract

The developed countries of the world are already focusing on smart trends and are achieving significant results in research on the creation of smart cities, ecosystems, and smart citizens. But it is absolutely impossible to talk about the transition to smart education without the formation of ICT literacy, media literacy and information culture, media culture. Thу article analyzes exactly this problem.

Keywords: IT, competence, media technologies, blended learning, teaching forms.

 

Introduction

A USA Department of Education report states that “passive content consumption is a digital divide between learners who use active creative methods to support technology reading, and who use technology primarily to encourage reading. Despite its day-to-day use, there are shortcomings in the adoption of technology in schools: 40% of teachers lag behind in the adoption and implementation of technology in their schools [19].

 

The question arises: why, during the transition from an informed society to an intelligent society, are we working on organizing lessons based on the use of media technologies, and not on the need for "smart technologies"? The reason for this is very simple: any intelligent technology is based on ICT - media technologies. Of course, the developed countries of the world are already focused on smart trends and are achieving significant results in research on creating smart cities, ecosystems, smart citizens [5]. However, it is absolutely impossible to talk about the transition to smart education without the formation of ICT literacy, media literacy and information culture, media culture. Because in this context, the objects of our research are students who have just entered the middle grades of general secondary school, who, in turn, began to indiscriminately use media technologies in everyday life, but almost do not know the basics of their lives. use. Therefore, the topic of our research was the improvement of the methodological system of teaching the subject "Informatics and Information Technologies" on the basis of media technologies (for example, grade 5).

We all know that classes organized in general education secondary schools are divided into several types according to their form. 

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I. Lesson in acquiring new knowledge. This type of lesson was aimed at developing theoretical and practical knowledge in the basics of media, media education and media culture, media technologies, ICT, informatics and information technologies among student respondents included in the experimental group. Typically, this type of lesson is organized in the form of minilectures, conversations, presentations, webinars, online mini-lectures, webinars, mini-conferences. Since the experimental process was carried out mainly in a pandemic, the sessions were organized in the form of mini-lectures, webinars and online mini-lectures [6].

II.                      Lessons on the consolidation of knowledge and the formation of knowledge, skills, abilities. This type of lesson is organized with the aim of developing students' ability to apply the acquired knowledge in practice after theoretical knowledge on a specific topic. These classes usually take the form of discussion, training, laboratory work, project, report preparation, case study, assessment, gamification. In the process of experimental work with the participation of respondents-students of the experimental group, on the basis of discussion, training, assessment, classes were organized aimed at developing the foundations of media education and the skills of their use in practice [1, 2, 3, 4].

III.                   The lesson of generalization and systematization of knowledge serves to analyze the information received by students, to make the necessary decisions about their theoretical and practical significance on the basis of systematization, in order to draw certain conclusions. The most popular methods of this type of lesson are blitz questionnaires, clusters, group and group cases, problem learning. During the experimental work, blitz-questionnaires and case studies were purposefully used.

IV.                   The lesson in testing knowledge, skills, skills and knowledge correction is focused on the basics of computer science and information technology, knowledge of the components of digital education, the ability to apply them in practice, control of skills and correction of knowledge. Case study, written work, essay, test, quiz, hybrid exams are the most popular forms of this type of course. The use of cases in the educational process contributes to the integration of theoretical knowledge into practice, as well as the formation of basic competencies required in the SES, that is, the skills of searching, analyzing and evaluating information, effectively develops information literacy - media literacy and media culture [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13].

V.                     The purpose of the combined lesson is to provide students with both theoretical information and practical skills based on their consolidation, the formation of skills, as well as generalization, systematization, consolidation of knowledge, skills, control of knowledge, skills, skills, knowledge correction. The main forms of this type of study are round tables, talks, excursions, conferences, "master classes" [15, 16, 18, 14].

Of course, the form of the lesson alone cannot guarantee complete success. For effective teaching, the following lesson conditions are necessary [2, 3, 4]: 

      a class with a moderate temperature;

      the Internet;

      the Zoom or Big Blue Button platform;

      the Telegram messenger; 

      tutorials: whiteboard, markers, pointer for Smart Board or Simpodium; 

      equipment: computer, Internet, interactive whiteboard or projector; 

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      handouts such as "Why?" diagrams, handouts for Venn diagram and cluster, and case studies printed on paper and in envelopes for the case study method (assignments for students participating remotely and online are provided in electronic form).

 

References:

1.      Makhmudova Dilfuza Melievna, Rustamova Nodira Rustamovna, Akbarova Nigora Alimdjanovna, Reymbaeva Sanabar Rejepbaevna, (2019). Formation of Creative Competence of Future Teachers in The Process of Teaching Mathematics based on Special Tasks, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 9(2): 487-493.

2.      Makhmudova, D. M. (2014). On the role of problem tasks in the development of independent analytical and creative thinking of students. American Journal of Scientific and Educational Research, (1), 4.

3.      Makhmudova, D. M. (2018). Electronic educational resources as a new component of a traditional educational process. Indonesian Journal of Education Methods Development, 1.

4.      Melievna, M. D. (2020). Issues of optimal management in the development of creative competence in students. ACADEMICIA: An International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 10(6), 619-624.

5.      Melievna, M. D. (2020). Using Information Technology Tools In Mathematics Lessons For Teaching Future Teachers. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research (IJSTR) IJSTR, 9(3), 4168-4171.

6.      Mukhamedov, G. I., & Makhmudova, D. M. (2020). On the Application of InformationCommunication Technologies in the Development of Independent Creative Thinking of Youth. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, ISSN, 1475-7192.

7.      Rustamova NR. (2021). Issues of Development of Students' Media Competence Based on

Vitagenic (Life) Experience. Journal of Physical Education and Sport ® (JPES),Vol 21 Issue 6, pp 2599-2616.

8.      Rustamova NR. (2021). Vitagenic education and the holographic approach in the educational process. Таълим ва инновацион тадқиқотлар (2021 йил №1), 23-29.

9.      Ruzieva D. I., Rustamova N.R., (2021). Analysis of theoretical studies of the concepts of vitagen and vitagenic education. Таълим ва инновацион тадқиқотлар (2021 йил №4), 4246.

10.  Sulaymanova D.B.Experience in the application of mediatechnologies in teaching informatics in 5thgrade of schools” //Middle European Scientific Bulletin, ISSN 2694-

                             997080,                   volume                  12                   May                   2021,                    80-83.

https://cejsr.academicjournal.io/index.php/journal/article/view/517/464https://doi.org/10.474 94/mesb.2021.12  

11.  Sulaymanova D.B. “Use of media technologies in the teaching of computer science”// Electronic journal of actual problems of modern science, education and training. May, 2021-

IX. ISSN 2181-9750, UDC: 37.013.46.,64-68. http://khorezmscience.uz

12.  Sulaymanova D.B. Using of media technologies in teaching informatics in practice //

Таълим ва инновацион тадқиқотлар, 2021 iyul. №3, ISSN 2181-1717 (E), 191-197. DOI:

10.53885/edinres.2021.89.59.025.  http://interscience.uz

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13.  Sulaymanova D.B. Formation of skills of using mediatechnologies in pupils// Таълим ва инновацион тадқиқотлар. 2021 avgust.№4, ISSN 2181-1717 (E), 61-65. DOI:

https://doi.org/ 10.53885/edinres.2021.52.25.009. http://interscience.uz

14.  Rustamova, N. R. Technology for the development of media culture of students of general secondary education (on the example of grades 7-9) (Doctoral dissertation, dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in pedagogical sciences. -Tashkent, 2019.-42 p).

15.  Rustamova, N.R., Media culture as a developing factor of rational thinking of secondary school students, European Journal of Science and Research Reflection in Educational Sciences, 3 (2019). 

16.  Akramova, L. Yu. (2015). How to teach the NET generation. Harmoniously developed generation is a condition for stable development of the Republic of Uzbekistan, UzSPRI named after Kary-Niyazi, Collection of articles. scientific and methodological articles, (3), 38-42.

17.  Nurmukhamedova, D., Akramova, L., Buriev, I., Abdullaev, A., Khonimkulova, F., (2021). SMART- Tehnologies in the process of Teaching the Russian Language. Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences, 48(8):  https://johuns.net/index.php/abstract/70.html.

18.  Akramova, L., Akhmedova, K. O., & Khashimova, F. (2020). The Problems of Distance Education in The Conditions of The Pandemic. PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 17(7), 8577-8583.

19.  Sean      Arnold.           8          Tools   for       Visual Learners          (and     Others Too). https://braveintheattempt.com/2018/02/07/8-tools-for-visual-learners-and-others-too/.

 

 

 

Abstract

This paper makes analyses of thymus morphology of white rats under the influence of the temperature factor. On this case, both theoretical and methodological points. In this case, final research proposals are provided to make further research points as the whole. Keywords

thymus morphology, white rats, the influence, temperature factor

Introduction

              Иммунный ответ организма на экзо-эндогенное воздействия сложный   многоэтапный процесс, который контролируется разнообразными реакциями, развивающимися на различных уровнях организма. ( Д.К. Новиков 2002)


      Исследования показали, что структурно-функциональные перестройки    тимуса при действии сухого жаркого климата Бухарского региона имеют определенную динамику, которую можно разделить на три периода: 

1)  ранний период (3-24 ч опытов)

2)  период выраженных иммуноморфологических перестроек ( 7-14 сутки )

3)  период отдаленных результатов (21- сутки )

           Полученные данные о структурно - функциональных особенностях реакции тимуса дополняют и углубляют имеющиеся представления о гистофизиологии тимуса. Данные о клеточных механизмах адаптивных изменений тимуса позволяют уточнить ряд вопросов патогенеза нарушенного иммунного гомеостаза при действии сухого жаркого могут быть использованы при разработке патогенетических методов профилактики и лечения.

Одним из характерных признаков раннего периода экспериментов являются  расстройства микроциркуляторного  русла тимуса. Нередко обнаруживаются деструктивные  изменения  клеток тимуса  в виде набухания и лизиса компонентов субклеточных органелл, разширения перинуклеарных пространств и т.д.

Наиболее выраженные  структурно - функциональные перестройки компонентов тимуса наблюдаются во 2-м периоде (7-сутки опытов). Одним из особенностей данного периода

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является повышение числа и функциональной активности макрофагов и ретикулоэпителиальных клеток (РЭК) кортикальной зоны. Макрофаги содержат многочисленные первичные лизосомы и гетерофагосомы, контактируют с многочисленними тимоцитами различной стадии дифференцировки. РЭК имеют многочисленные инвагинации ядерной оболочки, цитоплазма их содержит многочисленные везикулы с мелкодисперсным матриксом. Они зачастую контактируют с макрофагами и тимоцитами кортикальной зоны.     В периоде отдаленных результатов (21-сутки опытов) хотя площадь медуллярной зоны несколько выше показателей контрольных (интактных) крыс, однако плотность лимфоцитов низкая.

          Наиболее частым местом поражения тимуса при физических воздействиях является кортикальная зона тимических долек (Григоренко Д. Е. 1997;  Обухова Л. А. 1998.) При этом отмечается уменьщение числа малодифференцированных клеток (бласты, большие лимфоциты) и фигур митоза, что  свидетельствует о снижении Т-лимфоцитопоэза. Кроме того, наблюдается  деструкция  клеток субкапсулярной  зоны (Васендин Д. В. 2009)      Следовательно, морфологические изменения тимуса при действии сухого жаркого климата характеризуются   определенной периодичностью и носят адаптивный характер.

 

Литература:

  

1.      Д.К. Новиков. Медицинская иммунология / Д.К. Новиков // Учебное пособие.

Витебск. 2002.55-58 с.

2.      Григоренко Д. Е. Цитологический профиль тимуса и селезенки   мышей после  гамма-облучения. / Д. Е. Григоренко,  Ерофеева Л. М., Сапин М.Р. //  Морфология.

1997. Т. 112. № 6. С. 53–57.

3.      Л.А.Обухова. Структурные преобразования в системе лимфоидных органов при действии на организм экстремально низких температур и в условиях коррекции адаптивной   реакции          полифенольными     соединениями           растительного происхождения: Автореферат. Дис. … д-ра мед. наук. Новосибирск, 1998. 316 с.

4.      В. Васендин .  Структурные изменения в тимусе после  воздействия высокой температуры (экспериментальное исследование): / Васендин Д. В // Дис. … канд. мед. наук. Новосибирск, 2009. 171 с.

 

 


 


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              Annotation

Большая часть современного искусства настолько модернизирована, что во многих случаях даже удивляет зрителя, часто впереди есть идея и использование любого объекта для передачи этой идеи, что используется многими художниками. Современное искусство тоже важная духовная пища человечества как воздух, например, многочисленные художники.

Большая часть современного искусства настолько модернизирована, что часто удивляет зрителя, часто впереди есть идея и использование любого предмета для передачи этой идеи, которую используют многие художники. Современное искусство это важная духовная пища для человечества, как воздух, например, многие художники, которые передают эмоции и идеи в известных галереях ХХI века. Он свободен в своем творчестве, и его цель - разными способами донести эти эмоции до аудитории, сегодня уже не имеет значения, какой материал будет использован для создания произведений современного искусства и как будет проходить выставка. Артисты часто используют перформанс, чтобы сделать свои намерения понятными для публики. Современное искусство - это очень широкий термин и кажется конкретным.


Впечатлений. Современное искусство было в свое время также барокко, импрессионизм, кубизм и т. Д. То есть все новаторское и новое в искусстве. Однако в англоязычном мире этому слову была придана специфика, и оно стало определяющей чертой определенного вида искусства. Моя уже известная масляная мозаика, автором которой я являюсь, оказалась действительно интересной для многих стран мира. Это теория создания современных фресок и витражей, восходящая к простой методологии масляной живописи.

 

И сегодня я хочу рассказать также о своем проекте с интересными миниатюрными работами.

Скомпилированные картины, которые тоже разные и интересные. С коммерческой точки зрения ни один рекорд этого стиля работы не был побит.

Миниатюра

# Картины

# Современное искусство

# Ахаларт

Миниатюрная живопись появилась в литературных произведениях в XII веке, особое внимание в миниатюрах уделяется контурам, резким краскам, округлым силуэтам.

Чтобы передать другие чувства. Миниатюры книги изображали сказочный, идеализированный мир героев произведений.

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Миниатюры, созданные во время османского владычества, занимают важное место в исламском искусстве.Миниатюрная живопись - это очень детализированная картина в очень небольшом масштабе.

Выражение душевного состояния художника, демонстрация мыслей и эмоций в виде их работ.

Моя новая страсть к миниатюрным композициям

Одна полнометражная повествовательная композиция со множеством работ заинтересовала искусствоведов и искусствоведов после моей выставки в Нью-Йорке. С помощью этого типа работы мы получили повествовательную работу, которая способна представить всю историю. Посетитель выступает в роли полноценного холста.

 

Например, рыбки, которые были моими картинами, которые полны множества миниатюрных рисунков, уже завершенных в крошечные маленькие композиции, оказались наиболее востребованными.

Существа,в которых люди столкнулись со многими эмоциональными духовными проблемами. Например, воспоминания о произведении не только попали во многие художественные каталоги, но и его содержание оказалось очень эмоциональным, в котором зритель увидел свою прошлую жизнь, и восприятие такого произведения стало для него важным средством размышления о происходящем. мимо.

Мемуары были проданы за многие тысячи долларов и попали в коллекцию известной женщины-коллекционер

Женщина, которую я изобразил на спине, и ее платье были полностью заполнены уже готовыми рисунками, изображающими разные ситуации из жизни этой женщины.Как рассказали нам, это оказался чувствительный эмоциональный посетитель. А рыба как символ исконной земли и многих важных организмов, в которых жизнь одной семьи полностью обогатилась миниатюрными композициями, оказалась одной из самых интересных работ. Эти виды работ оказывают на зрителя визуально насыщенный, перегруженный визуальный эффект, в то время как наблюдатель заставляет зрителя пробуждать собственные жизненные воспоминания и фрагменты.

Это картинки в картинке!

Пейзажи, натюрморты, портреты от 5 см до 10 см. Их масштаб настолько мал, что работа проводится с помощью специальной петли для мастера.

Моя страсть похожа на роспись ювелирного украшения, и это довольно сложный способ получить результат.

Портреты в 7 смс, конечно, сложнее всего создать, но в готовой композиции их эффект потрясающий.

Рыба, объехавшая мировые галереи и включенная во многие каталоги, представляет собой единственную рыбу, на теле которой размещено множество

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Миниатюра в виде пейзажа или натюрморта. Я называю этот тип моего нового духовного состояния новым художественным открытием, которое является новым способом передачи эмоций моей души, которые делают меня счастливым. Я называю этот тип моего нового духовного состояния новым художественным открытием, которое является новым способом передачи эмоций моей души, которые делают меня счастливым. Моя работа «Наполеон», хранящаяся во французском посольстве, - одна из первых миниатюрных композиций, где я рассказываю миниатюрные композиции вокруг портрета Наполеона Бонапарта, рассказывая сцены из его исторически известных сражений, а также важные фрагменты его жизни. Моя работа «Наполеон», хранящаяся во французском посольстве, - одна из первых миниатюрных композиций, где я рассказываю миниатюрные композиции вокруг портрета Наполеона Бонапарта, рассказывая сцены из его исторически известных сражений, а также важные фрагменты его жизни.

Все миниатюрные композиции оформляются отдельным рисунком, отдельно взятыми существами, интересными сами по себе. В течение или в последние годы. Пройдет определенное количество лет, и эти образы станут достоянием истории. Произведения искусства с 1960-х годов до наших дней изображают несколько направлений современного искусства, которые можно отнести к постмодернистским.

Современная живопись - это новое модернизированное искусство, которое сегодня очень популярно.

Моя цель - это увлекательное

В рамках произведений созданы масштабные полотна, полностью заполненные миниатюрными композициями, интересными сюжетными миниатюрами, которые не оставят равнодушными зрителя.

 

 

 

 

Использованная литература

Советская Грузинская энциклопедия

 

Ассоцированный профессор

 

1,2Телавский государственный университет имени Якоба Гогебашвили факультет бизнеса, права и социальных наук

 

 

Abstract

Insurance - is one of the financial tools of risk management, which allows to avoid financial losses caused by risk.

Insurance has a great role and importance in the development of the public reproductive process. The importance of insurance is expressed in the so-called of insurance services that facilitate the expansion of the reproductive process of economic entities.

Insurance, as a subset of financial relations, has a special role in the development of business and as an economic category, it is a system of economic relations, which enables the formation of funds and their use compensates losses in the event of various adverse cases.

This paper presents the problems facing the insurance business in Georgia and their solutions.

 


Резюме:

Страхование – это один из инструментов управления рисков, с помощью которых возможно избежать финансовые потери, которые возникают в результате риска.

Страхование играет большую роль и смысл в процессе развития  репродуктивного общества.

Смысл страхования выявляется в так называемом наличии страховых услуг, что  помогает расширить репродуктивный процесс экономических субьектов. 

 Страхование,  как разновидность финансовых отношений играет особую роль в развитии бизнеса  и как экономическая категория,  она представляет собой систему экономических отношений, с помощью которой происходит формирование денежных фондов и их употребление для возмещения убытков в случае наступления неблагоприятных ситуаций.

 В предыущем труде были  представлены проблемы, с которыми сталкивается страховой бизнес в Грузии, и пути их решения.

 

Ключевые слова :  страхование, бизнес, риски, финансовые потери и вызовы.

 

 

 

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Страхование играет большую роль и значение в развитии общественного репродуктивного процесса. Важность страхования выражается в т.н. наличие страховых услуг, что способствует расширению  воспроизводственного процесса экономических субъектов. Основная функция системы страхования – представляет собой взятие на себя часть риска домохозяйств и фирм. Страхование,  как подвид финансовых отношений,  играет особую роль в развитии бизнеса   как экономическая категория, а так же представляет экономическую систему отношений,  с помощью которой происходит формирование денежных фондов и их  использование для компенсации убытков при   различных неблагоприятных событиях.

                             1)      Страхование в Грузии

В Грузии, первая страховая компания была основана в 1990 году. Это была ,,Алдаги”. Что касается закона ,, о страховании ” был основан в 1997 году.  В том же году была создана государственная служба страхования,  которая отвечает за надзор, лицензирование и контроль страховых компаний в Грузии.

В Грузии,  основы индустрии частного страхования были заложены в 90-е годы. Когда появился новый продукт в секторе здравоохранения - частное медицинское страхование, была использована стратегия доступа к финансовым ресурсам, ориентированная на долю рынка. Проще говоря, у населения появилась  возможность приобрести очень дешевый продукт медицинского страхования. Если, с одной стороны, на тот момент,  принять во внимание социально-экономическую ситуацию в стране , эту стратегию можно считать правильным решением.

Обзор страхового рынка в Грузии сегодня

    По состоянию 30 сентября 2020 года регистрированно 18 страховых компаний, 17 из них имеют лицензию страхования и жизни и другое страхование, и только одна из них,  лицензию другого страхования; Лидерами страхового рынка являются ,, Имеди L” – привлеченная страховая премия 58 миллионов лари, ,,Дхипиаи”  - 56 миллионов лари и ,,Алдаги”  - 51 миллион лари.  Нужно отметить, что эти три компании контролируют  47% страхового сектора. За ними следует ,,Тибиси страхование” - привлеченная премия  39 миллионов лари и ,,Арди”  с 29 миллионами лари. 

    Страховая премия, привлеченная за 9 масяцев 2020 года от прямой страховой деятельности, составила 513,4 миллиона лари.  По итогам того же страхового периода прибыль страховщиков составила 126,7 миллионов лари, а чистая прибыль  составила 44,3 миллиона лари.

    Общие активы страховых компаний составляют 979,9 миллиона лари, а капитал – 282,7 миллиона лари.

    Медицинское страхавание по-прежнему занимает лидирующие позиции в распределении привлеченных премий, что составляет 37% выручки сектора. В Грузии, 16% населения имеют частную страховку. Что касается второго по величине рынка страхования – автострахования, то из всех зарегистрированных в стране

            автотранспортных средств,  всего зарегистрированно только 6%.

    Страховой сектор особенно успешно работает в развитых странах, что касается Грузии, в этом направлении сложная картина. В частности, общая премия, Разновидность пенсионного страхования, которая дает гарантию того, что вышедший на пенсию человек получит определенную прибыль.  Иногда пенсия назначается по заслуженному стажу работы, но в основном бывает основана на взносах: в страховой фонд еженедельно перечисляется определенная  часть зарплаты, на основании которой в последствии человек получает пенсию.

 Важные перемены произошли в прошлом году. С 1 анваря 2019 года запущена обязательная накопительная пенсионная программа. Пенсионная программа, которая известна, как 2+2+2, подразумевает начисление и накопление 6% заработной платы гражданина в пенсионном агенстве ежемесячно. За указанной реформой последовали неоднозначные оценки в обществе. Независимо от  рассмотрения положительных и отрицательных сторон пенсионного плана, он все равно должен был быть  добровольным и  население самостоятельно должно было  распределить свои сбережения, хотя в этом случае были ожидания, что активность граждан будет низкой, а в случае принятия правила фонд сможет мобилизировать максимум средств.

                  Проблемы страховых компаний и их пути в Грузии

В результате исследования выявились следующие проблемы и их пути их решения:


 Развитие страхования требует наличия высокой предпринимательской страховой культуры, как необходимой предпосылки.Здесь выявляются такие проблемы, как безработица населения страны, низкий уровень общей страховой культуры и ограниченные финансовые возможности, а так же отсутствие профессиональной квалификации, высококвалифицированных кадров и систем прфессионального обучения, для устранения которых необходимо принять соответствующие меры, что отражается в минимальном страховом образовании населения. В то же время необходимо ликвидировать информационный дефицит в обществе, создать системы профессиональной подготовки страховых работников, которые сделают систему страхования более эффективной. 

                          1)        Нехватка доверия

2) Это причина того, что множество людей не смогут пользоватся разными типами страховки. Мнигие страховые компании не могут предложить льготы потребителям. Поэтому  большая часть населения считает страховку всего лишь одним  дополнительным расходом. 

                          3)        Конкуренция

4) На рынке множество страховых фирм и соответственно страхователи сталкиваются  с интенсивным вызовом. Большинство страховых компаний, особенно новых – это самые сомнительные компании. Фактически, большинство людей доверяют существующим страховым компаниям по сравнению с некоторыми новыми бизнесами, поскольку новые предприятия работают с меньшим капиталом по сравнению с крупными компаниями,   трудно идти в ногу с той небольшой суммой денег, которая у них есть. 

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                          5)        Экономическая нестабильность

6) В то время, когда экономика страны нестабильная, каждая страховая компания начинает реагировать. В таких ситуациях страховые компании могут повышать свои ставки, а так же , по мере увеличения процентных ставок по кредитным линиям со стороны финансовых организаций. Конечно, никто из клиентов этого не поддержит, даже если в контракте четко прописано, что страховые тарифы могут время от времени меняться. Таким образом, такая ситуация может создать плохую картину компании, поскольку клиенты могут делиться информацией об услугах и продуктах, которые они используют, что цена не соответствует услуге и, следовательно, компания потеряет клиентов.  

 

Заключение

Как видим, страховой бизнес в Грузии развивается довольно медленными темпами.  Из года в год в компании небольшой рост выручки и они не могут реально развиваться. Страхование по-прежнему остается относительно ,,дорогим удовольствием”  для национального рынка, а это требует более стабильной экономики и болшего количества клиентов с высокими доходами. Одним из необходимых условий его популяризации может стать рост экономического благосостояния. Так же важна роль государства и наличие обязательного страхования, чтобы повысилась культура страхования в обществе,  да и сам страховой сектор станет сильнее и разнообразнее. 

 

Использованная литература: 

 

1.        https://matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/29884?publication=28  

2.        http://geoeconomics.ge/?p=806  

3.        http://geoeconomics.ge/?p=12502  

4.        http://insurance.gov.ge/ka/Statistics/GetFile/39?type=2  

5.        https://commersant.ge/ge/post/2020-wlis-6-tveshi-sadazgvevo-bazris-wminda-mogebatitqmis-gaormagda  

6.        https://commersant.ge/ge/post/sadazgvevo-seqtori-kus-nabidjebit-vitardeba  

7.        https://gtu.ge/bef/pdf/Doqtorantura/avtoreferatebi_2016/Fin_05.07.16/T.simoina.pdf  

 

 

 

Assistant Lecturer, Department of Foreign Languages, Tashkent State Transport University, Uzbekistan

Email: [email protected]

 

Annotation:  In the 21st century, the development of science and technology made it possible to improve the way of life, resources, and also created the need for constant improvement in all areas of human life. Also, there was a need to improve the educational process too. This article is written about effective methods and forms of education language teaching at a university.

 

Keywords: VAK teaching, Spaced learning, Crossover learning, Authentic Learning, Vitagenic Teaching.

 

Introduction


In the formation of the competencies of specialists in a university, the main role is played by the systematic study of the material, the frequency of monitoring the depth and adequacy of knowledge assimilation, the presence of active methods of studying disciplines, the ability of students to work independently. The choice of teaching methods depends on a different combination of specific circumstances and conditions of the educational process, implements the levels of training laid down in the program, necessary for practical activity [1].

For language teaching, one of the ideal forms of class is working with small groups. Moreover, given the fact that these groups are also multi-groups, it is necessary to adapt the transmitted knowledge at several levels, based on the students' abilities.

When organizing group work within a small group, you should focus on a number of circumstances:

                     individual abilities of students;

                     ways of taking information;

                     lack of time for classroom lessons;

                     limitation of the quantitative composition of the group;

                     the presence of the necessary knowledge and skills in the created small group to solve the task;

                     diversity and creativity of the intellectual level;

                     ability to self-control;

                     the ability of the group to independently prepare for the lesson;

                     interaction and communication of the group;

                     competence in working with information;

                     interpretation of the information received;

                     using the acquired knowledge in practice;

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                     information processing and changes based on tasks [11].

Also, when organizing work with small groups, it is necessary to choose the most effective teaching method. for instance, VAK teaching, Spaced learning,Crossover learning, Authentic Learning, Vitagenic Teaching.

VAK teachingis a modern teaching methodwhose effects can be seen clearly,wedivide leaner into three categories Visual,Audio, and kinesthetic (Oneneeds to recognize to which category theybelong to or the teacher must know towhich category her students relate to.

Spaced learning. Spacedlearning is one of the modernteaching methods, which is being followedby teachers. In this method, teachersrepeat a lesson multiple times, basicallyuntil the students understand entirely. However, the teacher repeats the coursewith two 10-minute spaces (break) inbetween the lessons [3].

Crossover learning. Thenot so common modern teachingmethod is Crossover learning which usesboth formal and informal teaching andlearning environments. It is one of theperfect ways to give the best educationto learners. Crossover learningeffectively engages learners andprovides authentic yet innovativeresults [9].

Authentic learning typically focuses onreal world, complex problems and theirsolutions, using role playing exercises,problem-based activities, case studies,and participation in virtual communitiesof practice. A learning environment is similar to some“real world” application or discipline [2].

Vitagenic Teaching. One of the most effectively methods of teaching, because, method is life-experience-based. The method gives the chance to remember base of the information and use it with own opinion [5, 6, 7, 8].

References: 1. Иванова, О. М. Работа в малых группах как интерактивный метод обучения физике /

О. М. Иванова, Д. Э. Валуйский, О. А. Свекольников. — Текст : непосредственный //

Молодой        ученый.          —        2015.   —        №        2          (82).    —        С.        30-36. —             URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/82/14915/.

2.     Downes, S. (2007). Emerging Technologies for Learning. Coventry, U.K.: Becta. Retrieved

                April                                                               24,                                                               2007,

fromhttp://partners.becta.org.uk/page_documents/research/emerging_technologies07_chapte r2.pdf

3.     Reeves, T. C., Herrington, J., & Oliver, R. (2002). Authentic activities and online learning. Annual Conference

4.     Proceedings of Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia. Perth,

Australia.        RetrievedApril           24,       2007,   from http://www.ecu.edu.au/conferences/herdsa/main/papers/ref/pdf/Reeves.pdf

5.     Rustamova NR. (2021). Issues of Development of Students' Media Competence Based on Vitagenic (Life) Experience. Journal of Physical Education and Sport ® (JPES),Vol 21 Issue 6, pp 2599-2616.

6.     Rustamova NR. (2021). Vitagenic education and the holographic approach in the educational process. Таълимваинновационтадқиқотлар (2021 йил №1), 23-29.

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7.     Rustamova, N. R. (2019). Technology for the development of media culture of secondary school pupils (on the example of grades 7-9). Dissertation of the doctor of philosophy (PhD) in pedagogical sciences.

8.     Rustamova, N. R. (2019). Technology for the development of media culture of secondary school pupils (on the example of grades 7-9). Author’s abstract of PhD dissertation.

9.     Ruzieva D. I., Rustamova N.R., (2021). Analysis of theoretical studies of the concepts of vitagen and vitagenic education. Таълимваинновационтадқиқотлар (2021 йил №4), 4246.

10. VAK learning styles: what are they and what do they mean?https://engageeducation.com/aus/blog/vak-learning-styles-what-are-they-and-what-do-they-mean/#! 11. Кучкарова, Ф. М. (2021). Развитие саногенного мышления у обучающихся в процессе непрерывного образования. Наука и образование сегодня, (5 (64)), 61-62.

 

 

Assistant Lecturer, Department of Foreign Languages, Tashkent State Transport University, Uzbekistan

Email: [email protected]

 

Annotation:  The effectiveness of any activity depends on the definition and adherence to the principles that are a priority in its organization. Therefore, in the process of conducting the lesson, it is necessary to pay attention to determining the methods that are priority in the development of students' language competence.

Keywords: Flipped classroom, Micro teaching, Design thinking, Case-Study, modern teaching methods.

 

Introduction


The current stage in the development of society is directly characterized by the improvement of technology. Modern technological processes affect any industry. Especially, in the information system, new developments and technologies are being developed and strengthened. The need of people to use information and communication technologies, as well as computer technologies, is growing and they are being improved [1]. Also, there was a need to modernize the educational process. Today education is not only teaching but also nurturing the way of thinking of students:

•Notsimply acting as a conduit of knowledge;

•A lot more than simply imparting knowledge;

•Really concerned with transforming lives;

•Transformation seen as a positive, permanent, regenerative change in:

-     Values;

-     Attitudes;

-     Horizon;

-     Behaviour; Outlook;

-     •Mindset.

Accordingly, the need to choose the most suitable interactive teaching method also faced teachers and educational institutions. There are many modern teaching methods today, such as:

1.   Collaborativelearning;

2.   Spaced learning;

3.   Flipped classroom;

4.   Self-learning;

5.   Gamification;

6.   VAK teaching;

Management of the learning process during the lesson is not just a production process. It is very important that management is properly organized not only in the selection of information, but also in the knowledge transfer system. At this time, the movement of the scientific approach to the management of a single pedagogical process is increasing [3, 8]. This is considered very important for the formation of personnel with high intellectual potential. In our opinion, the following teaching methods are effective in teaching a language:

Micro teaching. Microteaching is an innovative method of training wherein the teacher trainee or a student teacher conducts a class for a small group of students for a small time. This is intended to enhance the skills of teachers. By focusing on a specific skill at one time, this approach has proved to be beneficial. It is important to have micro teaching skills [1, 2, 4, 7].

Flipped classroom. A flipped classroom is a type of blended learning where students are introduced to content at home and practice working through it at school This is the reverse of the more common practice of introducing new content at school, then assigning homework and projects to completed by the students independently at home [3, 10, 11].

Design thinking. Design Thinking is an iterative process in which we seek to understand the user, challenge assumptions, and redefine problems in an attempt to identify alternative strategies and solutions that might not be instantly apparent with our initial level of understanding. Design Thinking provides a solution-based approach to solving problems [6, 9, 12, 13].


Case-Study.A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon [14]. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods, but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing, comparing, evaluating and understanding different aspects of a research problem [4, 5, 6, 10, 14].

References:

1.      Downes, S. (2007). Emerging Technologies for Learning. Coventry, U.K.: Becta. Retrieved

                April                                       24,                                        2007,                                        from

http://partners.becta.org.uk/page_documents/research/emerging_technologies07_chapter2.p df

2.      Rustamova NR. (2021). Issues of Development of Students' Media Competence Based on Vitagenic (Life) Experience. Journal of Physical Education and Sport ® (JPES),Vol 21 Issue 6, pp 2599-2616.

3.      Rustamova NR. (2021). Vitagenic education and the holographic approach in the educational process. Таълимваинновационтадқиқотлар (2021 йил №1), 23-29.

4.      Rustamova, N. R. (2019). Technology for the development of media culture of secondary school pupils (on the example of grades 7-9). Dissertation of the doctor of philosophy (PhD) in pedagogical sciences.

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5.      Rustamova, N. R. (2019). Technology for the development of media culture of secondary school pupils (on the example of grades 7-9). Author’s abstract of PhD dissertation.

6.      Ruzieva D. I., Rustamova N.R., (2021). Analysis of theoretical studies of the concepts of vitagen and vitagenic education. Таълимваинновационтадқиқотлар (2021 йил №4), 4246.

7.      Кучкарова, Ф. М. (2021). Развитие саногенного мышления у обучающихся в процессе непрерывного образования. Наука и образование сегодня, (5 (64)), 61-62.

8.      Rustamova, N., &Ismatova, S. (2021). Research Methods of Psychology in Medicine. "ONLINE - CONFERENCES&Quot; PLATFORM, 90–93. Retrieved from

http://papers.online-conferences.com/index.php/titfl/article/view/599

9.      Akramova, L. Y. (2020). Case Study as A Method of Forming Productive Thinking in Students. BBK, 1, P76.

10.  Dildora A. Muratova, Socio-Cultural Directions Of Human Transformation in the Scientific Development of Uzbekistan. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol.24,

Issue 1, pp. 974-982

11.  LY Akramova, SRK Mirzaeva, D Botirovna, (2020).The role of interactive teaching methods in the development of mental activity and the assimilation of students' knowledge at a university, International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(9)

12.  Nurmukhamedova, D., Akramova, L., Buriev, I., Abdullaev, A., &Khonimkulova, F. (2021). SMART-technologies in the process of teaching the Russian. 湖南大学学

(自然科学版), 48(8).

13.  Mahammatkosimovna, Q. F. (2021). Criteria for the formation of spiritual education of students. Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research, 10(5), 322-326.

14.  How to do a case study. https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/case-study/

 

 

 

 

Saodat Akmal-qizi Rahmonova,

Assistant Lecturer, Department of Foreign Languages, Tashkent State Transport University, Uzbekistan

Email: [email protected]

 

 

Annotation:  Today, when the whole world is moving towards an intelligent society, rich in resources, which can access any new information, education faces urgent tasks, such as the convergence of new media and innovative approaches to the creative organization of education and training.

Keywords: Collaborative Learning, Gamification, SDG 4.0, quality in education.

 

Introduction


Didactics is one of the main components of pedagogy, it is a set of laws and principles that serve the goals of teaching, the content of teaching, methods and tools, forms and methods, the main conditions for the joint work of a student and a teacher. The learning process is a multifunctional and long-term system, such as the acquisition of human experience, the acquisition of knowledge, the formation of skills and competencies, as well as the development of learning and creative abilities. Any system is multi-component. Therefore, improving the educational process is a multifaceted and responsible process. First, the change in the components of the system, and then its qualitative dynamics can be achieved through the interaction between these components [4]. Didactics determines the content and methods of teaching, substantiates them, improves them on the basis of changing educational needs in accordance with the development of society and shows the ways of their implementation [6]. Like all tools, the computer cannot solve the methodological problems that exist in the system [7]. Therefore, in the modern system of didactic provision of education, electronic teaching aids, media technologies created in the field of education are considered as an important component of didactic support. At the heart of any pedagogical system is the methodology that is the basis of its movement. Along with the components of this methodology - the form of lessons, methods and teaching tools, the role of didactic resources in teaching computer science and information technology is invaluable.Industry 4.0, that is, the development of skills that are most important for people in the 21st century during the 4th industrial revolution, Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4) and support of Member States and their partners in achieving the education agenda of the global agenda Global in documents such as the Sustainable Development of Education Program 2030 (Quality of Education 4) and the Incheon Declaration on Education, which are important mechanisms to achieve the important goal of coordination and strengthening, the problem of media technologies in education is addressed, preparing the person for a new society.

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Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4) aims to “ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote access to lifelong learning for all” and requires education to [5]:

•transformative and value-added concerns;

•all aspects conforming to set standards;

•employing accepted best practices and admissible outcomes;

•a question of what you sow is what you reap.

The emergence of this need is mainly associated with changes in society and, in particular, with the rapid development of technologies and their impact on the way of life [8], employment and education of people [10]. In an industrial society, education focuses on the development of factual and procedural knowledge, while in an informed society, the development of conceptual and metacognitive knowledge in an intelligent society becomes more and more important. The skills that are most important to a person in the 21st century is based on ICT competencies, and these skills usually include:

1.   Life and career skills;

2.   Learning and innovation skills;

3.   Skills in information, media and technology.

To accomplish the listed tasks, first of all, it is necessary to improve the existing methods, to introduce into practice teaching methods that are effective in education. For instance:

Collaborative learning. Collaborative learning is a method in which teachers and students, regardless of their physical or virtual presence, have the opportunity to organize and actively participate in the educational process based on joint interactive activities [1, 3, 5]. Collaborative learning plays an important role in developing students' socialization, teamwork, teamwork skills, a sense of collective responsibility and decision-making competence.

Gamification. The game has features of training, development, education of the individual[2]. Due to their characteristics, games have long been one of the important foundations of folk pedagogy. First of all, the term "gamification" should be defined. The term comes from the English word "gamification". This means applying play techniques to non-play processes. Gameplay elements are already being used in areas such as marketing, human resource management and innovation management. Gaming technologies are based on the use of the usual function of the brain - reward for the work done. A computer game creates a world in which a person can exist virtually, live, and the lesson represents only such a model.

 

References:

1.      Rustamova NR. (2021). Issues of Development of Students' Media Competence Based on Vitagenic (Life) Experience. Journal of Physical Education and Sport ® (JPES),Vol 21 Issue 6, pp 2599-2616.

2.      Юлия Рудый. Образование будущего: Канадский учитель физики превратил обучение в игру и повысил успеваемость. https://www.vesti.ru/nauka/article/1043385

3.      Rustamova NR. (2021). Vitagenic education and the holographic approach in the educational process. Таълимваинновационтадқиқотлар (2021 йил №1), 23-29.

4.      Rustamova, N. R. (2019). Technology for the development of media culture of secondary school pupils (on the example of grades 7-9). Author’s abstract of PhD dissertation.

5.      The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. https://sdg4education2030.org/the-goal. 

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6.      Akramova, L. Y. (2020). Case Study as A Method of Forming Productive Thinking in Students. BBK, 1, P76.

7.      Dildora A. Muratova, Socio-Cultural Directions Of Human Transformation in the Scientific Development of Uzbekistan. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol.24,

Issue 1, pp. 974-982

8.      LY Akramova, SRK Mirzaeva, D Botirovna, (2020). The role of interactive teaching methods in the development of mental activity and the assimilation of students' knowledge at a university, International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(9)

9.      Nurmukhamedova, D., Akramova, L., Buriev, I., Abdullaev, A., &Khonimkulova, F. (2021). SMART-technologies in the process of teaching the Russian. 湖南大学学

(自然科学版), 48(8).

10.  Mahammatkosimovna, Q. F. (2021). Criteria for the formation of spiritual education of students. Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research, 10(5), 322-326.

 

 

 

 

 

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DEVELOPING THE MARKET OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES

BY INCREASING THE INVESTMENT ACTIVITY OF COMMERCIAL

BANKS

 

 

M.O.Khudoyberdiev

Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics and Management, NDKI

Gafurov Asilbek Gulom oglu 

NSAI student [email protected] 

 

Annotation:  This article describes the concept of innovation and its features, the existing problems of increasing the innovative activity of commercial banks in the market of innovative technologies and some solutions to them.

Keywords: innovation, innovative technology, innovative idea, commercial bank, investment bank, investment activity, deposit, long-term resource.

 

Introduction

Юқори ривожланган давлатларнинг тажрибаси шуни кўрсатадики, инновацион фаолият уларнинг иқтисодиётини ривожланишида  жуда муҳим вазифаларни бажаради.  Иқтисодиётни ривожлантиришнинг замон талабларига мос ҳолда олиб боришнинг асосий талаби инновацион технологияларни ҳаётга, яъни ишлаб чиқаришнинг барча жабҳаларига жорий қилиш ҳисобланади.

Мамлакат иқтисодиёти миқёсида айтганда, пухта ишлаб чиқилган давлат инновацион сиёсатини ўрнатиш, ушбу сиёсат асосида минтақада инновацион фаолиятни ривожлантириш орқали мамлакат иқтисодиётини ривожлантиришнинг юқори босқичига олиб чиқиш талаб этилади.

Бугунги кунда давлат бойликлари ҳисобида табиий бойликлар билан бир қаторда, миллатнинг интеллектуал мулки асосида ишлаб чиқарилган янги замонавий технологиялар ҳам инобатга олинмоқда. Шубҳасиз ушбу бойликлардан тўғри ва самарали фойдаланиш мамлакат иқтисодиётининг барқарор ривожланишига замин яратади.

Инновация тушунчасини иқтисодиётга австриялик олим Й.Шумпетер (1883-1951) ўтган асрнинг 30 йилларида киритган бўлиб, у бу фаолиятга ишлаб чиқариладиган маҳсулотлар, бозорлар, хўжалик турларини янгилаш, янги истеъмол маҳсулотларини яратиш ва уларни татбиқ этиш деб таъриф берган.

Инновация қуйидаги хусусиятлар билан тавсифланади: 

-инновация - бу одамларнинг режалаштирилган ижодий фаолияти натижасидир;

-инновация - бу амалда татбиқ этилган янгилик; 

-инновацион жараённинг объекти техник, технологик, ташкилий ва бошқарув, молиявий, ижтимоий, экологик ва бошқа соҳаларда бўлиши мумкин; 

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-инновацион фаолият рақобат томонидан бошланади, инновациялар макро ва микро даражадаги инқирозларни енгишга, рақобатбардошликни оширишга ёрдам беради;  -инновацион фаолият хавф билан боғлиқ.

Инновацион жараёнлар иқтисодий ривожланиш жараёнида юзага келадиган қарамақаршиликлар ва инқирозларни ҳал қилишнинг энг муҳим воситасидир. Инновацияларнинг ўзига хос белгилари янгилик ва тижорат аҳамиятига эга. Инновацион жараённинг натижаси нафақат маҳсулот, хизмат, балки янги ижтимоий эҳтиёждир. Инновацияларнинг ҳар бир тури ўзига хос рақобат стратегиясига эга.

Бизнинг фикримизча инновация дейилганда, янги технологиялар, маҳсулот ва хизмат турлари сифатидаги янгиликларни ишлаб чиқариш, таълим, молия, тижорат, бошқариш ва бошқа хусусиятларга эга ташкилий-техникавий ва ижтимоий-иқтисодий қарорлардан самарали фойдаланиш тушунилади. 

Бизга маълумки, инновацион технологияларни ҳаётга жорий қилишда энг муҳим масалалардан бири бу мустаҳкам молиявий тизимнинг яратилиши билан боғлиқки, бу соҳада зарур бўлган молиявий ресурсларнинг жамланиши натижасида дунё стандартларига мос бўлган инновацион технологиялар яратилишига олиб келади. Ҳозирги кунда инновацион технологияларни ишлаб чиқаришга жорий қилишда молиялаштиришнинг асосий манбалари қаторига бюджет маблағлари, корхона маблағлари, турли тижорат ташкилотлари маблағлари (суғурта маблағлари, инвестиция компаниялари), тижорат банкларининг ресурслари, чет эл инвестициялари ҳамда миллий ва хорижий илмий жамғармалари киради.

Хорижий тажрибалардан ҳам маълумки, иқтисодиётнинг юксак даражада тараққий этиши ишлаб чиқаришда инновацион технологиялардан қай даражада фойдаланилаётганлигига боғлиқ бўлади. Шундай экан, инновацион ғоялар, технологиялар ва лойиҳаларни тўлақонли реализация қилиш, уларни хорижий инвестицияларни жалб қилишнинг долзарблигини ҳисобга олган ҳолда ишлаб чиқариш тармоқларига амалий жорий қилишга салбий таъсир кўрсатаётган бир қатор омилларни Ўзбекистон Республикаси Президентининг 2018 йил 27 апрелдаги “Инновацион ғоялар, технологиялар ва лойиҳаларни амалий жорий қилиш тизимини янада такомиллаштириш чора тадбирлари тўғрисида”ги ПҚ3682 сонли қарори билан келтириб ўтилган. Ушбу қарор бўйича санаб берилган омилларнинг орасида қулай инвестицион муҳитни шакллантириш, инновацион ғоялар ва лойиҳаларни ишлаб чиқиш ва жорий этиш соҳасига инвестицияларни кенг жалб қилиш, илғор ва илмий ҳажмдор технологияларни фаол тарқатишнинг самарали тизими мавжуд эмаслиги кўрсатилган.[1]

Юқорида келтириб ўтилган омилни бартараф этиш учун мамлакатимизда тижорат банкларининг инвестицион фаоллигини ривожлантиришнинг объектив заруриятлиги бугунги куннинг долзарб муаммоларидан бири ҳисобланади. Мамлакатимизда инновацион технологияларни ишлаб чиқаришга қўллашда тижорат банкларининг инвестицион фаоллигини ривожлантириш қўйидаги долзарб муаммоларни ҳал қилишда муҳим роль ўйнайди:

1)      Инновацияга боғлиқ бўлган йирик инвестицион лойиҳаларни молиялаштириш учун узоқ муддатли ресурсларни етишмаслиги;

2)      Инновацияга боғлиқ бўлган йирик инвестицион лойиҳаларни молиялаштиришда юзага келиши мумкин бўлган юқори даражали рискларни бошқариш меҳанизмларининг тўлиқ шаклланмаганлиги;

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3)      Қимматли қоғозлар бозорида тижорат банкларининг инвестицион фаолиятининг сустлиги.

Бизнинг фикримизча ушбу муаммоларни ҳал қилиш орқали инновацияга боғлиқ бўлган инвестицион лойиҳаларни молиялаштириш, тижорат банклари томонидан амалга ошириш имкони яратилади.

Бугунги кунда банк тизими бозор иқтисодиётининг энг муҳим ва ажралмас тузилмаларидан бири бўлиб, унда тижорат банклари асосий рол ўйнайди. Тижорат банклари, биринчи навбатда, иқтисодиётдан вақтинча бўш маблағларни жалб қиладиган, бошқа томондан, корхоналар, ташкилотлар ва аҳолининг турли молиявий эҳтиёжларини шу маблағлар ҳисобидан қондирадиган ўзига хос кредит ташкилотлари вазифасини бажаради.

Банкларнинг инвестицион фаолияти деганда, иқтисодиёт, мамлакат ва минтақалар кўламида ижтимоий ва иқтисодий соҳаларнинг инвестицион талабларини қондиришга қаратилган фаолият тушунилади. 

Банкларнинг инвестиция жараёнидаги иштирокини фаоллаштириш зарурати банк тизими ва умуман иқтисодиётнинг муваффақиятли ривожланишининг ўзаро боғлиқлигидан келиб чиқади. Бир томондан, тижорат банклари ўз фаолиятининг шарти бўлган барқарор иқтисодий муҳитдан манфаатдор, бошқа томондан, иқтисодий ривожланишнинг барқарорлиги кўп жиҳатдан банк тизимининг ишончлилиги ва унинг самарали ишлашига боғлиқ. Шу билан бирга, тижорат ташкилоти сифатида индивидуал банкнинг манфаатлари таваккалчиликнинг мақбул даражасида максимал фойда олишга қаратилганлиги сабабли, кредит ташкилотларининг иқтисодиётга сармоя киритишда иштирок этишлари фақат қулай шароитлар мавжуд бўлганда содир бўлади.

A.В.Беликовнинг фикрига кўра, банкларнинг инвестиция жараёнидаги иштирокининг асосий йўналишларини қуйидагича аниқлаш мумкин.

-       банклар томонидан инвестиция мақсадларида маблағ жалб қилиш;

-       инвестиция кредитларини бериш;

-       қимматли қоғозларга, корхона улушига (ҳам банк ҳисобидан, ҳам мижоз

номидан).[2]

Бу соҳалар бир - бири билан чамбарчас боғлиқ. Банклар капитални, аҳолининг жамғармаларини ва бошқа бўш маблағларни сафарбар қилиб, улардан самарали фойдаланиш мақсадида ўз ресурсларини шакллантиради. Пул маблағларини тўплаш бўйича операциялар ҳажми ва таркиби банкларнинг кредит ва инвестиция портфеллари ҳолатига, уларнинг инвестиция фаолияти имкониятларига таъсир этувчи асосий омиллардир.

Иқтисодий адабиётларда тижорат банкларининг инвестиция фаолияти шаклларининг таснифи тижорат банкларининг инвестиция фаолиятининг ўзига хос хусусиятлари билан белгиланадиган умумий қабул қилинганидан бироз фарқ қилади.

Мамлакатимизда ҳам тижорат банкларининг инвестицион сиёсатини айнан шулардан келиб чиқиб замон талабларига мослаштириш қатъий талаб этилияпти. Бунда уларнинг инвестицион фаолиятнинг мақсадли мўлжаллари тизимини ташкил этиш ва мазкур мақсадларга эришиш усулларини эркин танлаш учун имконият берилияпти. Институционал жиҳатдан қараганда, бу инвестицион фаолиятни ташкил этиш ва бошқариш бўйича комплекс чора-тадбирлар амалга оширилмоқда деганидир. Айнан шу нуқтаи назардан тижорат банкларимизнинг муайян фаолияти инвестицион активларнинг мувофиқ таркиби ва ҳажмини таъминлаш, таваккалчиликнинг мақбул даражасида активлар даромадлилигини оширишга

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йўналитирилиши керак. Ўз навбатида банк ресурс базасини кенгайтириш ва банк ресурслари сақланишини таъминлаш ҳам истиқбол мақсадлари қаторидан жой олиши лозим. Шундагина инвестицион қўйилмаларнинг ликвидлилиги, хавфсизлиги ва даромадлилиги ҳамда ўсиб бориши учун прагматик шароит яратилади. Шу ўринда инвестиция йўналишида тижорат банкларини рағбатлантирувчи омиллар бўйича қўйидаги таклифларни келтириб ўтиш мумкин: рақобатдаги устунликни ошириш, ресурс базасини кенгайтириш ҳисобига кредитлаш ҳажмини ошириш, кредит портфели таваккалчиликларини диверсификациялаш асосида таваккалчилик даражасини камайтириш, кредит қайтмаслиги таваккалчилигини камайтириш.[3]  

Бозор иқтисодиёти шароитида кредитнинг зарурлиги қўйидаги омиллар билан белгиланади:

-кредит муносабатларида иштирок этувчи томонларнинг иқтисодий манфаатдорлиги таъминланиши. Хусусан, кредитор кредит ҳисобидан фоиз тўловлари сифатида фойда олса, қарз олувчи ишлаб чиқаришнинг узлуксизлигини таъминлаш орқали тегишли фойдани шакллантириш имкониятига эга бўлади;

-иқтисодиётда вақтинчалик бўш пул маблағлари ссуда капитали сифатида жамғарилиб, тегишли мақсадларга йўналтирилади;

-иқтисодиётда ишлаб чиқариш циклининг даврийлиги. Бунда айрим тармоқларда вақтинчалик бўш пул маблағлари вужудга келса, бошқаларида қўшимча молиявий ресурсларга эҳтиёж тўғилади, ушбу жараён кредит орқали тартибга солинади;

-ижтимоий такрор ишлаб чиқариш жараёнида қўшимча молиявий ресурсларга бўлган эҳтиёжнинг асосий қисми кредитлар орқали қондирилади.

Замонавий иқтисодиётда кредит муҳим молиявий элемент сифатида мамлакат иқтисодиётини ривожланишининг ажралмас қисми ҳисобланади. Кредит ва кредит муносабатларининг вужудга келиши ва ривожланишининг асосида товар ишлаб чиқариш, янаям аниқроқ қилиб айтадиган бўлсак, - капитал муомаласи ва айланиши ётади. Жамиятда капитал муомаласи ва айланиши доимо ҳам бир маромда амал қилмайди, булар юқорида таъкидланганидек қатор омиллар билан изоҳланади.[4]

Шундай экан инновацион технологияларни иқтисодиётга жалб қилишда қорхоналарни молиявий қўллаб қувватлашга тижорат банклари томонидан кредитлар ажратиш орқали молиялаштиришга эҳтиёж сезилади. Албатта бу тижорат банкларининг молиялаштириш жараёнида вужудга келадиган таваккалчилик даражаси юқорироқ бўлиши табиийдир. Шунинг учун инновацион технологияларни ишлаб чиқаришга жорий қилишда тижорат банкларининг кредитлари орқали амалга оширилганда тижорат банкларига бир қанча енгилликлар беришга тўғри келади.  

Чет эл мамлакатлари амалиётида кредит ресурсларини инновацион ривожланишни қўллаб-қувватлашга йўналтирадиган устунлик ва рағбатлар тизимини ишлаб чиқишга қаратилган сиёсат амалга оширилади. Бундай тизимни жорий қилиш қуйидаги чоратадбирларни амалга оширишни талаб қилади:

1)                 давлат             томонидан     ихтисослаштирилган           инновацион   банклар          яратишни рағбатлантириш;

2)                 технологик ўзгаришларга эришишга йўналтирилган маблағларга солиқ солиш бўйича тегишли имтиёзлар ўрнатиш йўли билан давлат томонидан банкларни узоқ муддатли кредитлаш жамғармаларини яратишини рағбатлантириш. Иқтисодий асосланган солиқлар,

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рағбатлантирувчи функциясини бажарган ҳолда, инвестицион-инновацион жараёнларни фаоллаштиради;

3)                 ресурслардан фойдаланиш йўналишларига боғлиқ равишда банкларнинг фойда солиқ ставкасини дифференциациялаш – ресурслар инновацион лойиҳаларни узоқ муддатли кредитлашга йўналтирилган ҳолларда ставкани камайтириш;

4)                 инновацион маҳсулотларни ишлаб чиқиш ва жорий қилиш бўйича инвестицион лойиҳаларни амалга ошириш учун имтиёзли кредитлар тақдим қилувчи банкларнинг имтиёзли кафолатлаш тизимини яратиш;

5)                 юқори технологик маҳсулотларни ишлаб чиқиш ва жорий қилиш соҳасида фаолиятни амалга оширувчи тадбиркорларга тақдим қилинган кредитларни давлат томонидан суғурта қилиш механизмини жорий қилиш;

6)                 банклар инновацион маҳсулот ишлаб чиқарувчи корхоналар акцияларини сотиб олганда уларни мазкур корхоналар акцияларига инвестиция қилинадиган банк фойдасининг қисмига солиқ солишдан озод қилиш йўли билан тақдирлаш;

7)                 инновацион фаолиятни ривожлантиришга йўналтирилган кредитларнинг гаров билан таъминланишининг ҳуқуқий тартибга солинишини такомиллаштириш;

8)                 инновацион лойиҳаларни кредитлашни амалга оширувчи банклар учун мажбурий резервлар меъёрларини камайтириш.

Юқорида келтирилган тавсияларни амалга ошириш инновацион иқтисодиётга фаол ўтиш шароитларида, яқин келажакда тижорат банкларига бўлган талаб инновацион лойиҳаларни молиялаштиришнинг устувор манбасига айланишига олиб келади.[5]

Мамлакатимиз иқтисодиётини тез суръатларда ривожлантиришимиз ҳамда аҳолимиз турмуш даражасини кўтариш учун инновацион технологияларни қўллашда тижорат банкларининг инвестицион фаоллиги муҳим рол ўйнайди.  Бу мақсадга эришиш учун тижорат банкларимизга инновацион технологиялар бозорида фаол иштирок этишлари учун етарлича шароит яратиб берилиши лозим деб ўйлаймиз. 

Хулоса ва таклифлар. Юқоридаги келтириб ўтилган ўрганишлар натижасидан келиб чиққан ҳолда, хулоса ўрнида шуни айтиш мумкинки, банкларнинг иқтисодиётдаги бўш пул маблағларни етарли даражада узоқ муддатли депозитларга жалб этиши ва ушбу маблағларни реал ишлаб чиқаришга инновацион технологияларни жорий қилиш орқали самарали бошқариш ҳозирги кунда уларнинг муҳим вазифаларидан бири ҳисобланади. Шундай экан, тижорат банкларининг узоқ муддатли ресурс базасини мустаҳкамлаш ҳамда банкларнинг инвестицион фаоллигини корхоналарнинг ишлаб чиқариш технологияларини модернизациялашга қаратиш доирасида қўйидаги чора тадбирларни амалга ошириш мақсадга мувофиқ бўлади.

Биринчидан, давлат томонидан инновацион лойиҳаларни кредитлаш билан шуғулланадиган ихтисослаштирилган инновацион банклар ташкил этишни рағбатлантириш; иккинчидан, банкларнинг узоқ муддатли ресурс базасини уларнинг устав капиталини

ошириш, ҳамда облигациялар ҳисобидан шакллантириш; учинчидан, банклар томонидан жозибадор бўлган узоқ муддатли депозит

сертификатларини чиқариш амалиётини ривожлантириш; тўртинчидан, тижорат банклари томонидан инновацион технологиялар учун ажратилган кредитлар қисмидан оладиган даромадлар қисмига солиқлардан имтиёзлар тақдим этиш;

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Ўйлаймизки, юқоридаги чора тадбирларни амалга ошириш, банкларнинг ресурс базасини мустаҳкамлаб, реал секторни инновацион технологиялар ҳисобига ривожлантириши учун ўз таъсирини ўтказади. Шу билан биргаликда инновация фаолиятини ривожлантиришга қаратилган  чора-тадбирларнинг самарадорлигини ошириш ҳамда инновацион лойиҳаларни молиялаштириш имкониятлари яратилади.

 

Фойдаланилган адабиётлар рўйхати.

1.                  Ўзбекистон Республикаси Президентининг 2018 йил 27 апрелдаги “Инновацион ғоялар, технологиялар ва лойиҳаларни амалий жорий қилиш тизимини янада такомиллаштириш чора тадбирлари тўғрисида”ги ПҚ-3682 сонли қарори.  

2.                  Колпакова, Галина Михайловна. Финансы. Денежное обращение. Кредит: учебное пособие для вузов / Г. М. Колпакова.— 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. — М.: Финансы и статистика, 2006.  стр 21-22. 

3.                  http://www.xs.uz/uzkr/post/tizhorat-banklarining-samarali-investitsion-faoliyatitaraqqiyot-va-farovonlikning-muhim-omili. Одил Шерназаров. 29.04.2020 йил. 4. А.А.Омонов, Т.М.Қоралиев. Пул, кредит ва банклар. Дасрлик. Тошкент-2012 йил. 182 бет.

5. М.М.Тожиев. Инновацияларни кредитлашнинг раҳбатлантирувчи омиллари ва хатарлари тўғрисида. Иқтисод ва молия. 2019, №6 (126)

 

1 year Doctoral Student, Bukhara State University,Uzbekistan, 

Email:[email protected]

 

Annotation:  This article provides information on the legal framework for gender tolerance in Uzbekistan. They also discussed aspects that should be considered in the formation of gender tolerance in children in preschool education.

Keywords: tolerance,gender, legal framework, gender tolerance, preschool education.

 

Introduction

All forms of tolerance in preschool education, including the formation of gender tolerance, have their own legal basis in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On freedom of conscience and religious organizations", "On the foundations of state youth policy in the Republic of Uzbekistan", "On education", "National training program", "Civil Code", "On guarantees of the electoral right of citizens», "On public organizations", "On political parties" and other normative legal acts related to this area [5].

The problem of the formation of gender tolerance in a large group of children in preschool education and the need for its integration into the education system should be identified by the following tasks:

-                     Analysis of the historical roots of gender tolerance, the factors that led to its emergence, the processes of its historical formation in Uzbekistan, its spiritual, educational and evolutionary development [4, 6, 7];

-                     Development of the principles of gender tolerance in the system of spiritual, educational and ideological values of oriental thinkers and the classification of ideas put forward by scientists

[3, 8, 9];

-                     Development of modern interpretations and definitions of gender tolerance, determination of the role of the concept of tolerance in the structure of pedagogical and didactic principles, analysis of scientific and practical experience in the formation of gender tolerance in the world;

-                     Preparing preschoolers for social life based on the formation of gender tolerance in their minds;

-                     scientific study of the pedagogical foundations of the formation of ideas about gender tolerance, the development and effective implementation of new pedagogical methods for the formation of gender tolerance, the scientific study of the pedagogical foundations of preparing children for life in society;

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-                     Analysis of the specifics of existing practices for the formation of gender tolerance in the preschool education system, determination of the principles for the development of effective methods, analysis of the process of formation of gender tolerance from the point of view of pedagogical technologies [2, 3];

-                     Identification of pedagogical conditions, factors contributing to the increase of gender tolerance in preschoolers, the search for development opportunities, the development of innovative solutions to promote gender tolerance, the use of advanced pedagogical technologies, the identification of effective forms, methods and tools, their testing [9, 10].

Initially, surveys were conducted in selected preschools to check the current situation with regard to gender identity. In this case, of course, the age and psychological characteristics of the respondents were considered. The results of the questionnaire were collected according to the oral answers of the children to the questions.

The questions of the questionnaire were devoted to the problem of gender identity based on the types of identification identified in the opinion of N.K. Radina. N.K. Radina [1] distinguishes between two levels of identification:

1)      external - through external attributes - clothing style, behavior, etc.

2)      internal - according to the fundamental difference between women and men: internal attitude to changes in society, less inclination to obey norms and influences in society.

References: 1. Радина Н.К. Изучение гендерной идентичности методом фокус-групп / Н.К. Радина // Практикум по гендерной психологии / Под ред. И. А. Клециной. – СПб.: «Алетейя», 2003.

2.      Репина, Т. А. Проблема полоролевой социализации: монография / Т. А. Репина. - М.: 2004.- 288 с.

3.      Стрельцова Е.А. Диалоговая интерпретация знания как средство воспитания толерантности у студентов: автореф. дис. … канд. пед. наук: 13.00.08 / Волгогр. гос. пед. ун-т. – Волгоград, 2003. – 26 с

4.      Гершунский Б.С. Толерантность в системе ценностно-целевых приоритетов образования // Педагогика. – 2002. – № 7. – С. 3-13. 5. Араканцева, Т. А. Гендерная социализация ребенка в семье: учебное пособие / Т. А. Араканцева. - М. : НОУ ВПО МПСИ, 2013. – 137 с.

6.      Taran Irina Ivanovna. Gender socialization of preschoolers by means of physical education: Dis. ... Cand. psychol. Sciences: 13.00.04. 2004, 164 p.

7.      Qurbonova Go‘zal Rajab qizi. (2021). The concept and essence of Gender Representations in Pedagogy and Psychology. Middle European Scientific Bulletin, 10. https://doi.org/10.47494/mesb.2021.10.357

8.      Kurbonova, G. . (2021). Features of The Formation of Gender Tolerance in Society.ONLINE - CONFERENCES PLATFORM, 69–71. Retrieved from

http://papers.online-conferences.com/index.php/titfl/article/view/592

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9.      Rustamova, N. R. (2019). Technology for the development of media culture of secondary school pupils (on the example of grades 7-9). Dissertation of the doctor of philosophy (PhD) in pedagogical sciences.

10.  Rustamova, N. R. (2019). Technology for the development of media culture of secondary school pupils (on the example of grades 7-9). Author’s abstract of PhD dissertation.

 

 

 

+998905877866, [email protected],

 

 

Annotation: the paper studies the issues of continuity and continuity in the teaching of computer science and information technologies in general schools of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The components of information and communication competence of students are determined.  Key words: incessancy, continuity, informatics, information technology, component.  

 

В настоящее время в Республике Узбекистан сложился ряд объективных предпосылок к переходу в состояние информационного общества. Наиболее существенными из них можно назвать быстрое развитие материальной базы информационной сферы, информатизацию различных отраслей производства и управления, активное вхождение в мировое информационное сообщество, высокий кадровый и научно-технический потенциал, подготовленность общественного сознания к необходимости получения глубоких знаний в области информационных технологий. 


Непрерывное образование — это постоянное совершенствование знаний, умений и навыков человека, вызванное стремлением быть актуальным в существующей профессиональной и социальной среде. 

Преемственность в образовании рассматривается учеными в философском, психологическом, педагогическом, методическом аспектах. 

В педагогике преемственность рассматривается с различных позиций (1): 

       как общепедагогический принцип непрерывного процесса обучения, который требует неразрывной связи прошлого, настоящего и будущего между отдельными сторонами процесса обучения, для расширения и углубления знаний, преобразования их в последовательную систему знаний, навыков, умений; 

       как принцип поступательно-восходящего развертывания всего процесса обучения в соответствии с содержанием, формами, методами работы при обязательном анализе качественных изменений учащихся; 

       как условие, обеспечивающее установление соотношений между целями, содержанием, методами, средствами обучения и воспитания, что позволяет выстроить каждый, новый этап   обучения с опорой на прошлый опыт, облегчает адаптацию учащихся к условиям обучения на следующем этапе; 

       как процесс непрерывного развития личности, самообразования, самореализации, изменения потребностей, мотивов; 

Принцип преемственности является универсальным, связан с принципами научности, фундаментальности, последовательности, непрерывности. 

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На наш взгляд, преемственность в обучении информатике и информационным технологиям (ИТ) состоит в том, что выстраивается единая логика целей, задач, согласованность содержания, последовательно усложняются технологии, обеспечиваются условия для переноса знаний, умений в новые виды деятельности. Обучение основывается на концентричности изучения материала, что позволяет успешно перейти из одной образовательной программы в другую, более сложную, для чего необходима стандартизация образовательных программ, основанная на единстве стратегических целей, задач обучения информатике и ИТ. 

В связи с обеспечением школ и вузов современной компьютерной техникой, локальной и глобальной сетью; введением информатики в начальной и базовой школе необходима разработка учебно-методических и дидактических материалов с соответствующими компьютерными программами. 

В ходе исследования определены компоненты информационно-коммуникационной компетентности (ИКК) учащихся: 

       содержательный компонент обеспечивает формирование системного подхода к информационному анализу окружающего мира, развития мыслительной деятельности; 

       технологический компонент отражает навыки выполнения как отдельных операций, так и приобретение опыта работы со стандартными компьютерными программами, информационными технологиями; 

       деятельностный компонент характеризует практические умения в различных областях деятельности, связанные с информационными и коммуникационными вопросами, с самостоятельным применением компьютерных программ для обучения и самообучения в процессе освоения других дисциплин, в профессиональной и жизненной деятельности; 

       мотивационный компонент включает в себя внутреннюю позицию обучаемого, его цели, стремление к изучению материала, психологическую готовность углублять и совершенствовать полученные знания в области информатики и ИТ в школе. 

В школах должен быть реализован непрерывный курс изучения информатики и ИКТ, предусматривающий три этапа (2,3): 

- 7 классы),  –9 классы), 

–11 классы) 

В педагогических институтах Узбекистана предмет «Информационные технологии в образовании» преподается в межкафедральных группах в течение 3-4 семестров. Предмет «Информационные технологии в образовании» рассчитан на 184 часа в год, из них 36 часов лекций, 36 часов практических занятий, 32 часа лабораторных занятий и 80 часов самостоятельной работы.

Непрерывное изучение ИКТ предполагает освоение теоретической и практической части. Теория дает понятие о информации и информационных процессах, математическом и компьютерном моделировании, построении алгоритмов, представлении любой информации в цифровой, дискретной форме. 

Практическая часть курса направлена на освоение учащимися навыков использования средств информационных технологий. Это помогает ученикам в других учебных предметах. Развитие познавательных интересов, интеллектуальных и творческих способностей путем

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освоения и использования методов информатики и средств ИКТ при изучении различных учебных предметов формирует информационную деятельность человека. 

При переходе от одного этапа к другому повышается уровень сложности изучаемого предмета. При таком подходе от одной ступени обучения к другой соблюдается последовательность и эффективность изучения ИКТ на всех ступенях обучения. 

Курс ИКТ для учащихся 5-7 классов ориентирован на формирование активной личности, мотивированной к самообразованию – умение получать доступ к различным справочным системам, электронным библиотекам, другим информационным ресурсам, умение самостоятельно и мотивированно организовывать свою познавательную деятельность. 

Одна из основных целей изучения информатики и ИКТ в школе для данной возрастной категории - использовать элементы причинно-следственного и структурно-функционального анализа, определять сущностные характеристики (2,3). 

Важным аспектом обеспечения преемственности является педагогическое взаимодействие школьных преподавателей информатики, которое осуществляется через проведение совместных семинаров, конференций, «круглых столов» с обсуждением общих вопросов в обучении информатике и ИТ в школе и ВУЗе

При обучении информатике и ИТ реализуется принцип связи теории обучения с практикой. Компьютеры быстро совершенствуются, внедряются во все сферы жизнедеятельности, поэтому для повышения результативности полученных знаний, навыков необходима отработка их реального применения. 

Результаты позволили сделать следующие выводы: 

1.    Установлено, что преемственность в обучении информатике и информационным технологиям является важным принципом, повышающим уровень формирования информационно-коммуникационной компетентности учащихся. 

2.    Выявлено, что единство целей, задач, методов, средств, принципов, форм, условий обучения, соответствие содержания, определение результативности обучения информатике и информационным технологиям в школе приводит к обеспечению преемственности. 

3.    Определено, что планирование процесса обучения с учетом имеющихся знаний, умений, навыков позволяет эффективно повысить информационно-коммуникационную компетентность учащихся. 

4.    Для осуществления преемственности в обучении информатике и информационным технологиям необходимо совместное участие школьных учителей информатики преподавателей ВУЗов в работе городских объед инений, семинаров» конференций, в проведении «круглых столов», выработке единых эффективных средств, форм обучения, а также методов оценивания информационно-коммуникационной компетентности учащихся. 

Полученные в исследовании выводы не претендуют на исчерпывающее решение рассматриваемой проблемы, а представляют один из вариантов подхода к актуальной задаче современного обучения информатике и информационным технологиям. Дальнейшее исследование может быть связано с обеспечением преемственных связей, условий в обучении информатике и информационным технологиям с учетом профильного курса изучения данных дисциплин на разных уровнях образования.  

 

 

 

Tashkent, 2017; 160. 

3.      4.Stuart Gray. Information Technologi in a Global Society for the IB Diploma: Blask and

White Edition. “Create Spase Independent Publishing Platform”. Desember 20, 2011 y

4.     
Zakharova I.G. Information technology in education. Moscow ACADEM'A 2003

5.      Simonovich S.V. Informatics. Basic course. Textbook for universities. Peter, 2013 ISBN 9785-496-00217-2, 978-5-459-00439-7. 637 pp.

 

 


 

Analysis of the program for the translator preparation in the field of professional communication and practical observations showed the lack of a systematic approach to the training of the translation. The professional skills of the translator of texts in certain specialty are formed comprehensively in the process of learning the transaction and transition, and most of the classes are dedicated to the study of the linguistic compliance of foreign and native languages. Special courses offered to students are usually completely repeated by traditional disciplines that are taught to future translators at the faculties and universities who are preparing specialists in the field of foreign languages.

Cognitive linguistics took a special place in the paradigm of the concepts of modern linguistics. Cognitive approach is one of the new stages in the study of the communication of thinking and language, the role of the language for a person and a person in the language. The beginning of the study of cognitive processes put the opening of neurophysiologists who analyzed the functions of the human nervous system, the specifics of basic neurophysiological mechanisms at various stages of human development and determining the development of cognitive processes.


At the present stage, in teaching a foreign language, tasks are especially relevant to the formation of communicative and discursive competencies, which contribute to the achievement of the most important goal consisting in the formation of a secondary linguistic personality, which can fully communicate in this language. These competencies become particularly significant when we are talking about the use of literary texts in the preparation of future translators. Students studying in the specialty "Translation and Translation Studies" must learn to solve the tasks assigned to them in accordance with the types of their professional activities. The need to develop a problem of learning literary translation as a whole and the search for effective ways of such training in particular has arisen due to the fact that the training of a specialist who performs the translations of literary texts and fiction is complicated by the fact that it should not only have a wonderful knowledge of two languages – native and foreign, but also to own the techniques and methods of translating literary text, competencies involving the development of a significant linguocultural reservoir.

Obviously, the problem of learning a literary and poetic translation with the use of cognitivediscursive analysis allowing us to be seen, to prepare a specialist who fluently owns not only the subtleties of native and foreign languages, but also by the receptions and methods for the implementation of literary translation, as well as competencies involving the development of a significant linguocultural reservoir is essential.

The research hypothesis is assumed that the training of students of the specialty "Translation and translation graphics" with a literary translation from English into Russian will become more effective if it implies; the development and the application of cognitive-discursive analysis of the literary text; formation of the professional competence of the translator in the field of literary translation; the formation of skills to apply knowledge of the language system; the rules for the functioning of the units of the language in speech; to determine the frequency of the use of the word in the context of the work; to work with national corps of texts, with sensible and etymological dictionaries.

 

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To achieve the goal, a number of private research tasks should be solved:

 to identify the competencies that are part of the professional competence of the translator in the field of literary translation;

 to characterize the learning process of literary translation from one language to another on the basis of a cognitive-discursive analysis of the text, identify its specificity and develop a model of this process, including the sequence of its organization;

 create a methodology for learning a literary translation based on cognitive-discursive analysis of text, including a system of exercises and tasks, characterize them;

 Check the experimentally proposed methodology for teaching literary translation based on cognitive-discursive analysis of text and prove its effectiveness.

Mastering with literary translations is provided in stages based on a cognitive-discursive analysis of the text carried out through the system of exercises and tasks. At the same time, the exercises and tasks at the introductory stage are familiarization in nature (students study linguistic, cognitive, psychological foundations of the professional activity of the translator in the field of literary translation, receive skills to work with the proposed authentic material), then a practical stage (defining students in the source text key repeated clarifying, additional, zero information, identifying key and basic concepts, as well as their nominees and verbators, work of students with corps of texts of native and foreign languages, work on the selection of translation of translation, equivalent to the original, taking into account the difference in nominees' values) and the final stage (exercising by students of a full-fledged process of translation of literary text using cognitivediscursive analysis, assessing students of its translation activities, assessment by teacher translation of students).

To conclude, organization of training for literary translation on the basis of a cognitive-discursive analysis of the text in accordance with the model developed by us this process allows you to form competencies that are part of the professional competence of the translator. Students, during a cognitive-discursive analysis of the literary text, receive translation data on its cognitive structure, internally bonds, explicit and implicit information and apply the knowledge gained during the translation, thereby developing translation skills and skills that allow them to form their respective competencies. References

1.             Miremadi, S.A. (1991). Theories of translation and interpretation. Tehran: SAMT Publication.

2.             Gerding – Salas, C. (2000). Teaching translation: problems and solutions. Translation journal online, available at http://www.translatiojournal.net 

3.             Tashpulatovich, B. M. (2021). Using Multimedia Technologies in Teaching Foreign Languages. Middle European Scientific Bulletin, 12, 64-67.  

4.             Ruziyeva N. (2020). FACE CONCEPT IN THE CATEGORY OF POLITENESS. European

Journal of Humanities and Educational Advancements, 1(4), 15-20.

5.             Mehmonova Yulduz. (2021). LEXICO-GRAMMATICAL PARTS OF SPEECH EXPRESSING THE INDEFINITENESS OF THE SUBJECT. JournalNX - A

Multidisciplinary Peer Reviewed Journal, 7(1), 323–327. 

6.             Косимова Нафиса К вопросу о прагматической целостности художественного текста // European journal of literature and linguistics. 2016. №3.  

7.             Imamkulova Sitora Anvarovna. (2021). Cognitive Interpretation of Degrees of Intensification.

Middle European Scientific Bulletin, 11(1). 

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8.             Djalolov F. F. “To the problems of complete assimilation of educational materials at schools” European Journal of Humanities and Educational Advancements (EJHEA) Vol. 1 No. 4, December 2020.p.55-57

9.             NF Kasimova Communicative functions of the interrogative sentences in English Приоритетные направления развития науки, 59-62

10.         Haydarova N. A (2020) Linguocultural analysis of English and Uzbek medical phraseological units describing physiological processes. European Journal of  Research Development and Sustainability. Pp 15-16.

11.         Olimova, D. Z. (2021). Transfer of modality in translation (modal verbs and their equivalents, modal words). Middle European Scientific Bulletin, 12, 220-22. 

12.         G’ayratovna, R. M. (2021). Semantics of euphemistic and dysphemic units. Middle European

             Scientific                Bulletin,                12,                243-246.                Retrieved                 from

https://cejsr.academicjournal.io/index.php/journal/article/view/545 

13.         Zokirova N S. (2020). TRANSLATOLOGY AND THE ANALYSIS OF ITS LINGUISTIC MECHANISM. European Journal of Humanities and Educational Advancements, 1(4), 8-10.

12-1xabs-20 Folk applied decorative art and 2nd year student majoring in restoration

 

Abstract – The historical origins of applied art go back to the childhood of mankind. As humanity grew, so did the applied arts, and as the struggle for survival intensified, so did the need for a better life, and mental labor begin to separate from manual labor? Demand for hunting weapons and household items have increased. First stone carving, bone carving, and then wood carving also developed slowly.

Key words: applied art, folk arts, crafts, decorative art, architectural monuments, plaster, tile, painting, calligraphy.

 

I.          Introduction


In the centuries-old history of the Uzbek people, folk arts and crafts are the most wonderful and popular part of our rich and colorful cultural heritage. The art forms that originated and flourished in the Uzbek land are world-famous for their uniqueness. If we think about such stages of development, we will see that the roots of the Uzbek applied decorative arts go back to the childhood of mankind, that is, to primitive society. The monuments found during the excavations of the strata of our country testify to the fact that the creation of art by the human body began in the Stone Age and continues for centuries. As a result of such a deep philosophical approach to applied art, the creation of works of art based on conditionality, stylization and symbolism has intensified. This historical factor has led to the rapid development of the Uzbek national decorative art, which today is a world of world-famous architectural monuments, a wonderful combination of plaster, tile, painting, calligraphy, stone and other arts. Folk applied decorative art enriches the spiritual world of people, forms their artistic taste, and nurtures their psyche. That is why the Uzbek folk applied art is one of the most important sources in the artistic, moral, universal education of people, in the formation of their scientific worldview, as well as in raising their cultural level.

II.        Literature review

From the 11th century, carvings began to be made from copper and copper alloys. Archaeological finds show that the first (special copper alloy) pins were widespread in Egypt, the Mediterranean, Mesopotamia, India and Central Asia in the late 3rd and early 2nd centuries BC. These artistic metal objects were the first examples of workmanship. The pins depict small events, animals, and other things. A ceremonial cauldron found in Fergana proved that an "animal style" had been developed in carving in the middle of the 1st millennium.

In the III-VIII centuries, carving was highly developed in Central Asia. Precious metals used to be used to make all kinds of beautiful ornaments for governors and nobles. Precious metals used various ornaments for governors and nobles.In these gold or silver objects one could see images of weddings, enthronement ceremonies, secular themes, scenes of hunting and wrestling, mythological and epic heroes, living beings, birds, and more.

Archaeologists' findings show that before the Arab conquest, artistic metal objects were widely used in the homes of the Sughd people. Copper patterns expressing the shape of the animal, i.e. the head of a wild animal, etc. were found.

 

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III.       Analysis

In the VIII-XIII centuries, vessels made of precious metals became a tradition in many corners of Central Asia. A lot of things were made of gold, and gold water was poured on the decorations of the buildings. Later, not only precious metals but also inexpensive materials such as copper and its various alloys were used as raw materials. Various vessels were made of red copper, pots, pans, candlesticks of brass and yellow copper, pots of white copper and bronze, laundry, large and small bowls, and similar utensils.

The middle of the 11th century saw a major turning point in Central Asian folk art. Engraving developed rapidly, new items were made of copper and its alloys, spherical bellies and neck-shaped jugs, semicircular ketones, inks, mortars, etc. were widely used. instead of carving patterns (engraving) has become a tradition.

In the IX-XII centuries there were also great innovations in the art of carving. The inscriptions "goblet and luck", "health", "happiness", "prosperity" are written in the style of "Kufi" and "Naskh". These written ornaments have developed in such a way that they are so small, so elegant, that it is even difficult to read them.

In the 13th and 14th centuries, carvers decorated the ornaments with silver and gold threads, trying to make the patterns very elegant. The treasures found near Registan Square in Samarkand, ie more than sixty different pottery, bowls, jugs, lids, trays, pots, give information about the artistic traditions of carving in the XIV-XV centuries.

The fourteenth century saw a significant shift in the artistic processing of metal. In his time, Timur paid great attention to the development of folk crafts. During the reign of Timur and the Timurid dynasty, the production of handicrafts was highly developed. Ba period is characterized by a change in artistic style in all types of folk applied art. The decoration of metal objects became more perfect. The patterns of the items were more artistic, refined, fine Islamic patterns, writing patterns were used more. Examples include candlesticks in the Hermitage Museum, rings, and pots made of seven different metals. "Candlesticks" are made on the floor of elegant floral net rings made of pearl bone doors. These inscriptions indicate the date of the candlesticks (1397) and the name of the master Iza-ad Din Din Isfahani. The pot is decorated with a plant-like pattern and high artistic calligraphy. This legendary cauldron is unique in the world and was made by Abdul-Aziz ibn Sharafiddin, a Tabriz sculptor.

IV.       Discussion

The names of foreign masters can be found in metal objects found in archeological excavations in the country. The reason for this was that Timur moved foreign masters to Samarkand during his marches.

In the memoirs of the Spanish ambassador, Clavijo said that the wonderful vessels he had seen during the Amir's reception and banquet were highly executed. At that time, high-quality and elegant metal products were produced in Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva.

Items brought from Bukhara and Khiva as gifts to Russian officials, as well as handicrafts brought by Central Asian merchants, included gold-plated gourds, bullets, sharp-edged swords and sword sheaths and other items, demonstrating the mastery of the masters of the time.

In the XVIII-XX centuries, carving was well developed, and the cities of Bukhara, Kokand, Khiva, Samarkand, Shakhrisabz, Karshi and Tashkent were centers for the production of carvings. The houses of the nobility are decorated with patterned vessels. These items demonstrated the wealth of the landlord. By the middle of the XIX century (vopurush) merchants appeared. Vopurs bought items from artisans at low prices and took them to traders or markets and sold them at inflated

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prices. They acted as "trade intermediaries" in the delivery of carpets, rugs, boxes, swords, various utensils and other handicrafts made by masters of folk arts.

V.        Conclusion

The carvings of Bukhara in the second half of the XIX - beginning of the XX century are especially interesting. The elegance of the shape of the works created by the masters of Bukhara, as in the brochure, the classic balance of the calculations, is characterized by the stability of the decorative performances, usually performed with the help of deep carving techniques. Bukhara carving has changed less than other schools and has retained many ancient forms and traditional ornaments.

References:

1.             S. Bulatov. History of art of Uzbekistan. Tashkent. 1991.

2.             T. Abdullaev. The art of carving in Uzbekistan in the XIX-XX centuries Tashkent 1994.

3.             R. Khasanov. Methods of applied decorative art. Tashkent. 2003.

4.             K. Gulomov. Applied art. Toshkent.2007 y

5.             Akhmedova Mehrinigor Bahodirovna, “PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATING THE CONCEPT OF "SPIRITUALITY" ”, IEJRD - International Multidisciplinary Journal, vol. 6, no. TITFL, pp. 290-295, Apr. 2021.

6.             Mehrinigor Bahodirovna Akmedova, “INTRODUCTION OF THE CONCEPTS OF "SPIRITUALITY" AND "ENLIGHTENMENT" IN JADID LITERATURE”, IEJRD -

International Multidisciplinary Journal, vol. 6, no. TITFL, pp. 131-136, Apr. 2

7.             Mehrinigor Bahodirovna Akmedova, “INTRODUCTION OF THE CONCEPTS OF "SPIRITUALITY" AND "ENLIGHTENMENT" IN JADID LITERATURE”, IEJRD -

International Multidisciplinary Journal, vol. 6, no. TITFL, pp. 131-136, Apr. 2021.

8.             Akhmedova Mehrinigor Bahodirovna, “PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATING THE CONCEPT OF "SPIRITUALITY" ”, IEJRD - International Multidisciplinary Journal, vol. 6, no. TITFL, pp. 290-295, Apr. 2021.

9.             Gafurov Bakhtiyor Zakirovich, Analysis of the relationship of medical terminology with segment phonostylistics of the noun in Russian, Uzbek and English languages //Theoretical & Applied Science. International Scientific Journal. –Philadelphia,USA, 2020. –№1 (81). – Р.464-466. http://T-Science.org. (Impact Factor SJIF 5.6).

10.         Gafurov Bakhtiyor Zakirovich, Super-segment phonostylistics as the basis for studying the problems of accent variants of Russian nouns // International Engineering Journal for Research & Development. Published in IEJRD, May 14, 2020. –Vol.5. Issue 4. – Р. 1-7. www.iejrd.com.

11.         Gafurov Bakhtiyor Zakirovich, Study of advertising texts in Russian on the topic of medical terminology. International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies (IJPSAT). – Indonesia. Vol. 26. №1, April 2021.–P. 586-590. (Impact factor 7,2)

12.         Gafurov Bakhtiyor Zakirovich, Medical terminology in edvertising text. Scientific reports of Bukhara State University. –Bukhara, 2021. –№3. –P. 30-41.

 

Abstract – This scientific article devoted to the study of general and national-cultural features of French-Uzbek medical plants (name of plant medicinal) is relevant to clarify the field of comparative linguistics and to program its separate study at the level of modern innovative requirements.

Keywords: linguo-culturology, medicinal plants, medical plants, phraseology, phraseological units, symbolism, anthroponyms, similarities and distinctive features, lexical and semantic analysis.

 

I.          Introduction


National and cultural characteristics are specific to each language and reflect the way of life, development and long-term development of a particular society. Many scholars have studied the national and cultural characteristics of languages. As a result, the concepts of different peoples in the process of language comprehension have been studied comparatively, as different research methods and techniques are used to determine the national-cultural features of word semantics. The semantics of phraseological units reflect the specificity of the national culture, the characteristics of the national traditions of the people. In this sense, other features of language can be freely expressed in the expression of national-cultural in phraseological units.

II.        Main part

At the heart of this goal are the following research objectives:

 Identify medical plants in French phraseology using a single research method and terminology within a single language and compare them with medical plants in Uzbek phraseology;

 Compare medical plants in the phraseology of the compared languages on the main parameters of their use to identify common similarities and differences; identify and describe different types of medical plants in Uzbek and French phraseology.

The comparative study of linguistic phenomena in the field of phraseology attracts the attention of linguists with the importance of demonstrating national and culturally defined features of languages in the linguocultural context. On the one hand, the identification of different linguocultural relations highlights the common features of history, culture, and psychology reflected in different linguistic units. On the other hand, knowing the phraseological structure of a language allows for a deeper understanding of the mentality of the language and nation being studied, as phraseology clearly reflects the uniqueness of people’s life and culture.[1]

Thus, phraseological units can have different expressive effects in addition to national-cultural features. The study of the common features and differences of the phraseological units of the two languages allows us to better understand the specifics of the national mentality. As a result,

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national-cultural characteristics can be reflected in the example of a single nation, that is, in its national-cultural identity.[2]

In our study, we used a comparative analysis of genetically heterogeneous, typologically different, and non-active languages, such as Uzbek and French. This approach allows us to identify common and specific linguistic means of depicting the world landscape, to more clearly define the boundaries of the national landscape of each nation's world, and to reveal the features of regional concepts called Europe and Central Asia. Therefore, in the historically progressive image of ancient cultures, the Uzbek language and culture reflect the traditions and customs that have been formed since the time of the steppe, the culture of the Turkic peoples between the two rivers and the heroic Gaelic tribes in French. flour can be seen. Thus, we have taken the path of identifying the similarities and differences between the languages of the peoples of the world in the languages of the French people historically located in the heart of Europe and the Uzbek people living in the center of Central Asia and at the crossroads of the Great Silk Road.

For example, chayono’t (stinging nettles,Urtica dioica L.) is a very common plant in Western and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. It serves as a means of expressing common meanings. "The old scorpion bites harder" as stated in the article, knowledge and experience always prevail. The healing properties of the essential oils have long been known in ancient times for their healing properties. Proof of this can be seen in the popular dream interpretation: “If a girl sees a fire in a cauldron in a dream, she will see a miracle in front of her. When he leaves the pot, the house is flooded with firewood. If a married woman sees a fire in a cauldron in her dream, she will miss it.

[3]

Plants belonging to the genus Scorpion or cauldron grow in mountainous areas of almost all regions of Uzbekistan, in areas close to water, along roadsides, near populated areas, in shrubs, around houses. This medicinal plant, which has long been used in folk medicine, is among the Uzbek people in the cauldron [f. - biter; poisonous] are called medical plants such as grass, nettle, sagebrush, tin, chalkan. The semantics of the medical plants, which has acquired a specific meaning, is characterized by a stylistic character with a portable content. This is of course primarily due to the natural properties of the plant. When the plant blooms in the pot, the leaves are collected only by wearing gloves. Often the surface of the plant is harvested and withered (the fermenting properties of the hair are lost when the plant withers), and then the leaves are picked by hand.

In French jeter qch aux orties (literal translation: to throw something into a nettle) - to give up something, to drop something; jeter sa robe aux orties (literally: to throw a shirt into the nettle) - to give up one's previous profession; faut pas pousser mémé dans les orties (literally: there is no need to push the grandmother into the nettle) - there is no need to exaggerate, and so on.

As can be seen from the examples, the same medical plant is expressed to express completely different connotative (portable) meanings.

III.       Conclusion

When analyzing the issue of occurrence of meanings in the discourse, it is necessary to clarify the concept of "national-cultural feature" and its associated terms before beginning to study the national-cultural features. The above terms are widely used in the linguistic literature, but there are also some differences in their use.

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Many linguists say that the semantic structure of a word has a separate cultural component meaning. This component occupies a different place in the semantic structure of the word and, consequently, is one of the non-essential explicit and implicit elements.

References:

1.             Raikhshtein A.D. Comparative analysis of German and Russian phraseology: textbook. allowance. - M .: Higher school, 1980 .-- 143 p.

2.             Muravyov V.L. Problems of the emergence of ethnographic lacunae. - Vladimir: Publishing house of the Vladimir Pedagogical Institute, 1980. - 105 p.

3.             Tajibaev, K. (2020). Efficiency of organization of agro clusters in fruit and vegetable growing. Scientific Bulletin of Namangan State University, 2 (3), 238-242.

4.             Juraeva, M.M. Linguocognitive, national-cultural features of the modality category in French and Uzbek languages. DSc thesis. – T., 2017.

5.             Bobokalonov, O. (2020). Linguo-Cultural Peculiarities of the Phraseological Units with Pharmacophytonyms Components. International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies, 23(2), 232-235.

6.             Bobokalonov, R. O. (2021, March). International medical terms from French to Uzbek language. In E-Conference Globe (pp. 136-144).

7.             Bobokalonov, O. Specific features of phraseological units.

8.             de Foucault, B. (1993). Les plantes et leurs noms: essai de phytonymie structurale. Dissertationes botanicae, 201.

9.             Juraeva, M. M. (2016). The national, cultural and linguocognitive peculiarities of modality of the french and uzbek fairytales. GIF. LangLit. An International Peer-reviewed Open Sccess Journal, 3(2), 81-86.

10.         Muhamadovna, J. M. (2019). Theoretical views of concept, frame, tale-concept, tale-frame in cognitive linguistics. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 8(5 Special Issue 3), 392-395.

11.         Pazlitdinova, N. (2017). The Linguistic Status of Phytonyms. ANGLISTICUM. Journal of the Association-Institute for English Language and American Studies, 6(9), 109-116.

 

 

 

Introduction

The complexity of production processes in a market economy, increased competition and uneven distribution of investment in the country's economy require a more detailed study of the investment process and its management in market conditions. Management of investment attraction processes requires not only a market strategy for the development of the facility, but also an investment strategy and management mechanism. The concept of control mechanism can also be defined as a set of tools used in management or a set of supports used.

The management mechanism is formed in accordance with certain principles, goals, approaches and priorities. The peculiarity of the management mechanism is that it is a means of influence that varies in the structure, ratio, importance, etc. of management processes. The management mechanism can also be changed and evaluated in terms of the formation and development of the management system and process, management effectiveness, social significance, etc. [1].


The main part. There are different views on the management of these investment processes in the economic literature today. For example, L. S. Valinurova and O.B. According to Kazakova, "the mechanism of investment process management is a set of organizational, managerial, informational, technical and psychological tools, relationships and interdependence that help to ensure the successful implementation of the investment process and the effectiveness of its results" [2]. The mechanism for managing investment attraction in the field of agro-tourism is a key element and tool of the management system, through which impact measures aimed at attracting investment in the sector are carried out.

The mechanism for managing investment in the tourism sector is well-organized and optimally managed agro-tourism facilities in the tourism sector, investors wishing to invest in the sector, the Cabinet of Ministers, the Ministry of Tourism and Sports, local authorities, the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regions and Tashkent city tourism. and is one of the most effective mechanisms for establishing optimal communication and ratios between sports headquarters.

The management mechanism represents the adoption and implementation of certain management and organizational decisions that effectively influence the activities of attracting investment in the field of agritourism, and consists of a set of methods of influencing the management entity to achieve the expected development and planned results. Management mechanisms are based on economic, normative-legal, administrative, managerial, technological, information, ideologicaleducational, psychological management methods.

The basis for the functioning of the agro-tourism complex as an integrated system is the close and effective interaction between the following subsystems: 1) objects of agro-tourism; 2) investors; 3) organizational and management components; 3) tourism industry; 4) Consumers of agro-tourism services. This requires the establishment of an effective mechanism for managing the attraction of investments in enterprises and the region, the country as a whole in the field of agro-tourism.

 


The results of the application of investment management mechanisms in the field of agro-tourism as an integrated system: improving the efficiency of investment management, economic development of regions, diversification of tourism services, increasing foreign exchange earnings, additional income and employment opportunities, increasing budget revenues, etc.

 

 

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Scheme of mechanisms and system of management of investment attraction in the field of agrotourism in Uzbekistan. Influence systems in attracting investment in agro-tourism in Uzbekistan as a whole are implemented at the following hierarchical levels: 1) microeconomic (private households and farms, those engaged in production activities in agriculture, various investors); 2) messeconomic (local, self-government bodies, districts, cities, regions, the Republic of Karakalpakstan, the executive authorities of the city of Tashkent); 3) macroeconomic (Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Ministry of Tourism and Sports of the Republic of Uzbekistan).

Conclusion. Adaptation of organizational and economic mechanisms for managing the attraction of investments in the field of agro-tourism to the existing conditions, effective use of all management mechanisms, achieving the impact of management entities on the objects using the most effective methods are important for the development of the industry.

List of used literature

1.             Tolchinskaya M. N. Soderjanie mechanism upravleniya investitsionnoy deyatelnostyu v regione // Terra Economicus. - 2008. - Т. 6. - №. 1-2. - 323 C.

2.             Valinurova L.S., Kazakova O.B. Upravlenie investitsionnoy deyatelnostyu: Uchebnik. M .: Knorus, 2005.

3.             Xamidov O.X. Improving the management mechanism for the development of ecotourism in Uzbekistan. Compiled by the author using the data of the dissertation written for the degree of Doctor of Economics (DSc). –T .: Tashkent State University of Economics, 2017. -26 b.

 

Abstract – This article provides general information about medical plants in Uzbek and French. At the same time, opinions are given about their general and national-cultural features. In addition, the differences between the Uzbek and French syllables are analyzed using examples.

Keywords: linguo-culturology, medicinal plants, shifonames,medical plants, phraseology, phraseological units, symbolism, anthroponyms, similarities and distinctive features, lexical and semantic analysis.

 

I.          Introduction

Current research is being conducted in various fields of study of phraseological units in Uzbek or French on the basis of scientific data and specific theories of national and cultural significance, which are not historically complete, but the linguocultural research is not enough to describe the holistic phraseological scope of the world, so there is a growing interest in interlingual research covering this problem.

Typologically different, genetically unrelated languages of phraseological units are to identify similarities and differences in the content and expression of the Uzbek and French languages on the basis of synchronous comparative analysis with the chiffon component.


II.        Main part

As the famous linguist W. Humboldt put it, "The language of the people is its spirit, and the spirit of the people is its language." In other words, it shows that in the language of each nation, the history, culture and, in general, the whole spiritual world of that nation is reflected.

One of the most interesting areas of comparative study of phraseological units is the study of phraseological units with a chiffon component.

A comparative analysis of the phraseological layer in terms of shifonames (medical plants) can be carried out in a broad sense, as the thematic groups of words expressed by medical plants by phraseological units are diverse and cover different aspects of the life of any nation. In this study, we decided to focus only on phraseological units with a medical plant component.

Phraseologisms with shifoname components in French, English, Russian and Uzbek lexicology Sh.Balli, F. de Saussure, J.Amerlink, I.Arnold, A.P.Kovi, P.Hovars, V.V.Vinogradov, Ye.D.Polivanov, LABulakhovsky, S.Abakumov, G.D.Grigoriev, F.I.Fakhrutdinov, Sh.Rahmattullayev, B.Yuldashev, A.Mamatov, M. Sodikova.

The expressive semantics of Uzbek and French phraseological units are often figurative and colorful. Phraseological units and lexemes are sharply differentiated by the colors of expression, even if they refer to something or an event. Because the concepts behind these images combine cultural and historical meanings. It should be noted that both the French and the Uzbeks were very interested in the natural world, especially in medicinal plants. In the national-cultural nomenclature of both languages, in particular in the lexical-phraseological layer of proverbs, parables, parables,

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myths, legends, seasonal-ceremonial songs, riddles, praises, alla, narrations, fairy tales, aphorisms and other linguistic and cultural circles features are noted.

As a result of the comparative analysis, it was observed that there was also a difference in the choice of shifonames used in the construction of phraseological units. Some plant names appeared to be relevant only within the context of the language in question.

For example, the Uzbek mythology, achchikmiya, buritikan, qariqiz, yetmak, shuvoq, zagchakoz and others are very common, but they are rarely expressed in French sources.

Different peoples compare the same type of medical plant differently. Sometimes the comparison in one nation is not at all similar to the comparison in another, it can even be contradictory, and there are cases of positive and negative evaluation.

III.       Conclusion

The national-cultural features of the word can also be reflected at the level of methodological connotations. Only the question of whether this connotation is part of the semantic structure of the word is debatable. According to some scholars, connotation is a component of meaning. Some scholars, on the other hand, believe that connotation is not part of the semantic structure of a word. Studies show that connotative meanings are one of the key components of word semantic structure at the paradigmatic level of language. Otherwise, it becomes difficult to distinguish the functions of words in a speech that represent a concept or are synonymous. Therefore, the concept of “lexical synonymy” is relative.

The connotative meanings of the word depend on the semas, the stylistic dyes. The combination of denotative and connotative meanings in the semantic structure of a particular word reflects the dialectical unity of language. This combination becomes a means of representing nomination and expression. We see such tools in units at all levels of language.

References:

1.             Raikhshtein A.D. Comparative analysis of German and Russian phraseology: textbook. allowance. - M .: Higher school, 1980 .-- 143 p.

2.             Muravyov V.L. Problems of the emergence of ethnographic lacunae. - Vladimir: Publishing house of the Vladimir Pedagogical Institute, 1980. - 105 p.

3.             Hamdamova Z. Dream Interpretation 770. - T .: Sparks of Literature, 2014, 96p.

4.             Rubtsova O.G. The names of medicinal plants in different-structured languages (based on the material of Russian, Mari, German and Latin languages): dis. ... Cand. philol. sciences. Yoshkar-Ola, 2015.218 p.

5.             Shansky N.M., Ivanov V.V., Shanskaya T.V. Brief etymological dictionary of the Russian language. A guide for the teacher / Edited by S.G. Barhudarov - Edition 2, revised and supplemented - M .: Education, 1971 - 542 p.

6.             Tajibaev, K. (2020). Efficiency of organization of agro clusters in fruit and vegetable growing. Scientific Bulletin of Namangan State University, 2 (3), 238-242.

7.             Juraeva, M.M. Linguocognitive, national-cultural features of the modality category in French and Uzbek languages. DSc thesis. – T., 2017.

8.             Bobokalonov, O. (2020). Linguo-Cultural Peculiarities of the Phraseological Units with Pharmacophytonyms Components. International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies, 23(2), 232-235.

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9.             Bobokalonov, R. O. (2021, March). International medical terms from French to Uzbek language. In E-Conference Globe (pp. 136-144).

10.         Bobokalonov, O. Specific features of phraseological units.

11.         de Foucault, B. (1993). Les plantes et leurs noms: essai de phytonymie structurale. Dissertationes botanicae, 201.

12.         Juraeva, M. M. (2016). The national, cultural and linguocognitive peculiarities of modality of the french and uzbek fairytales. GIF. LangLit. An International Peer-reviewed Open Sccess Journal, 3(2), 81-86.

 

Анотация: Гендерное равенство на протяжении многих десятилетий безудержно замедляется процессом развития из-за низшего качества жизни народов, стереотипами и предубеждениями, которые не дают возможность женщинам обрести равные права и возможности, тем самым усугубляя процесс развития экономики в странах. Этот аргумент оценивается посредством теоретического гендерного анализа на примере доступа к формальным и неформальным источникам финансирования бизнеса

 

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

За последние два десятилетия было накоплено большое количество исследованийо негативных последствиях ощущения. По словам Стила и егоколлеги (Стил, 1997; Стил, Спенсер и Аронсон,2002), такая ситуация приводит к ощущению стереотипной угрозы.Как описывает Стил (1997, с. 614), стереотипная угроза заключается в том, что представительницам женского пола в случае сложившихся над ними предрасудных предубеждений, ставят их перед обществом в затруднительное положение, действуя с психологической стороны и опровергая их разумные мысли.


Распространенное мнение о принятиифинансовых решений заключается в том, что женщины более склонны к рискучем мужчины. Вследствие этого стереотипа происходит статистическая дискриминация, котораяснижает успех женщин в финансовой системе и на рынке труда. Восприятие женщин менеджеров, менее подверженных к риску, нежели мужчин выдвигается как основная причина "стекла и потолка» -нематериальный барьер в иерархии, который не позволяет женщинам или меньшинствам занимать руководящие должности.»в корпоративных рекламных лестницах(Johnnie E. V. Johnson and Philip L. Powell,1994) .

Для развития элементарных и стратегических принципов политики, термин “гендер” имеет большое значение в различных социльных сферах. Политика гендерного равенства определяет необходимость обеспечения равных возможностей в процессах человеческого развития как фундаментального элементадля достижения справедливого, так и устойчивого развития и роста. (Bonn, 2014).

По результатам статистики и опросу, проведенной Всемирным Банком Исследования выявляется, что гендерное неравенство и многие другие аспекты социальной жизни, которые приводят к дискриминации и вытеснению от рабочего места одного пола и превышают меры, права и возможности другого пола, значительно замедляет процесс экономического развития страны. (WorldBank, 2009)

По исследованию (Courtney von Hippel1, Denise Sekaquaptewa,and Matthew McFarlane) было показано как женщины сталкивались с угрозой стереотипов в своей рабочей среде, онисообщали о снижении самочувствия на работе и реже рекомендовали свою сферу деятельности другим женщинам, и эти результатыбыли опосредованы разделением идентичности.

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Несмотря на то, что организации становятся всё более усовершенствованными и разными, стереотипыв отношении пола по-прежнему мешают женщинампреуспеть в областях, где главенствующим доминантам остаются мужчины (Robertson&Kulik, 2007).

При ведении предпринимательской деятельности в рыночной экономике доступностьфинансирования, и доступ к ним является критическим элементом для запуска и последующегопроизводительность любого предприятия. Следовательно, препятствия или препятствия для доступасоответствующие уровни или источники финансирования будут иметь длительное и негативное влияние напроизводительность затронутых фирм. Хотя очевидно, что поиск, доступ и управлениефинансы - важная и сложная задача для большинства предпринимателей, хотя выводыбыли несколько непоследовательными, недавние исследования подтверждают мнение о том, чтово время этого процесса характеристики будут отрицательно влиять на женщин. (Aldrich, Elam,& Reese, 1997; Brush, 1997; Carter & Rosa, 1998; Marlow, 2002).

По данным опроса John Hershey and Paul J. H. Schoemaker, 1980), гендерное отношение к рискуможно спутать с различиями виндивидуальнымивидами возможностей. Обзорные исследования, индивидуальный состав богатства обеспечивает толькослабый контроль гендерной информации овариантов выбора и гендерные ограничения богатствав основных финансовых решениях.Во-вторых, поведение в абстрактных игровых экспериментахможет не соответствовать рискованному поведениюв контекстных решениях.

ТЕОРИЯ И РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ

Гендерные различия вотношение к риску может быть смешано свлияние на благосостояние из-за дохода, зависящего от поларазличия вне лаборатории. Такимобразом, порезультатамисследованияи экспериментальных доказательств, проведенных

RenateSchubert, MartinBrown, MatthiasGysler, andHansWolfangBranchinger было выявлено, что женщины могут быть не менее рискованными в финансовой деятельности, так же, как и мужчины. Здесь показывают, что гендерно-зависимоерискованное поведение, обнаруженное в данных опроса,может быть из-за различий в мужчинах и женщинах выбором возможностей, а не стереотипное отношение к риску. Результаты также предполагают, что абстрактныеазартные игры могут не подходить дляанализа гендерного отношения к рискук финансовым решениям.На практике рискованные финансовые решенияпо своей сути контекстные. Выводы о контекстныхфинансовых решениях предполагают, что предвзятыеотносительно отношения к рискуженщин-инвесторов и менеджеров может быть большепредрассудками, нежели фактом.

Следующим опровергающим фактом стереотипных мышлений против женщин стало исследование, проведенное (CourtneyvonHippetandDeniseSekaquaptewa),где было доказано, что женщины, занимавшиеся финансами испытывали стереотипную угрозу разделяясь между работой и личной жизнью, тем самым ухудшили самочувствие и после этого рекомендовывали другим женщинам не заниматься банковским делом и финансами. Разделение идентичности частично опосредовало эффект угрозы стереотипа о снижении самочувствия и пониженной готовности  в финансовой деятельности для молодых женщин.

ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ

Финансы - сложная профессия, в которой люди получают хорошую зарплату и

ответственность за распределение финансовых ресурсов общества. Однако рост занятости женщин в сфере финансов не поспевает за ростом занятости женщин в других странах, а также в других специальностях, таких как такие как право и медицина. В этой статьеисследуются возможные объяснения недостаточной представленности женщин в сфере финансов. 

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По результатам опросов разных исследований в области экономики и финансов было выявлено,  что у женщин, у которых больше веры в стереотипы, имеется меньше ресурса и комфортных условий жизни, по сравнению с другими женщинами и мужчинами той же страны, не верующие предубеждениям и стереотипам.

 Женщины-члены CFA чаще, чем мужчины-члены CFA, выражают предпочтениедля того, чтобы отвлечься от работы. Это особенно верно для тех, кто женат, и тех, ктоесть дети. Пожилые женщины CFA, которые ценят традиции, с большей вероятностью отдают предпочтениеотвоевать время на работе. Эти результаты подтверждают аргумент Голдина

(2014) о том, что

гендерный разрыв в оплате труда больше в таких профессиях, как финансы, в которых люди, которые работают длительное времячасы и определенные часы оплачиваются непропорционально, и женщины меньше тянутся ктаким профессии. Таким образом, одним из способов привлечения большего числа женщин к финансированию было бы структурирование ивознаграждениена рабочем месте, чтобы поддерживать временную гибкость.

ИСТОЧНИКИ И ЛИТЕРАТУРА

1.             Ренате Шуберт, Мартин Браун, Маттиас Гислер и Ханс Вольфганг Брахингер «Принятие финансовых решений: действительно ли женщины более склонны к риску?», 2014г

2.             J.E.V. Джонсон, П. Пауэлл 1994г; «Принятие решений, риск и пол: менеджеры

разные?»;  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.1994.tb00073.x

3.             КАРИН ЛОСКОККО, ШЕННОН М. МОННАТ, ГВЕН МУР и КИРСТЕН Б. ЛОУБЕР; Гендер и обществоVol. 23, № 3 (июнь 2009 г.); «Женщины-предприниматели: Сравнение женских и мужских сетей малого бизнеса»

4.             Сьюзан Марлоу, Дин Паттон (2002г) «Вся заслуга мужчин?Предпринимательство,Финансы и гендер» 

5.             Кортни фон Хиппель, Дениз Секакваптева, Мэтью Макфарлей; Впервые опубликована 2 марта 2015 г. Исследовательская статья https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684315574501 «Стереотипная угроза для женщин в сфере финансов: негативное влияние на идентичность, благополучие на рабочем месте и найм»

6.             Гольдин, Клавдия. 2006. «Тихая революция, изменившая занятость, образование и семью женщин». Американский экономический обзор, 96 (2): 1-21.

DOI:10.1257/000282806777212350

7.             Авторы: Ренее Адамс, Брэд М. Барбер, Терансе Одеан: «Семья, ценности и женщины в финансах» ; Январь 2016 Электронный журнал ССРНDOI: 10.2139 / ssrn.2827952Авторы:

Chinese language teacher Departments of Theory and Practice of Chinese language, UzSWLU

 

Annotation: in this thesis, the plural expressions of the Uzbek and Chinese languages are analyzed and the factors of commonality and personality come out. It is believed that in Chinese, ("men") should be classified asikics. Then a horizontal comparison between the plural suffixes" men "and the plural suffixes" lar " is formed, and it is believed that the two languages have differences in form, semantics and meaning. Among them, it is mentioned that there are significant factors that cause differences in the types of language and national cultural psychology.

Keywords: "","- lar", plural, suffix, comparison.

 

The plural suffix "" ("men") means plural in Chinese and has a configuration function. It is combined with nouns that refer to nouns or things that refer to people in anthropomorphic rhetorical techniques to form a plural form. In the Uzbek language, unity and plural have strict limitations in meaning and form and cannot be mixed. "- lar " are widely used and have many meanings. By correctly distinguishing the application of the Chinese language "men" and comparing it with the plural suffix "-lar" in Uzbek, we can understand the differences between the two languages and increase the accuracy of translation. 


The Chinese language plural suffix "men" can be used in several cases: 1. "men" can be used in conjunction with a noun or phrase when referring to people. It can also be used in conjunction with such pronouns as" you"," I "and" we". 2. "men" is not used in conjunction with quantifying expressions that represent the specified number. 3. "men" means that the numbers of units and plural are often indefinite. Whether nouns denote communion or denote plural is determined by checking the context. "men "means a lot, but sometimes we know that it means a lot, even if we do not use the form" noun + men " according to the meaning of the sentence. 4. In some cases, it is impossible to add "men", even if we want to express the plural meaning"more than one". 5. "men" is combined with the names of sisters, brothers, mother, grandmother, etc. Express the meaning of" this is the same "as" sisters (children) "and"men (childrens)". Such a "men" does not mean the plural of the noun in the preposition, that is, it does not mean "many sisters, many grandfathers". 6. The form "noun+men" is not used when referring to things. And in anthropomorphic rhetoric it can be used.

 In modern Chinese, words are divided into real words and fantastic words. Ikicks are not words, they are word-building morphemes. Gram in terms of grammatical meaning, the criterion for determining words and morphemes is whether they can be used independently, words can be used independently, but not morphemes. it is not possible to use "men" only as a component of the sentence, and it cannot even be used directly to answer questions. It is attached only to nouns that refer to people, or nouns that denote names and things. They are morphemes, not words. In terms of speech, the phonetic form of words is complete and constant, not easy to change; the phonetic form of morphemes can change due to changes in the linguistic environment. Words like “men”“suffix” zanmen ("we") and “警察jingchamen (”polices") are read softly, but these words still turn into phrases when the words,"men" are added. Therefore,"men" must necessarily be a morpheme.

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 "- lar " as a plural suffix represents the meaning of the plural in the Uzbek language and is part of the noun suffix. In Uzbek, the unit has a zero form, while the plural has a special suffix "-lar", which can be used on a very wide scale. Nouns in the Uzbek language have singular and plural variations. In the communion, the" zero form", that is, it is expressed as the noun core: a book (books). in the plural, "-lar" are added after the nouns of the nouns. The plural suffix "-lar" in the Uzbek language can be used in several cases:

the number category in the Uzbek language consists of "unit" and "plural", the scope of its application is very wide. Other nouns, except for special nouns and abstract nouns, have mainly morphological changes of the "number". 2) if the numerals mean "all" or "only group" of nouns, then in the Uzbek language the plural "-lar", and in the Chinese language for its expression “”,

” (dou , quan) "all", "all" are used adjectives and generalizations. 3) when expressing the types of uncountable nouns or the meaning of "many" and "all sides" in the Uzbek language, plural forms are used to express them, and in the Chinese language, word combinations are used to express them. 4) when specifying the estimated age, time and place in the Uzbek language, the plural additional components of "-lar" are added to the noun, and in the Chinese language before and after the noun, 大概 (dagai) adds "Probably approximately", 左右(Zuoyou) "seemingly" and other words. 5) when summarizing and summing up several nouns of the same agreement in the Uzbek language, the plural form "-lar" is used. In Chinese, it is expressed in such nouns by adding “Chinese” (deng), that is, "etc., etc.". 6) the first-person category of the regional adjectives of the Uzbek language consists of additional components, such as the first person, the second person and the third person, and there is a distinction between the singular and the plural. (7) in Uzbek, verbs have the grammatic categories of Name, Number, time, voice, body and formula. Verbs must make appropriate changes in the personality and number of verbs according to the organizer of the action and behavior in order to maintain consistency. 8) there are also cases when the plural form in the Uzbek language expresses the meaning of unity (it is often used in the oral language).

REFERENCES

1.             Prof. N. Deke. Dmitriev, the Kumyk language grammar. Moscow. - Lgr., 1940, B: 47.

2.             "Not a number, the number depends on the concept of the grammatical category OK". (J. Vandries, sin, ruscha tarzhimasi, M. - Lat., 1934, b: 108).

3.             Shavkatovich Shamansurov Shorasul. Usage On The Signs Of The Plural of languages In Chinese Minoritie-Sign The Plural Uzbek―“-lar"[J] IJSTR (2019) 10-8.

4.             J. Deny, la langue de turque Crammaire (dialecte osmanli), paris, 1920, § 103.

5.             Ruscha - uzbekcha lugat. In the Soviet edition of the Encyclopedia of Uzbekistan: Toshkent, 1984, B 1046.

6.             Sea of words. Shanghai Dictionary Publishing House. Shanghai, Top/Middle/ bottom/ 2003, 954 pages.

7.             Chinese-Russian Dictionary/ Gu Binglin. -Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2009, 2798 pages.

8.             Modern Chinese Dictionary (5th Edition)/Edited by the Dictionary Editing Office of the Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. -Beijing: Commercial Press, 2005, 568 pages.

 

АННОТАЦИЯ: Изобразительная деятельность дошкольников – это развитие мысли, анализа, синтеза, сравнения и обобщения. В статье раскрываеться темахудожественно – эстетическое развития дошкольников на занятиях изобразительного деятельности в дошкольных образовательных учреждениях.

Ключевые слова: дошкольники, развитие, детское творчество, изобразительная деятельность, аппликация, личность, мышление, воображение, внимание, память, усидчивость, аккуратность, композиция.

 

Дошкольный возраст – один из ответственных этапов, на котором закладываются основы художественно-эстетического, творческого отношения к действительности. Этот период, по определению Льва Выготского, является «первой ступенью в системе непрерывного художественного образования, цель которого – наиболее полно раскрыть весь огромный творческий потенциал ребенка». [1]. 

Современные достижения теории и практики в области художественно-эстетического образования отражают различные направления развития у дошкольников эстетического восприятия действительности, способности художественного видения мира, приобщения к миру искусства и развитие художественно-творческих способностей.


Развитию изобразительной деятельности дошкольных образовательных учреждениях отводится большая роль. Нельзя упускать этот период в развитии ребенка ведь – это период когда происходит многогранное развитие личности, где закладывается фундамент для последующего развития человека. Развивать творческие способности нужно с раннего дошкольного возраста, так как задатки творческих способностей даны человеку с рождением и если их не развивать, то интерес к художественной деятельности постепенно исчезнет.

На всех занятиях изобразительной деятельности важно развивать активность и самостоятельность детей. Следует пробуждать дошкольника вспомнать, что они видили интересного вокруг во время прогулки, что им понравилось; учить сравнивать предметы; анализирповать опыт детей, что похожее они уже рисовали, лепили, как они это делали; вызвать ребенка для показа остальным, как можно изобразить тот или иной предмет.

Изобразительное детское творчество является самым основным среди детей младшего дошкольного возраста. Оно создает основу полноценного и содержательного общения ребёнка со взрослыми, положительно сказывается на эмоциональном состоянии детей, отвлекая их от грусти, страхов и печальных событий [2].

Эстетическоеразвитие осуществляется с помощью искусства. Поэтому его содержание должно охватывать ознакомление и приобщение дошкольников к различным видам искусства - к литературе, музыке, изобразительному искусству. В нашем случае аппликация на занятиях изобразительной деятельности, выступает как ведущий способ эстетического

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воспитания и развития детей дошкольного возраста. Она универсальна, так как ею вполне могут заниматься как малыши так и взрослые.

Одна из основных задач обучения детей дошкольного возрастаявляется помочь правильно передавать свои впечатления от окружающей действительности в процессе изображения конкретных предметов и явлений. В свою очередь успешное развитие детского изобразительного творчества зависит от целого ряда условий:  во-первых – целенаправленное обучающее воздействие педагога, организующего

деятельность детей; во-вторых – систематическое и последовательное развитие восприятия, представлений, на основе которых формируется изображение; в-третьих – обучение изобразительным навыкам.

Изобразительная деятельность должна быть тесно связана со всеми сторонами воспитательной и образовательной работы в дошкольном образовательном учреждении: знакомство с окружающим, игры, детская литература, музыкальные занятия и др., в процессе которой дети получают разнообразные впечатления и знания.

Изобразительная деятельность дошкольников – это развитие мысли, анализа, синтеза, сравнения и обобщения. Она способствует развить речь, мелкую моторику, пространственное мышление, воображение, внимание, память, усидчивость, аккуратность. Расширение запасов познания, наблюдения и сравнения положительно сказывается на общем интеллектуальном развитии ребенка.

В основе развития любых способностей дошкольника лежит опыт непосредственного познания предметов и явлений. Самое главное развить у ребенка все виды восприятия, включить в процесс освоение величин, форм, объем, движение и т.д.

Для развития детского творчества важно создание эстетико-развивающей среды. Большое значение имеет эстетическое оформление занятий, продуманный подбор материалов для занятий, наглядных пособий, игрушек, предметов и т.п.

Эстетическое воспитание дошкольников происходит посредством развития у них чувства красоты, формы, цвета, яркости и насыщенности красок. Движущей силой такого многостороннего развития является детский интерес.

Возможности дошкольника в передаче окружающего мира в изобразительном творчестве ограниченны. Все, что ребенок воспринимает, может служить темой для его творчества. Воспитатель должен пробудить желание творить ведь это и есть внутренняя потребность ребенка, она возникает самостоятельно и отличается чрезвычайной искренностью. Очень важно стараться в каждом ребенке пробудить веру в его творческие способности, индивидуальность, неповторимость, веру в то, что он пришел в этот мир творить добро и красоту, приносить людям радость.

Качеству занятия помогает образное и эмоциональное объяснение воспитателя, активация детей на занятии: предлагается не просто объяснить задание детям, но и обратиться к ним с просьбой, вспомнить, что и как делали раньше, что еще можно так же слепить, вырезать, нарисовать. Такие приемы формируют у ребенка активность, самостоятельность. На занятиях, чтобы исключить у детей механическое копирование, почти не используется образец, созданный воспитателем. В таком случае ребенок чувствует себя изобретателем чего-то нового этим самым повышается творческое мышление ребенка.

 

Питер, 2010.

3.             Занятия по аппликации в детском саду/А. Н. Малышева,З. М. Поварченкова. – Ярославль: Академия развития, 2009.

4.             Лыкова, И.А. Изобразительная деятельность в детском саду/ И.А. Лыкова. – Москва: Творческий центр «Сфера», Карапуз-Дидактика,2006.

5.            
Занятия по изобразительной деятельности в средней группе детского сада: конспекты занятий. © Издательство МОЗАИКА-СИНТЕЗ, создать программы «Школа семи гномов».Тамара Семеновна Комарова янв. 2009 г. МОЗАИКА-СИНТЕЗ

6.             АППЛИКАЦИЯ - СРЕДСТВО РАЗВИТИЯ ТВОРЧЕСТВА ДЕТЕЙ ДОШКОЛЬНОГО

ВОЗРАСТА МуллажоноваНигинаЖамоловна Самаркандский Государственный,

"Экономика и социум" №4(83) 2021 www.iupr.ru

7.             Электронный архив КФУ: АППЛИКАЦИИ НА ЗАНЯТИЯХ ИЗОБРАЗИТЕЛЬНОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИв средней группе дошкольных учреждений. dspace.kpfu.ru›xmlui/handle/net/159881…Казанский (Приволжский) федеральный университет. dc.contributor. author. МУЛЛАЖОНОВА Нигина Жамоловна. ru_RU. dc.date.accessioned

М. Ў. Худойбердиев

НДКИ “Иқтисодиёт ва менежмент” кафедраси катта ўқитувчиси

 

Ғофуров Асилбек Ғулом ўғли НДКИ талабаси

 

Аннатоция: Ушбу мақолада инновация тушунчаси ва унинг хусусиятлари, инновацион технологиялар бозорида тижорат банкларининг инвестицион фаоллигини ошириш бўйича мавжуд муаммолар ҳамда уларга айрим ечимлар келтириб ўтилган.

Калит сўзлар: инновация, инновацион технология, инновацион ғоя, тижорат банки, инвестицион банк, инвестицион фаолият, депозит, узоқ муддатли ресурс.

 

Кириш. Юқори ривожланган давлатларнинг тажрибаси шуни кўрсатадики, инновацион фаолият уларнинг иқтисодиётини ривожланишида  жуда муҳим вазифаларни бажаради.  Иқтисодиётни ривожлантиришнинг замон талабларига мос ҳолда олиб боришнинг асосий талаби инновацион технологияларни ҳаётга, яъни ишлаб чиқаришнинг барча жабҳаларига жорий қилиш ҳисобланади.


Мамлакат иқтисодиёти миқёсида айтганда, пухта ишлаб чиқилган давлат инновацион сиёсатини ўрнатиш, ушбу сиёсат асосида минтақада инновацион фаолиятни ривожлантириш орқали мамлакат иқтисодиётини ривожлантиришнинг юқори босқичига олиб чиқиш талаб этилади.

Бугунги кунда давлат бойликлари ҳисобида табиий бойликлар билан бир қаторда, миллатнинг интеллектуал мулки асосида ишлаб чиқарилган янги замонавий технологиялар ҳам инобатга олинмоқда. Шубҳасиз ушбу бойликлардан тўғри ва самарали фойдаланиш мамлакат иқтисодиётининг барқарор ривожланишига замин яратади.

Инновация тушунчасини иқтисодиётга австриялик олим Й.Шумпетер (1883-1951) ўтган асрнинг 30 йилларида киритган бўлиб, у бу фаолиятга ишлаб чиқариладиган маҳсулотлар, бозорлар, хўжалик турларини янгилаш, янги истеъмол маҳсулотларини яратиш ва уларни татбиқ этиш деб таъриф берган.

Инновация қуйидаги хусусиятлар билан тавсифланади:   инновация - бу одамларнинг режалаштирилган ижодий фаолияти натижасидир;  инновация - бу амалда татбиқ этилган янгилик; 

 инновацион жараённинг объекти техник, технологик, ташкилий ва бошқарув, молиявий, ижтимоий, экологик ва бошқа соҳаларда бўлиши мумкин; 

 инновацион фаолият рақобат томонидан бошланади, инновациялар макро ва микро даражадаги инқирозларни енгишга, рақобатбардошликни оширишга ёрдам беради;   инновацион фаолият хавф билан боғлиқ.

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Инновацион жараёнлар иқтисодий ривожланиш жараёнида юзага келадиган қарамақаршиликлар ва инқирозларни ҳал қилишнинг энг муҳим воситасидир. Инновацияларнинг ўзига хос белгилари янгилик ва тижорат аҳамиятига эга. Инновацион жараённинг натижаси нафақат маҳсулот, хизмат, балки янги ижтимоий эҳтиёждир. Инновацияларнинг ҳар бир тури ўзига хос рақобат стратегиясига эга.

Бизнинг фикримизча инновация дейилганда, янги технологиялар, маҳсулот ва хизмат турлари сифатидаги янгиликларни ишлаб чиқариш, таълим, молия, тижорат, бошқариш ва бошқа хусусиятларга эга ташкилий-техникавий ва ижтимоий-иқтисодий қарорлардан самарали фойдаланиш тушунилади. 

Бизга маълумки, инновацион технологияларни ҳаётга жорий қилишда энг муҳим масалалардан бири бу мустаҳкам молиявий тизимнинг яратилиши билан боғлиқки, бу соҳада зарур бўлган молиявий ресурсларнинг жамланиши натижасида дунё стандартларига мос бўлган инновацион технологиялар яратилишига олиб келади. Ҳозирги кунда инновацион технологияларни ишлаб чиқаришга жорий қилишда молиялаштиришнинг асосий манбалари қаторига бюджет маблағлари, корхона маблағлари, турли тижорат ташкилотлари маблағлари (суғурта маблағлари, инвестиция компаниялари), тижорат банкларининг ресурслари, чет эл инвестициялари ҳамда миллий ва хорижий илмий жамғармалари киради.

Хорижий тажрибалардан ҳам маълумки, иқтисодиётнинг юксак даражада тараққий этиши ишлаб чиқаришда инновацион технологиялардан қай даражада фойдаланилаётганлигига боғлиқ бўлади. Шундай экан, инновацион ғоялар, технологиялар ва лойиҳаларни тўлақонли реализация қилиш, уларни хорижий инвестицияларни жалб қилишнинг долзарблигини ҳисобга олган ҳолда ишлаб чиқариш тармоқларига амалий жорий қилишга салбий таъсир кўрсатаётган бир қатор омилларни Ўзбекистон Республикаси Президентининг 2018 йил 27 апрелдаги “Инновацион ғоялар, технологиялар ва лойиҳаларни амалий жорий қилиш тизимини янада такомиллаштириш чора тадбирлари тўғрисида”ги ПҚ-3682 сонли қарори билан келтириб ўтилган. Ушбу қарор бўйича санаб берилган омилларнинг орасида қулай инвестицион муҳитни шакллантириш, инновацион ғоялар ва лойиҳаларни ишлаб чиқиш ва жорий этиш соҳасига инвестицияларни кенг жалб қилиш, илғор ва илмий ҳажмдор технологияларни фаол тарқатишнинг самарали тизими мавжуд эмаслиги кўрсатилган.[1]

Юқорида келтириб ўтилган омилни бартараф этиш учун мамлакатимизда тижорат банкларининг инвестицион фаоллигини ривожлантиришнинг объектив заруриятлиги бугунги куннинг долзарб муаммоларидан бири ҳисобланади. Мамлакатимизда инновацион технологияларни ишлаб чиқаришга қўллашда тижорат банкларининг инвестицион фаоллигини ривожлантириш қўйидаги долзарб муаммоларни ҳал қилишда муҳим роль ўйнайди:

1.      Инновацияга боғлиқ бўлган йирик инвестицион лойиҳаларни молиялаштириш учун узоқ муддатли ресурсларни етишмаслиги;

2.      Инновацияга боғлиқ бўлган йирик инвестицион лойиҳаларни молиялаштиришда юзага келиши мумкин бўлган юқори даражали рискларни бошқариш меҳанизмларининг тўлиқ шаклланмаганлиги;

3.      Қимматли қоғозлар бозорида тижорат банкларининг инвестицион фаолиятининг сустлиги.

Бизнинг фикримизча ушбу муаммоларни ҳал қилиш орқали инновацияга боғлиқ бўлган инвестицион лойиҳаларни молиялаштириш, тижорат банклари томонидан амалга ошириш имкони яратилади.

Interdisciplinary Conference of

Young Scholars in Social Sciences

 

Бугунги кунда банк тизими бозор иқтисодиётининг энг муҳим ва ажралмас тузилмаларидан бири бўлиб, унда тижорат банклари асосий рол ўйнайди. Тижорат банклари, биринчи навбатда, иқтисодиётдан вақтинча бўш маблағларни жалб қиладиган, бошқа томондан, корхоналар, ташкилотлар ва аҳолининг турли молиявий эҳтиёжларини шу маблағлар ҳисобидан қондирадиган ўзига хос кредит ташкилотлари вазифасини бажаради.

Банкларнинг инвестицион фаолияти деганда, иқтисодиёт, мамлакат ва минтақалар кўламида ижтимоий ва иқтисодий соҳаларнинг инвестицион талабларини қондиришга қаратилган фаолият тушунилади. 

Банкларнинг инвестиция жараёнидаги иштирокини фаоллаштириш зарурати банк тизими ва умуман иқтисодиётнинг муваффақиятли ривожланишининг ўзаро боғлиқлигидан келиб чиқади. Бир томондан, тижорат банклари ўз фаолиятининг шарти бўлган барқарор иқтисодий муҳитдан манфаатдор, бошқа томондан, иқтисодий ривожланишнинг барқарорлиги кўп жиҳатдан банк тизимининг ишончлилиги ва унинг самарали ишлашига боғлиқ. Шу билан бирга, тижорат ташкилоти сифатида индивидуал банкнинг манфаатлари таваккалчиликнинг мақбул даражасида максимал фойда олишга қаратилганлиги сабабли, кредит ташкилотларининг иқтисодиётга сармоя киритишда иштирок этишлари фақат қулай шароитлар мавжуд бўлганда содир бўлади.

A.В.Беликовнинг фикрига кўра, банкларнинг инвестиция жараёнидаги иштирокининг асосий йўналишларини қуйидагича аниқлаш мумкин.

 банклар томонидан инвестиция мақсадларида маблағ жалб қилиш;  инвестиция кредитларини бериш;

 қимматли қоғозларга, корхона улушига (ҳам банк ҳисобидан, ҳам мижоз номидан).[2]

Бу соҳалар бир - бири билан чамбарчас боғлиқ. Банклар капитални, аҳолининг жамғармаларини ва бошқа бўш маблағларни сафарбар қилиб, улардан самарали фойдаланиш мақсадида ўз ресурсларини шакллантиради. Пул маблағларини тўплаш бўйича операциялар ҳажми ва таркиби банкларнинг кредит ва инвестиция портфеллари ҳолатига, уларнинг инвестиция фаолияти имкониятларига таъсир этувчи асосий омиллардир.

Иқтисодий адабиётларда тижорат банкларининг инвестиция фаолияти шаклларининг таснифи тижорат банкларининг инвестиция фаолиятининг ўзига хос хусусиятлари билан белгиланадиган умумий қабул қилинганидан бироз фарқ қилади.

Мамлакатимизда ҳам тижорат банкларининг инвестицион сиёсатини айнан шулардан келиб чиқиб замон талабларига мослаштириш қатъий талаб этилияпти. Бунда уларнинг инвестицион фаолиятнинг мақсадли мўлжаллари тизимини ташкил этиш ва мазкур мақсадларга эришиш усулларини эркин танлаш учун имконият берилияпти. Институционал жиҳатдан қараганда, бу инвестицион фаолиятни ташкил этиш ва бошқариш бўйича комплекс чора-тадбирлар амалга оширилмоқда деганидир. Айнан шу нуқтаи назардан тижорат банкларимизнинг муайян фаолияти инвестицион активларнинг мувофиқ таркиби ва ҳажмини таъминлаш, таваккалчиликнинг мақбул даражасида активлар даромадлилигини оширишга йўналитирилиши керак. Ўз навбатида банк ресурс базасини кенгайтириш ва банк ресурслари сақланишини таъминлаш ҳам истиқбол мақсадлари қаторидан жой олиши лозим. Шундагина инвестицион қўйилмаларнинг ликвидлилиги, хавфсизлиги ва даромадлилиги ҳамда ўсиб бориши учун прагматик шароит яратилади. Шу ўринда инвестиция йўналишида тижорат банкларини рағбатлантирувчи омиллар бўйича қўйидаги таклифларни келтириб ўтиш мумкин: рақобатдаги устунликни ошириш, ресурс базасини кенгайтириш ҳисобига кредитлаш ҳажмини ошириш, кредит портфели таваккалчиликларини диверсификациялаш

Interdisciplinary Conference of

Young Scholars in Social Sciences

 

асосида таваккалчилик даражасини камайтириш, кредит қайтмаслиги таваккалчилигини камайтириш.[3]  

Бозор иқтисодиёти шароитида кредитнинг зарурлиги қўйидаги омиллар билан белгиланади:

 кредит муносабатларида иштирок этувчи томонларнинг иқтисодий манфаатдорлиги таъминланиши. Хусусан, кредитор кредит ҳисобидан фоиз тўловлари сифатида фойда олса, қарз олувчи ишлаб чиқаришнинг узлуксизлигини таъминлаш орқали тегишли фойдани шакллантириш имкониятига эга бўлади;

 иқтисодиётда вақтинчалик бўш пул маблағлари ссуда капитали сифатида жамғарилиб, тегишли мақсадларга йўналтирилади;

 иқтисодиётда ишлаб чиқариш циклининг даврийлиги. Бунда айрим тармоқларда вақтинчалик бўш пул маблағлари вужудга келса, бошқаларида қўшимча молиявий ресурсларга эҳтиёж тўғилади, ушбу жараён кредит орқали тартибга солинади;

 ижтимоий такрор ишлаб чиқариш жараёнида қўшимча молиявий ресурсларга бўлган эҳтиёжнинг асосий қисми кредитлар орқали қондирилади.

Замонавий иқтисодиётда кредит муҳим молиявий элемент сифатида мамлакат иқтисодиётини ривожланишининг ажралмас қисми ҳисобланади. Кредит ва кредит муносабатларининг вужудга келиши ва ривожланишининг асосида товар ишлаб чиқариш, янаям аниқроқ қилиб айтадиган бўлсак, - капитал муомаласи ва айланиши ётади. Жамиятда капитал муомаласи ва айланиши доимо ҳам бир маромда амал қилмайди, булар юқорида таъкидланганидек қатор омиллар билан изоҳланади.[4]

Шундай экан инновацион технологияларни иқтисодиётга жалб қилишда қорхоналарни молиявий қўллаб қувватлашга тижорат банклари томонидан кредитлар ажратиш орқали молиялаштиришга эҳтиёж сезилади. Албатта бу тижорат банкларининг молиялаштириш жараёнида вужудга келадиган таваккалчилик даражаси юқорироқ бўлиши табиийдир. Шунинг учун инновацион технологияларни ишлаб чиқаришга жорий қилишда тижорат банкларининг кредитлари орқали амалга оширилганда тижорат банкларига бир қанча енгилликлар беришга тўғри келади.  

Чет эл мамлакатлари амалиётида кредит ресурсларини инновацион ривожланишни қўллабқувватлашга йўналтирадиган устунлик ва рағбатлар тизимини ишлаб чиқишга қаратилган сиёсат амалга оширилади. Бундай тизимни жорий қилиш қуйидаги чора-тадбирларни амалга оширишни талаб қилади:

1.      давлат томонидан ихтисослаштирилган инновацион банклар яратишни рағбатлантириш;

2.      технологик ўзгаришларга эришишга йўналтирилган маблағларга солиқ солиш бўйича тегишли имтиёзлар ўрнатиш йўли билан давлат томонидан банкларни узоқ муддатли кредитлаш жамғармаларини яратишини рағбатлантириш. Иқтисодий асосланган солиқлар, рағбатлантирувчи функциясини бажарган ҳолда, инвестицион-инновацион жараёнларни фаоллаштиради;

3.      ресурслардан фойдаланиш йўналишларига боғлиқ равишда банкларнинг фойда солиқ ставкасини дифференциациялаш – ресурслар инновацион лойиҳаларни узоқ муддатли кредитлашга йўналтирилган ҳолларда ставкани камайтириш;

4.      инновацион маҳсулотларни ишлаб чиқиш ва жорий қилиш бўйича инвестицион лойиҳаларни амалга ошириш учун имтиёзли кредитлар тақдим қилувчи банкларнинг имтиёзли кафолатлаш тизимини яратиш;

Interdisciplinary Conference of

Young Scholars in Social Sciences

 

5.      юқори технологик маҳсулотларни ишлаб чиқиш ва жорий қилиш соҳасида фаолиятни амалга оширувчи тадбиркорларга тақдим қилинган кредитларни давлат томонидан суғурта қилиш механизмини жорий қилиш;

6.      банклар инновацион маҳсулот ишлаб чиқарувчи корхоналар акцияларини сотиб олганда уларни мазкур корхоналар акцияларига инвестиция қилинадиган банк фойдасининг қисмига солиқ солишдан озод қилиш йўли билан тақдирлаш;

7.      инновацион фаолиятни ривожлантиришга йўналтирилган кредитларнинг гаров билан таъминланишининг ҳуқуқий тартибга солинишини такомиллаштириш;

8.      инновацион лойиҳаларни кредитлашни амалга оширувчи банклар учун мажбурий резервлар меъёрларини камайтириш.

Юқорида келтирилган тавсияларни амалга ошириш инновацион иқтисодиётга фаол ўтиш шароитларида, яқин келажакда тижорат банкларига бўлган талаб инновацион лойиҳаларни молиялаштиришнинг устувор манбасига айланишига олиб келади.[5]

Мамлакатимиз иқтисодиётини тез суръатларда ривожлантиришимиз ҳамда аҳолимиз турмуш даражасини кўтариш учун инновацион технологияларни қўллашда тижорат банкларининг инвестицион фаоллиги муҳим рол ўйнайди.  Бу мақсадга эришиш учун тижорат банкларимизга инновацион технологиялар бозорида фаол иштирок этишлари учун етарлича шароит яратиб берилиши лозим деб ўйлаймиз. 

Хулоса ва таклифлар. Юқоридаги келтириб ўтилган ўрганишлар натижасидан келиб чиққан ҳолда, хулоса ўрнида шуни айтиш мумкинки, банкларнинг иқтисодиётдаги бўш пул маблағларни етарли даражада узоқ муддатли депозитларга жалб этиши ва ушбу маблағларни реал ишлаб чиқаришга инновацион технологияларни жорий қилиш орқали самарали бошқариш ҳозирги кунда уларнинг муҳим вазифаларидан бири ҳисобланади. Шундай экан, тижорат банкларининг узоқ муддатли ресурс базасини мустаҳкамлаш ҳамда банкларнинг инвестицион фаоллигини корхоналарнинг ишлаб чиқариш технологияларини модернизациялашга қаратиш доирасида қўйидаги чора тадбирларни амалга ошириш мақсадга мувофиқ бўлади.

Биринчидан, давлат томонидан инновацион лойиҳаларни кредитлаш билан шуғулланадиган ихтисослаштирилган инновацион банклар ташкил этишни рағбатлантириш; иккинчидан, банкларнинг узоқ муддатли ресурс базасини уларнинг устав капиталини ошириш, ҳамда облигациялар ҳисобидан шакллантириш; учинчидан, банклар томонидан жозибадор бўлган узоқ муддатли депозит сертификатларини чиқариш амалиётини ривожлантириш;

тўртинчидан, тижорат банклари томонидан инновацион технологиялар учун ажратилган кредитлар қисмидан оладиган даромадлар қисмига солиқлардан имтиёзлар тақдим этиш;

Ўйлаймизки, юқоридаги чора тадбирларни амалга ошириш, банкларнинг ресурс базасини мустаҳкамлаб, реал секторни инновацион технологиялар ҳисобига ривожлантириши учун ўз таъсирини ўтказади. Шу билан биргаликда инновация фаолиятини ривожлантиришга қаратилган  чора-тадбирларнинг самарадорлигини ошириш ҳамда инновацион лойиҳаларни молиялаштириш имкониятлари яратилади.

 

 

 

Interdisciplinary Conference of

Young Scholars in Social Sciences

 

Фойдаланилган адабиётлар рўйхати.

1.             Ўзбекистон Республикаси Президентининг 2018 йил 27 апрелдаги “Инновацион ғоялар, технологиялар ва лойиҳаларни амалий жорий қилиш тизимини янада такомиллаштириш чора тадбирлари тўғрисида”ги ПҚ-3682 сонли қарори.  

2.             Колпакова, Галина Михайловна. Финансы. Денежное обращение. Кредит: учебное пособие для вузов / Г. М. Колпакова.— 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. — М.: Финансы и статистика, 2006.  стр 21-22. 

3.             http://www.xs.uz/uzkr/post/tizhorat-banklarining-samarali-investitsion-faoliyati-taraqqiyotva-farovonlikning-muhim-omili. Одил Шерназаров. 29.04.2020 йил.

4.             А.А.Омонов, Т.М.Қоралиев. Пул, кредит ва банклар. Дасрлик. Тошкент-2012 йил. 182 бет.

5.             М.М.Тожиев. Инновацияларни кредитлашнинг раҳбатлантирувчи омиллари ва

хатарлари тўғрисида. Иқтисод ва молия. 2019, №6 (126)

Doctor of Technical Sciences, Рrofessor, "Engineering communications and systems" department professor (TSTU)

 

Sardor Abdirasulovich Rejabov

2nd-year master's student (TSTU)

 

Abstract: The authors suggest using the sludge of chemical water treatment at thermal power plants as a sorbent for treatment of wastewater from oil products in thermal power plants. The results of studies of the basic sorption properties of the sludge are presented.

Key words: sludge, sorbent, treatment, wastewater, thermal power plants

 


The rapid growth of production and increased requirements for water quality require more efficient and environmentally friendly ways of treatment of natural and waste water of enterprises of the energy complex. The waters polluted with oil and oil products occupy a special place. The source of their appearance in wastewater of thermal power plants (TPPs) are fuel oil facilities, electrical equipment, auxiliary services (garages). Oil-containing water is an environmental threat due to the significant excess of maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) compared to natural water.  There are many ways to clean wastewater from oil products, but the most effective way to remove them to trace amounts is the method of sorption There are many different types of mineral and organic sorbents of natural and artificial origin, suitable for cleaning water from oil products, the best of which recognized granulated activated carbon (1).  At present the problem of finding new sorbents has become urgent. The issue of using cheap mineral sorbents, as well as various kinds of waste for water treatment is relevant because of the low profitability and simultaneously high cost of wastewater treatment systems. When using new sorbents it is necessary to analyze such indicators as efficiency, cost, disposal costs and environmental friendliness. It is proposed to use sludge of chemical water treatment (CWT) TPP as an oil sorbent. At present the slime of chemical water treatment of a thermal power plant (relating to the 5th class of danger, i.e. practically not dangerous) is utilized as a waste. Stockpiling of sludge waste is carried out on sludge dumps, which are open platforms, not equipped with means of environmental protection from filtration waters. Despite the fact that this sludge does not contain highly toxic substances, there are serious problems associated with its storage and subsequent storage. This results in alienation of large areas, the threat of salinization, salinization of groundwater of adjacent areas and deterioration of the hydrochemical regime of the nearest water bodies. Sewage sludge of CHPP clarifiers is a product of liming and coagulation, a natural raw and stable mixture of a certain composition (2). The chemical composition and the ratio of sludge components depend on the chemical composition of raw water under treatment. The chemical composition of the sludge is given in the table. Ash content of the used sludge is 89%, organic carbon - 11%, humic acids - up to 12%. 

  

 


When choosing a sorbent one of the most important performance indicators is its sorption capacity which is determined by the maximum amount of petroleum product absorbed by mass unit of the sorbent. To assess the sorption properties of the sludge were carried out experiments to determine the content of petroleum products in water . Sludge has an average hydrophobicity to different levels of oil absorption under the same conditions. At the same time hydrophobic sorbents are, as a rule, oleophilic, that is easily wetted by oil and oil products. Sludge is a medium-wetted sorbent. The results of the study of the adsorption process kinetics by weight method under the conditions of immersion of the sludge sample in pure samples of petroleum products show that the sorption capacity of the sludge is realized during the first minutes of contact with the waste water. In 25 minutes it reaches 0.5-0.7 g/g for turbine oil, diesel fuel and gasoline and 1.5 g/g for fuel oil, which is 56-78% and 150% correspondingly and it does not increase further. This indicates the onset of sorption equilibrium. The results of the investigation of the sorption capacity of a sludge sample (2 g weight) in relation to oil by the weight method are presented in Fig. 1.

 

Fig. 1. Sorption capacity of the sludge for oil-containing water

Determination of mass concentration of oil products by infrared spectrometric method was carried out on the AN-1 device. The results of determining the oil content in wastewater, depending on the loading height and mass of the sorbent are shown in Fig. 2. 

 

Fig. 2. Dependence of treatment efficiency on the loading height and loading weight

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According to the results shown in Fig. 2 we can conclude that the efficiency of TPP wastewater treatment of petroleum products is directly proportional to the height and weight of the load.  

Increasing the height of sludge layer more than 30 cm does not increase the efficiency of purification, because there is a sticking of the upper layers, which leads to a decrease in the active surface of the filtering material [3]. The convergence of the results showed that any of the above methods can be used to assess the sorption properties of the sludge. The obtained data can be used for construction of an adsorption isotherm which will allow determining the optimum parameters of industrial purification units. Literature

1.             Turobjonov,      SadriddinMaxamaddinovich.            Oqovasuvlarnitozalashtexnologiyasi:

texnikaoliyo'quvyurtlariuchundarslik / S. M. Turobjonov, T. Tursunov, X. Pulatov; O'zRoliyvao'rta-maxsusta'limvazirligi. -T.: Musiqa, 2010. - 256 b.

2.             Nikolaeva L.A. Research of chemical water-treatment slime as an oil sorbent for power plant wastewater treatment / L.A. Nikolaeva, D.G. Garayev, M.A. Golubchikov // Radio Electronics, Electrical and Power Engineering, Proceedings of the XIII Int. - VOLUME 3. P. 155-156.

3.             Boroday E.N. Sorption Properties of the Clarifier Slime of Wastewater Treatment for Power Plants from Petroleum Products / E.N. Borodai, L.A. Nikolaeva, M.A. Golubchikov // IzvestiaVuzov. Power Engineering Problems. - 2011. - № 1-2. - С. 132-137.

4.             Adilkhojaev, A. I., &Kadirov, I. A. (2021). ON THE MECHANOACTIVATION OF METALLURGICAL WASTE.

5.             Adilhodzhaev, A. I., Kadyrov, I. A., &Umarov, K. S. (2020). RESEARCH OF POROSITY

OF A CEMENT STONE WITH A ZEOLITE CONTAINING FILLER AND A SUPERPLASTICSTIFICATOR. Journal of Tashkent Institute of Railway Engineers, 16(3), 15-22.

6.             Аминов, Акмал Шавкатович, et al. "ПРОБЛЕМЫ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ СТУДЕНТОВ В ВЫСШИХ УЧЕБНЫХ

ЗАВЕДЕНИЯХ." European science 2 (58) (2021): 77-79.

7.             Собирова, Ш. У., Ядгаров, Н. Д., Мамурова, Д. И., & Шукуров, А. Р. (2021). ОСНОВЫ, ЦЕЛИ И ЗАДАЧИ ОБУЧЕНИЯ ИЗОБРАЗИТЕЛЬНОМУ ИСКУССТВУ. European science, (2 (58)), 62-65.

8.             Olimov, S. S., &Mamurova, D. I. (2021). Graphic Information Processing Technology and its Importance. European Journal of Life Safety and Stability (2660-9630), 10, 1-4.

9.             Mamurova, D. I. ELECTRONIC METHODOLOGICAL INSTRUCTIONS ON COMPUTER GRAPHICS PREPARATION METHODOLOGY.

 

Техническая реализация системы дистанционного обучения представляет собой достаточно сложный программно-аппаратный комплекс и в основном они строятся исходя из портальной схемы (Рис.1). Ядром данной системы являются LMS (Learning Management System) или система управления учебным процессом.


 

Рис. 1. Архитектура системы дистанционного обучения

Система управления обучением (LMS) обычно предназначены для контроля и управления учебным процессом с большим числом обучаемых. Некоторые из них ориентированы на использование в учебных заведениях, другие – на корпоративное обучение. Их общей особенностью является то, что они позволяют следить за обучением пользователей, хранить их характеристики, а также определять число доступов и время, потраченное обучаемым на прохождение определенной части курса.

Эти системы позволяют пользователям регистрироваться для прохождения курса. Зарегистрированным пользователям автоматически высылаются напоминания о необходимости пройти очередной онлайновый урок. Такая система позволяет выполнять основные административные функции. Обучаемые могут проверять свои оценки, проводить чаты и участвовать в специальных групповых разделах, куда могут заходить только члены определенной группы.

Interdisciplinary Conference of

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Помимо управления процессом обучения, существует другой важный вопрос – управление контентом электронных курсов. Эти функции могут быть интегрированы в LMS, либо реализовываться специальной системой управление учебным контентом (LCMS – Learning Content Management System). Системы управления контентом также могут позволять создавать каталоги графических, звуковых, видео и текстовых файлов и манипулировать ими. Такие системы представляет собой базу данных, снабженную механизмом поиска по ключевым словам, позволяющим преподавателю или разработчику курсов быстро найти то, что ему нужно. Системы управления контентом особенно эффективны в тех случаях, когда над созданием курсов работает большое число преподавателей, которым необходимо использовать одни и те же фрагменты учебных материалах в различных курсах. Это сокращает время на разработку курсов, поскольку, например, вместо создания нового изображения бизнесмена, преподаватель может просто найти и использовать одно из готовых.

Важным компонентом системы электронного обучения является также специальные средства интеграции LMS с существующими в организации информационными системами, например, ERP-системами.

Особо следует отметить, что кроме проблем необходимой функциональности LMS и интеграции ее с существующими информационными системами, особое внимание необходимо уделить вопросу ее совместимости с другими решениями для электронного обучения, предлагаемыми на рынке. Совместимость – это возможность взять один и тот же учебный материал и, не внося в него изменений, использовать его в различных системах управления обучением. Одним из способов гарантировать совместимость – использовать программное обеспечение, поддерживающее определенные стандарты, принятые в индустрии дистанционного обучения. В идеальном случае оно должно позволять использование одних и тех же учебных материалов в различных системах управления обучения и управления контентом.

Поскольку целью создания компьютерных систем поддержки образования и обучения является наиболее полное удовлетворение потребностей учащегося, современные компьютерные обучающие технологии основываются на модели «учащегося-человека». Некоторые особенности этой модели нашли отражение в стандартах группы IEEE 1484, разработанных IEEE в сотрудничестве с другими организациями, ведущими разработки в области компьютерного обучения.

Стандарт IEEE 1484.1 выделяет пять основных уровней в архитектуре компьютерных технологий обучения:

 взаимодействие «человек - обучающая среда». На этом уровне определяется цель обучения - передача, обмен, обработка, формулировка каких-либо знаний (информации) либо открытие новых знаний учащимся путём взаимодействия с обучающей средой (рис. 6);

 «человеческий аспект» обучающей технической системы, который рассматривает особенности человека как соучастника учебного процесса с использованием компьютерных технологий в качестве «приёмника» информации;

 компоненты системы технологий обучения, отражающие эти особенности;  перспективы использования системы технологий обучения - этот уровень определяет эффект, который принесёт внедрение данной разработки учащимся, их работодателям, отрасли, в которой они работают, преподавателям, учебному заведению,

организующему обучение, другим учебным заведениям и т.д.;

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 реализация компонент системы, а также интерфейсов и протоколов взаимодействия между компонентами системы, исходя из перспектив её использования.

 Принципы разработки электронных учебных материалов базируются на следующих основных положениях: 

 учащийся-человек воспринимает информацию из внешней среды через органы чувств. Поэтому процесс обучения идёт эффективнее, если изучаемая область не просто описывается, а демонстрируется в изображениях, звуке, видеосъёмках, что особенно актуально при самостоятельном обучении.  Информация, которую необходимо усвоить при дистанционном обучении, переводится в наиболее удобную для человеческого восприятия форму - мультимедиа, что означает компоновку нескольких форм представления информации для наиболее полной передачи свойств изучаемых объектов, процессов или явлений окружающего мира.

 учащийся является ненадёжным «приёмником» информации и нуждается в постоянном контроле. Контроль со стороны руководителя обучения заключается в возможности своевременной помощи учащемуся при трудностях в процессе усвоения знаний. Приложение для дистанционного обучения должно быть оснащено средствами контроля, которые адекватно отражают достижение учащимся поставленной при создании приложения цели. Кроме того, учащемуся нужно иметь возможность при необходимости обратиться за помощью к преподавателю, специалисту или товарищам.

 каждый учащийся индивидуален, непредсказуем и не похож на других. При дистанционном обучении даже цели обучения учащихся одной и той же специальности могут значительно отличаться. Студенты могут различаться по уровню знаний, способностям и другим признакам, что требует от приложений, используемых при ДО, возможностей адаптации, многовариантности, наличия как теоретических материалов, так и заданий различных уровней сложности.

 учащийся должен иметь возможность заниматься обучением в любом месте и в любое время, когда ему это потребуется.

 для эффективного обучения учащийся должен активно участвовать в формировании стратегии и тактики своего обучения.

Рис.2.  Модель взаимодействия и информационные потеки в системе дистанционного обучения

На рис.6 показана примерная схема взаимодействия компонентов системы на уровне программного обеспечения. Для каждой конкретной системы схема может несколько отличаться. 

 

         

 

Рис.3. Схема взаимодействия компонентов системы на уровне программного обеспечения Literature:

1.             Gvozdarev Y.N. Fundamentals of Russian phrase formation: monography. - Rostov: NMC "Logos", 2010. - 246 с. 

2.            
5. Dal V.I. Proverbs of the Russian people. - M .: Fiction, 1984.

3.             6.Dzhuraeva Z.R.  Nosirov O.T.  Dostoevsky's traditions in the novel “Doctor Faustus” by T. Mann // International Journal on Integrated Education, 110/114

4.             7.Олимов, Ш. Ш. "Педагогическое мастерство преподавателя и его профессионализм в системе образования." Научные школы. Молодежь в науке и культуре XXI в.: материалы междунар. науч.-творч. форума. 31 окт.–3 нояб. 2017 г./Челяб. гос. ин-т культуры; сост. ЕВ Швачко.–Челябинск: ЧГИК, 2017.–394 с. ISBN 978-5-94839-6293 (2017).

5.             Khodieva, Orzigul Shodimurodovna, and Sohib Salimovich Sharipov. "The history of the creation of the author's lexicography." Middle European Scientific Bulletin 9 (2021).

6.             Salimovich, Sharipov Sohib, and Nematova Mohibegim Fazliddinovna. "Dictionaries in Modern Life." International Journal on Integrated Education 2.6: 166-168.

7.             Джураева, З. Р., and Л. Х. Нигматова. "Психологическое восприятие фонетического уровня поэтического текста." Наука. Мысль: электронный периодический журнал 10 (2014).

8.             Нигматова, Лола Хамидовна. "ЛЕКСИКОГРАФИЯ ТАРИХИДАН ИЗ ИСТОРИИ ЛЕКСИКОГРАФИИ FROM THE HISTORY OF LEXICOGRAPHY." ANIQ VA TABIIY

FANLAR: 93.

9.             Khodjayeva N. S., Mamurova D. I., Nafisa A. IMPORTANCE IN PEDAGOGICAL TECHNIQUES AND EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY //International Engineering Journal For Research & Development. – 2020. – Т. 5. – №. CONGRESS. – С. 5-5.  

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10.         Samadvich, A. S., Nayimovich, A. S., & Nosirovna, S. M. (2021). Technology Of Teaching Fine Arts And Science Classroom. International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies, 25(2), 109-111.

11.         Muzafarovaa A. N. FORMS OF PREPARATION OF FUTURE TEACHERS FOR VISUAL AND CREATIVE ACTIVITIES //Euro-Asia Conferences. – 2021. – С. 119-123.

12.         Nazarova S. M., Zaripov G. T. GENERAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF IRRIGATED GRASS SOILS OF BUKHARA OAZIS AND WAYS TO IMPROVE THEM //Scientific reports of Bukhara State University. – 2020. – Т. 4.

 

Today I'd like to discuss the Vardzia monastery complex, which is one of Georgia's most popular tourist attractions. The presence of this cultural relic is difficult to accept at first glance, because such fantastic sites can only be heard in stories and legends. Vardzia is located on the left side of the Mtkvari River in old Javakheti. It is situated about 1300 meters above sea level on the Erusheti Mountain's side. You could sense the amazing history linked with this city-cave as soon as you walked in.

Vardzia's caves all seemed to tell a different story. Vardzia's construction began in 1156 and lasted 47 years. Over the years, up to 300 rooms have survived, including monasteries, cellars, and irrigation lines that are still operational today. Vardzia's design is broken into three parts:

Between the south wall of the Church of the Assumption and the bell tower, there is a tiny group of caverns built close together in the first central section.

The second section is the so-called Rock town of Ananuri, which has a two-story rock house, a garden and grape terraces, as well as a small church from the 10th century.

Time has done a good job of preserving the last and third segments. Tamar's room, the entryway, the Salkhino, and the "Palace of Medicine" are all accessible via 150-meter-wide caves and a tunnel. I took a look around.


The guide responded that the creation of Vardzia was intimately associated with George III and Queen Tamar, which piqued my attention. The Church of the Assumption still has the frescoes of Tamar and George III. Do you know why this temple holds such significance for me? The temple's walls are covered in frescoes depicting biblical scenes, and it is because of these paintings that the temple feels so holy.

I'd also like to tell you about a mythology related with Vardzia's name, which all Georgian youngsters have been taught since childhood. I frequently followed her grandma; the stories were usually brief and straightforward, but she made an indelible impression on my memory.

Tamar used to play in a cave in an incomplete monastery complex with her uncle when she was a child. When the uncle lost sight of the baby, he proceeded into the cave's labyrinths and began searching for him. "Here I am, uncle!" Tamar exclaimed to her uncle. The facility was called after this reaction by King George III's edict.

Archaeologists discovered an ancient monument on the west slope of a previously undiscovered tier complex in 2015. I asked the guide what role this side of the complex served because it was structurally distinct from the center and eastern sides. He presented his theory with scientists that the freshly discovered vast halls served as a residential-agricultural complex. Ithaca as a whole had an additional structure where products were stored. Analyze the number of products in each room and how the servants moved from one to the next.

The smashed porcelain crockery piqued my interest, but I could sense how much this rushed story revealed about medieval existence.

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Vardzia is Georgia's most visited cultural landmark, with thousands of visitors each year. I consider myself fortunate to have visited her prior to the pandemic. This global catastrophe has paused time and history, but I hope that travelers will be able to visit this location again soon and be as enthralled as I am.

Materials are From:

1.             http://www.ambioni.ge/varzia

2.             https://1tv.ge/news/forbsma-vardzia-yvelaze-shtambechdav-mosanakhulebel-mimartulebaddaasakhela/

3.             http://www.orthodoxy.ge/eklesiebi/vardzia/vardzia.htm

4.             https://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%95%E1%83%90%E1%83%A0%E1%83%AB%E1% 83%98%E1%83%90

 

During hot Summer days, I was on vacation with my family in Batumi, a Black Sea resort, and one day it was cloudy and raining, so I couldn't swim in the sea, but I was going on the beach and gazing at wet pebbles, collecting lovely sinks, and thinking how many stories they had.

I hadn't given much attention to why the Black Sea is thus named, so I decided to look into it and found a lot of intriguing stories. You've definitely heard of the Black Sea, and now I'll tell you about the history of its name and its current significance for our country.

Today, the country faces a variety of pollution challenges, and everyone is aware of the situation. In my presentation, I will also discuss the importance of the sea and the hazards of pollution. Georgia is bordered on the west by the Black Sea.

It connects Europe and Asia by being situated between Southern Europe and Asia Minor. The

Atlantic Ocean basin includes the Black Sea. The Kerch Strait connects it to the Sea of Azov, the Bosphorus Strait to the Marmara Sea, and the Dardanelles Strait to the Marble Sea, all of which are connected to the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.


Georgia, Turkey, Russia, Ukraine, Romania, and Bulgaria are among the countries that border the Black Sea. It's fascinating that the Black Sea is now known as black, despite the fact that the water in it is blue; I'm also curious as to why, when, and how the sea came to be named after that. In this regard, there are a variety of viewpoints. The issue is, the water in the Black Sea isn't constantly blue.The surface of the ocean turns dark in the winter when there are chilly winds, and enormous lead waves pound the coast with a thunderstorm, hence the name "Black Sea." It was named by the ancient Greeks, according to one story. The sea, it seems, gained this name because sailing on it was tough. After the Greeks explored its coast and colonized the surrounding territories, the Ponto Exinon was dubbed the "Hospitality Sea." The Turks, according to another story, named the Black Sea. When they experienced strong resistance from the local inhabitants during the capture of its coast. 

The sea was given the name "Karadeniz," which meaning "dark and unwelcoming." Many different fish species and algae can be found in the Black Sea. The Black Sea is the ideal environment for them, as it contains all of the necessary environmental elements for life to survive.

Degradation of the Black Sea ecosystemThe first indications appeared in the 1960s of the previous century. Since then, the environment has changed dramatically.The situation deteriorated further. However, individuals are becoming more environmentally conscious today: Slowly reducing the negative impact on the ecology, as well as insignificant but hopeful improvements. The Black Sea is used for mineral extraction, tourism, recreation, and military purposes in addition to navigation, fishing, and farming.

The Black Sea basin and bottom are substantially influenced by urban expansion, industry, hydroelectric and nuclear energy, agricultural operations, and soil uptake, among other factors. The Black Sea has been contaminated artificially. The biggest ecological problem is caused by domestic, industrial, atmospheric, and harmful river waste, as well as garbage deposited intentionally or accidently by ships. Chemical (organic salts, petroleum products, sustainable

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organic contaminants and trace elements) and radioactive chemicals, solid waste, and invasion (non-inherited) living creatures all pose a hazard to the Black Sea. Oil is spilled, which, according to government data, occurs primarily due to human error. Oil spills harm the coastal ecology, destroying fish eggs and leaflets. It even has a direct impact on the sea. Birds face another danger: if they are oil-exhausted, they lose their capacity to fly and dive, and they can no longer maintain their flight. Their feathers lose their water resistance at body temperature, causing them to become sick and perish.

True, heavy metal contamination poses a hazard to the majority of the Black Sea. Not much is threatened, although there is still a lot of chromium, lead, copper, Cobalt, nickel, arsenic, silver, and iron in places where there are industrial operations. Humans, seabirds, and mammals are poisoned by these substances in the environment. In rings, heavy metals easily reach the top of the food chain.

They are, for example, ingested in vast numbers by seafloor dwellers. A food source for other organisms. substances that are poisonous Food consumption activates systems, organs, and tissues. Pathologies. Plastic-containing materials have heavily polluted the Black Sea coast. Wastes that pose a concern to marine mammals due to their ability to consume them. Too many dead dolphins wash up on the beach. In the stomachs, foreign bodies are frequently discovered.

The Black Sea is also under threat from radioactivity. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Disaster in 1986 Following the explosion of a power station (part of the Soviet Union) when radioactive compounds were present in rivers in the Black Sea and were hit by precipitation. As a result, many sea creatures, particularly fish, perished. Some animals have even lost their reproductive capabilities.

Because the Black Sea is connected to the Atlantic Ocean, contamination of the Black Sea can lead to pollution of the oceans. As a result, every citizen has a strong desire and obligation to protect this vital resource. It's also worth noting that a lot of individuals strive to clean it up.

The Black Sea is one of the most important resources for any country's tourism and economic development; tourism, both domestic and international, is improving every year. Each of us must consider this essential component and protect this lovely environment, because a local problem can quickly escalate into a worldwide issue for humanity.

Materials are from: 

1.      file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/GE_UNDP_EE_Black_Sea_Box_Geo.pdf

2.      https://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%A8%E1%83%90%E1%83%95%E1%83%98_%E1%8

3%96%E1%83%A6%E1%83%95%E1%83%90

3.      https://nationalgeographic.ge/shavi-zghva/

Student of Telav State University, Faculty of Humanities, direction of history

Oto Sabanadze

Student of the Shota Rustaveli Batumi State University, Faculty of Humanities, direction of history

 

Saint, Georgian clergyman and public figure, scientist ––– this is how the Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia and the Archbishop of Mtskheta-Tbilisi Ambros Khelaia is referred to today. Georgian theological and public figure, scientist, Patriarch of the Catholicos of All Georgia and Archbishop of Mtskheta-Tbilisi in 1921-1927. 2012 was declared the year of Ambrose Khelaia.

Besarion Zosime Khelaia was born on September 7, 1861 in the village of Martvili, Zugdidi region. He studied at the Tbilisi Theological Seminary.

1885 Graduated from the Tbilisi Theological Seminary. From 1887 to 1896 he was a priest in

Sochi, then in Sukhumi. He was also the supervisor of the church-parish schools of Sokhumi, New Athos and Likha and a teacher of the Georgian language. Fought against the Russificationist and chauvinist policies of Tsarism in Abkhazia. He appeared in the press against Golubtsov, a blacksmith, and Bishop Arsen (Izotov), who instilled in Abkhazians hatred of Georgians and persecuted the Georgian language.


In 1897, at the age of 36, Father Ambrose enrolled in the Kazan Theological Academy, having been widowed a year earlier. The first son of father Ambrose and his wife, Elizabeth Merchule, was born in 1888. Sadly, the firstborn died within a few months. A year later they had a daughter Nino, then Alexander and Anna. Fate soon separated Father Ambrose from his wife. Elizabeth went through childbirth. There are three orphans left who have never been removed from the side. He was with him while studying in Kazan and even during his deportation. He was a caring father and then ... a similar patriarch. Ambrose Khelaia's wife, Kesaria, gave birth to her third child - Anna (my grandmother) at the age of 23. Ambrose was ordained a monk after the death of his wife. Caesarea is buried in Ilori, in the bell tower, because Ilori was a shrine to the Mechlers. My grandmother Anna, a baby, a emaciated girl, did not leave Ambrose for a moment. Neither gave it to a relative. The breast was sucked by a Megrelian woman, then by a Russian foster mother and her sister. In general Ambrose was an extraordinary father. He took all three children with him everywhere. They were also accompanied by deportation ------- tells us about Ambrose's granddaughter Ana Kldiashvili.

According to contemporaries he was a talented, highly honest, kind and virtuous man. It is enough to name the words that the patriarch said to the body of Ilia Chavchavadze. His words show that he was quite educated, resourceful, and quite a great philosopher as well. A person who had a good insight into the political or religious activities of Georgia at that time. Here are his words uttered before the corpse of Ilia: I dare and dare to say a few words before this glorious corpse.

Today, the whole of Georgia mourns the corpse of the son of a glorious landlord. Today, Georgia has lost the greatest poet, excellent and dedicated public figure, the pride of literature. We do not have Ilia Chavchavadze - the poor of his nation. He was killed by the dirty hand of the barbarians.

But did the glorious Ilya die? "Be ye therefore faithful unto death, and give unto me the crown of life" (Revelation 2:10). - The Lord commands us through the mouth of the Apostle John the

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Theologian and thus shows us what we must be like in this world to inherit the eternal crown - the crown of immortality. Blessed is he who does his duty honestly in this world, believes and selflessly serves the truth, this is the basis of action - the basis of action. "Righteous is the death of the Lord" of such a man (Psalm 115: 6). He is immortal in His work, His memory will forever remain in a grateful nation. In addition, man is a teacher and mentor even after death, because, according to the apostle, he also speaks after death (Heb. 11: 4).

Therefore, Ilia did not die either. He is alive. He just died from life to death. Though the eloquent Bagen was silenced, but the deed of his eloquent shouts and shouts. He will remain immortal with his work as long as the Georgian nation exists. Moreover, even if the Georgian nation is transformed and destroyed due to the opposite time, the memory of the great poet-figure will not be lost, because the work of this glorious son of Georgia belongs not only to the Georgian nation, but also to humanity, of which Georgia is a part. The rested is glorious with his multifaceted work for the benefit of the homeland. The greatness of his merit is the reason why the whole of Georgia mourns him so bitterly. But, Georgians, not an unforgettable Ilia is a mourning satire, but our homeland doomed by fate - its loser. Wasn't it enough that the reverse time-situation caused us trouble, that we ourselves did not add unwritten trouble ?! But it is believable that this unprecedented barbaric murder was committed by the son of Georgia, the Georgia in whose selfless service he spent the whole 50 years. If this is blamed on Georgia, then our corruption, moral decline, savagery, perversion will be truly satirical. We have to think deeply about this if we want to remain a Georgian nation. The rest is blissful. The road is paved. He faithfully served the ideals that he chose for the benefit of the Georgian nation half a century ago until the last minute. He has not taken a single step, he has not betrayed them, and for this, according to the apostle, he is ready for the "crown of life" (Revelation 2:10), the crown of immortality. Even death from a glorious corpse has any significance for us, it undoubtedly teaches us something. Let us consider this blood shed by the barbarians to cleanse our national sins, to turn us from the wrong path, to unite and strengthen the children of Georgia as a whole.

Let us swear by this present corpse that we will be true executors of the commandments which the deceased has bequeathed to us through his work. If we have unity in the service of national ideals, then no doubt our homeland can still produce the glorious Iliad figure, and then finally rejoice in the glorious immortal soul of the departed. To be the last sacrifice, at the national table sacrificed for the good of the homeland and with us as a means of national sins. The greatness of this sacrifice is the guarantee that in the future our perversion, our ignorance will be eradicated and we will join forces to serve honestly in the revival of the homeland. If such merit has been bestowed upon us by the blood of this sacrifice, if we have joined in devotional service to the land - it will be the last, truly great merit of the great Elijah - the desired fruit and crown of his long labor. For us, it will be a real debt, the execution of his will and at the same time the best respect for the memory of the deceased. God has given us the ability to do this. May your memory be eternal, devoted to the land, glorious poet, Iliav! "

Ambrose Khelaia was ordained a monk in Kazan in 1900 and was promoted to the rank of Archimandrite. He graduated from the academy in 1901. He soon returned to Georgia and was appointed the head of the Chelishi Monastery. His name is connected with the discovery of "Chelishi Otkhtavi" and "Moktsevai Kartlisai" in Chelishi Monastery.

There is a legend-like story about this discovery ––– In 1902, during his ministry in Chelishi Monastery, Ambrose Khelaia, who came out of the monastery yard, heard a voice from the monks, asking the monks for a place and asking them to dig up the land. Under the ground, the monks found a small akldama, where, along with other manuscripts, they discovered "Moktsevai Kartlisai" dating back to the XIV century.

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The scientific merit of the Catholicos-Patriarch Ambrose is especially interesting. Unfortunately, to date there is no complete bibliography of the works of the saint.

A significant part of his letters are published in Russian newspapers. Some of the manuscripts are preserved in the National Center of Manuscripts, in the archives of the Patriarchate, in various libraries and museums of Georgia, in private collections. Some manuscripts of unpublished works are still considered lost. St. Ambrose became interested in studying Georgian history and Georgian manuscripts while still studying at the Kazan Theological Academy. He also defended his dissertation "Fighting Christianity with Islam in Georgia".

In 1915-1917, he published a magazine under the pseudonym "Amber". In "Gantiadi" and "Tskhovreba" he published "Journey to Racha-Lechkhumi", where he interestingly described the history of the manuscripts of the Chelishi Monastery.

One of the most serious scientific works of Ambrose is "Bedia and the Temple of Bedia" written in 1920. It deals with the history of Bedia Temple, epigraphy, Bedia Gulan, political, economic and ecclesiastical history of Western Georgia. 1901 Appointed Archimandrite of Chelishi Monastery. In 1904 he was transferred to Tbilisi as a member of the Synodal Cantor and the head of the Transfiguration Monastery. During the First Russian Revolution, Ambrose fought for the restoration of the autocephaly (independence) of the Georgian Orthodox Apostolic Church, which led to his deportation to Russia in 1905.

In 1905, under the leadership of Ilia Chavchavadze, a struggle began to restore the autocephaly of the Georgian Church, which had been abolished by Russia. The father of the nation was supported by a number of prominent figures, including Nico Marie, Alexander Tsagareli, Bishops Kirion and Leonidas. . .

Ambrose Khelaia also took an active part in this great national cause.

The Georgian clergy sent a petition to the Russian Synod to restore the autocephaly of the Georgian Church. Emperor Nicholas II set up a special commission to investigate the matter. Bishops Kirion and Leonide left for St. Petersburg together with Ilia Chavchavadze. Unfortunately, at this stage, the issue of autocephaly of the Georgian Church has not been resolved positively. "I ask God ... for victory in the cause for which you are invited to the capital city of the North. It is true that the fate of our church autocephaly has turned badly, but what can we do, when we were happy to create now ...

The opinion of me and the priest here, what is better for you, is this: to give up nothing and whatever is given to us by force, we obey only temporarily. "When we see a convenient time, we will try to do what is requested in the petitions." Ambrose Khelaia's letter to Bishop Leonides

The long-awaited ecclesiastical freedom was still gained by the Georgian Church. On March 12, 1917 (A.D. 25), the restoration of the autocephaly of the Georgian Church was announced in Svetitskhoveli Cathedral.

"I congratulate the suffering Georgia on the good news: the restoration of the autocephaly of its church. Rejoice, you mother parents, in the Catholic Church, rise up and bring your life for the benefit of the people set on the path of unbelief, rise up with the purity and purity of the ancients. "In 1907, he attended the ecclesiastical assembly, which decided to teach theology in Georgian in seminaries and theological schools. The Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church met this fact with great indignation. Exarch of Georgia Nikon dispersed the assembly of autocephalous forces with the help of the Cossacks and beat its participants with whips, but Nikon was not satisfied with this and demanded from St. Petersburg: On May 28, 1908, Exarch Nikon was assassinated by a revolver on the steps of the Synod office, although no killer could be found, but priests in favor of Nikon's "ideological opponents" began to be persecuted and deported. Archimandrite Ambrose Khelaia was

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exiled to Russia, and Bishop Kyrion was tortured in Nikon's assassination. It is true that neither of them could be proved guilty, but both were punished: Father Ambrose was banned from the priesthood and sent to the Trinity Monastery in Ryazan, where he had to live in cruelty for more than a year. The Holy Synod of Russia completely ignored every request of Archimandrite to return to his homeland. Archimandrite Ambrose fought tirelessly to protect the interests of the Georgian nation and the Georgian Orthodox Apostolic Church. That is why the government was especially persecuted.

He was first transferred to Russia in 1903 to oversee the Ust-Medvedsa Theological Seminary of the Diocese of Don, where he remained until the end of 1905.

"In the second half of January 1909, Mergo shed tears for me and left for my homeland and moved to the north. On January 28, I reached my destination. It was the monastery of the Trinity in Ryazan. For a long time I was not able to see the sights of the monastery. Due to the journey and spiritual suffering, the patient was taken to a damp house and was not allowed to see a doctor for a long time. Because of this, my illness lasted for a whole month and a half. In the early days no one was allowed to enter with me except the treasurer of the monastery, the priest-nun Basil. I was not allowed to walk freely - not only outside the walls of the monastery, but also in the yard of the monastery. Added to this was the harshness of winter and heavy snow, and because of this I was locked up in my damp Senaki. ” The thoughts and efforts of the exiled father Ambrose were directed only to Georgia. He tried not to lose his courage, continued his scientific and social activities, cooperated with the "Georgian Historical and Ethnographic Society" ...

Akrimandrit, who was interned in exile, constantly asked for permission to return to Georgia, but in vain - he was a very dangerous force for Russia.

"It is difficult to get my case back if the circumstances have not changed radically. Now no one is punished more than me, everyone else is named after suspicious people .

Only Ambrose is not worthy of anything and is not considered a reliable person in the Synod. I do not even know what he did wrong ... Anyway, thank you very much for your compassion, because I am not accustomed to compassion. We too (I have some in my face who have a name in us), recently, when I was given the opportunity to return to my homeland, were severely beaten. God forgive.

They should not do that to those in my situation ... We are like that, unfortunately, Georgians, we have not yet reached the level where we do not replace public affairs with personal ones.

God knows when we will be able to realize true patriotism. Does not everything that happens around us wake us up ?!

1915 3 November.

/ Ambrose Khelaia's letter to Romanoz Pantskhava /

"... the treasurer, who should have always been with me while walking, pointed to one of the graves and told me that the Queen of Georgia was fasting here ... it turned out that she was buried there ... the Queen's wife ..." - Mariam, who died in 1821. "During my stay in Ryazan, the only consolation for me was to come to this grave and sit for hours, because here I felt something native and I was comforted by boundless dreams. I often could not hold back the tears that often filled my mind. Even before her death, the sinful Mariam would have thought that someone Georgian would have seen her grave, counted the eternal remembrance in her mother tongue, and even shed tears about the fate of her homeland. Spilled near his grave ?! "

Meanwhile, rumors were circulating in Georgia that Ambrose Khelaia was financially well-off and simply did not want to return. The saint wrote about this in his letter: "My Exorcist" with heartache:

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The writers of this letter have probably not yet experienced the loneliness of the soul, they have not experienced the severity that a sophisticated person experiences in the homeland, unless he is on the path of degeneration and his heart aches for the state of the homeland. ”

1908 New charges are brought against him for allegedly taking part in the assassination of Exarch

Nikon. In 1910 he was acquitted, but was not allowed to return to his homeland. He arrived in

Georgia only in August 1917. He was first the Metropolitan of Chkondidi, then of Abkhazia and

Sokhumi, and from September 1921 the Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia and the Archbishop of Mtskheta-Tbilisi. The global changes that took place in Russia in February 1917 created a favorable moment for the restoration of the independence of the Georgian Church.

On March 12 (25) 1917, the autocephaly of the Georgian Church was solemnly proclaimed in the Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta, and on March 16, a meeting of clergymen was held in Tbilisi, which decided that from now on the service in the Zion Cathedral should be performed in Georgian.

In September 1921, the Holy Synod elected Metropolitan Ambrose Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia and Archbishop of Mtskheta-Tbilisi. The country occupied by the Bolsheviks is facing a severe ordeal: the persecution of the church, the restriction of the rights of the Georgian language and the transfer of historical lands to others begin. The Catholicos seeks to attract the attention of the world community and in 1922 sends a memorandum to the Genoa International Conference, attended by representatives of 29 states. The conference was attended by representatives of dozens of countries, including delegates from Red Russia. The memorandum described the annexation of Georgia by the Bolsheviks and the dire consequences of that annexation. The Bolshevik government of Georgia did not forgive the Catholicos-Patriarch Ambrose Khelaia for sending a memorandum, exposing his anti-national policies and arresting him. The prisoner held himself dignified in the Soviet court. He addressed the court as follows: "The heart belongs to my Georgia, the soul - to God, the corpse is what you want it to be." It was quite a bold and courageous statement in Georgia at that time. In Georgia, where Russian policy was newly established.

Here is an excerpt from his memorandum: "In 1918, the nation declared its independence and immediately began to restore its political and national-cultural life. Georgia, bloodied in the war, once again faced the yoke of such a heavy and shameful slavery, the like of which it has not experienced in its centuries-long history. The occupiers, indeed, try to convince everyone at home and abroad that they have liberated and made the Georgians happy, but how happy the Georgian nation feels, I, his spiritual father, best say, boldly and without exaggeration, say that these are completely inappropriate Georgian experiments. On the back of the nation, it will inevitably lead to physical extinction and spiritual influence and corruption!

 The nation will hear you, but will not be able to remove the voice. In such circumstances, it is my pastoral duty and duty to hear the vast cultural humanity: I, as a representative of the Church, do not enter into the appreciation and regulation of various forms of political life. But I can not wish for my nation a device that is relatively more conducive to its physical revitalization and cultural development.

So I ask:

The occupiers, indeed, try to convince everyone at home and abroad that they have liberated and made the Georgians happy, but how happy the Georgian nation feels, I, his spiritual father, best say, boldly and without exaggeration, say that these are completely inappropriate Georgian experiments. On the back of the nation, it will inevitably lead to physical extinction and spiritual influence and corruption!

1.                  Immediately withdraw the Russian occupation army from the borders of Georgia and secure its land and water from foreign invasion and seizure of power.

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2.                  To enable the Georgian nation to organize its life as it wants, without the force and dictation of others. "

1922-1926: The government actively fights against the church, the methods are brutal, the monasteries are closed, the clergy are arrested and shot, they are forced to give up church activities. Noteworthy is the active anti-religious propaganda, it is enough to look at the communist newspaper: especially in the run-up to the church holidays, strong anti-religious articles appear. The government opposes all means to religion in order for society to finally get rid of this institution. There is also a clear aggressive attitude towards the Orthodox Church in particular. CatholicosPatriarch Ambrose Khelaia has clearly resigned from the government, he has been in confrontation with the regime since the day of the occupation, followed by a famous letter in Genoa, authored by Ambrose. Sending a memorandum to the conference was an unprecedented case. The government did not take this fact seriously and soon Catholicos Ambrose was arrested. Along with the patriarch, 9 members of the Catholic Council were also tried at the trial.

They were accused of: sending a memorandum to the Genoa Conference, hiding treasures of Georgian churches and monasteries, misappropriation of church property registers and the absence of a representative of the Patriarchate in the procedure of handing over the military temple (which was on the territory of the current government palace) to the Communist Party.

Here are some excerpts from the March 1924 trial:

Judge Baratashvili - What was the nature of your memorandum?

Catholicos Ambrose was the representative of Georgia at the Genoa Conference and the sovereignty of our nation was to be protected there. I thought this memorandum would help our representative and so I sent it.

Prosecutor Okujava - If not the Soviet set-up, how did you request the set-up?

Catholicos Ambrose - one that would be based on the will of the people.

Judge Erkomaishvili - What would you expect from the memorandum sent to the Genoa Conference?

Catholicos Ambrose - I defended the idea of state and ecclesiastical freedom of Georgia.

Judge Erkomaishvili - Why did you demand the withdrawal of the Red Army from Georgia, which is the defender of the interests of the working people?

Catholicos Ambrose - I still do not know who is defended by the Russian army. When I demanded the withdrawal of the Red Army, I meant intervention because intervention takes place through the army.

Judge Erkomaishvili - When was Georgia free?

Catholicos Ambrose - before the entry of the Red Army. After the Red Army entered, Georgia lost its independence. Prosecutor Machavariani - Is the issue of territory political or religious?

"Catholicos Ambrose - both politically and religiously, because the loss of territory is a loss for the church."

At the same time, the newspapers cover the trial "Catholicos Ambrose and his" brothers "(in quotes) almost every day in the newspapers. Where it is repeatedly mentioned: "During the introduction of the accused, voices are heard in the courtroom:" Down with Ambrose "," Down with the counterrevolution "," Hatred of Ambrose ".

Sessions are adjourned as the workers-servants throw themselves out and shout: Let us, we will judge the traitors of the working class. Kadnier poems, articles are written. E.g. "The accused do not

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plead guilty, lie, insinuate, they are traders with truth and conscience." When the patriarch leaves the courthouse, specially invited Communists throw eggs at him.

And after all this the Catholicos says the final word in court, where there is not even a hint of greed seen. On the contrary, these are the words of the Patriarch of the Nation, who fights, cares and loves even in the face of death:

"Will the majority of the workers of the Georgian nation, against whose interests I wanted to sacrifice myself and my personal interests, even oppose my speech?" No, I will not believe it… "and again:" A peasant whose lands are irrigated with the blood and bones of their ancestors, this peasant, believes that he will always be a lover of his homeland and will never hate or defend the idea of his freedom. "

Here are some excerpts from his closing remarks on the main allegations, which can be considered as an example of ecclesiastical thinking: Servants are godly, "we should pray for them and not say evil to them, but to say no to evil does not mean not to criticize their actions, not to point out their mistakes; if I saw the danger of national extinction, I owed it to myself to speak out."

He writes about the accusation of hiding the church treasure: "I was serving in Sokhumi and things were hidden without me" but if I was really hiding

"Participant, even then I could not feel guilty, because the clergy was in debt, took care of the property of the church, and from time immemorial, they resorted to this means in times of unrest and the invasion of enemies."

"Your proposal (to hand over the church to the Communist Party) was unacceptable to us, because by accepting it we would become traitors to God's decree and faith. This is it and this is it. "

Finally: “As our forefathers thought it sweet to accept suffering for their homeland and their faith, so sweet will be the punishment that the Supreme Court will sentence me for taking the vote to protect the freedom of the native church and nation. It will be the crowning achievement of the cross that has been borne by me for almost 37 years of my life.

The voice raised by me to defend my national interests and the condemnation that I will be sentenced by the Supreme Court will find its place in the heart of every Georgian - a Georgian who has not yet lost his faith and love for his homeland. I will consider myself happy with this as well. As believers say - be the will of God! - And address you in the words of Christ: "Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves and for your children" (Luke 23:28).

None of the accused pleaded guilty. The sentence of Catholicos-Patriarch Ambrose provides for the death penalty, but for a venerable age is punishable by imprisonment for up to 8 years, with severe isolation and confiscation of all property. While in prison, his children were allowed to visit their father several times. They thought that the Catholic was meeting them always calmly and calmly, as if nothing was bothering them. No matter how hard the period of imprisonment was, it also shows that he was asked to voluntarily resign from the patriarchate, which he refused. After that, talking about his physical impotence is probably not worth it.

An amnesty issued in late 1924 acquits the Catholicos.

According to his granddaughter, Anna Kldiashvili, one day a neighbor boy told Bebiamis (daughter of the Catholicos-Patriarch, Ambrose) that the Catholicos was crossing the Metekhi bridge. Whether he entered Zion or not, the people fell to their knees. Then it turned out with joy "it seems that Christianity can not be destroyed by force in Georgia" –––– Again the wise admonition of the patriarch and the call that the nation should not lose its spiritual nourishment. The sermons he delivered after his release from prison are preserved. In his first sermon, two years after the separation, he thanked the parishioners for the compassion they felt from them during this difficult

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time and said, "It was not the result of my dignity, but of the fact that you love Mother Church and value the quality you chose my worth… In works of faith you are not like a reed that is constantly swaying and swaying where the wind blows, but you are steadfast and unshakable. This is especially gratifying for me. " His paternal care for the parish is especially evident in the same sermon. He says that before he takes up his duties, he wants to know what the situation is in our church. You will probably be surprised, because it is already known that churches and monasteries are ruined and ruined. But, in the church he meant himself and their hearts. As he then says, this church seemed to him more beautiful now than before.

A heavy and difficult cross of the patriarchate, prison health was shaken and he died on March 29, 1927 while performing a liturgy. Before he died, he prayed to the Lord: "Lord, look at this vineyard, which was founded by your right hand."

The Catholicos-Patriarch of Georgia Ambrose Khelaia was a symbol of freedom in life, and after his death - a national hero, who was ordained by the Synod of the Georgian Orthodox Church in 1995. High Priest Ambrose was canonized on behalf of the confessor. He became the heavenly protector of the Georgian nation and Georgia. He is buried in the Temple of Zion and his remembrance day is celebrated on March 16 (29). Yes, Ambrose Khelaias's contribution to the salvation of Georgia and its spiritual development is really great. Catholicos Ambrose, in spite of his brief patriarchy, bore the brunt of the patriarchy, the cross that sacrificed his life. Those years, which are the years of his patriarchy, are a very difficult period not only for the history of our country, but also for the clergy. Indeed, it must have been wise and philosophical for him to cope with the pastoral care of the Church in such a difficult period and to respond to the country's indomitable enemy in the international arena. . .

 We think that Ambrose Khelaia honestly owed a debt to our multi-suffering nation. The nation that sanctified him and created Sts. Icon of Ambrose Khelaia.

Used literature:

1.      Historical-Scientific Journal "Historian", 2012, January.

2.      ka.wikipedia.org.

3.      Magazine "Intellect", M. Kebadze ––– Georgian autocephaly, 1 (30) Tb.2008.

4.      Gate, # 23.2005,16–19 December, p. 22.

5.      https://sites.google.com/site/ambrosikhelaia150/ Publications (Sergo Vardosanidze).

Jo`rayeva Shahlo Ilhomjon qizi

Fergana State University, pedagogical specialty 1 year Master student

 

Annotation: This article discusses the situation with the use of the credit-module system in higher education in developed countries and the advantages of its application in the higher education system of Uzbekistan. About increasing the efficiency of the educational process of the creditmodule system

Keywords: education system, credit-module system, teaching methods, new educational technologies, higher education. 

 

“O‘zbekiston Respublikasida oliy taʼlim tizimini 2030-yilgacha rivojlantirish konsepsiyasini tasdiqlash to‘g‘risida”gi farmoni ijrosini taʼminlash maqsadida 9 ta yo‘nalish belgilangan bo‘lib, asosiy eʼtibor oliy taʼlim bilan qamrovni kengaytirish, oliy maʼlumotli mutaxassislar tayyorlash sifatini oshirishga qaratilgan. 2019-yilda oliy taʼlim bilan qamrab olish darajasi 20 foizni tashkil etgan bo‘lsa, 2030-yilga borib 50 foizdan oshishi rejalashtirilgan. Shuningdek, ayni paytda kreditmodul tizimi joriy etilgan OTMlar ikkita bo‘lsa, 2030-yilda 85taga yetkaziladi. Nodavlat, davlat – xususiy sheriklik asosidagi OTMlar soni 35taga yetkazilishi rejalashtirilgan. 


Bugungi kunda xorijiy OTMlarda 55-70 foizgacha mustaqil taʼlim belgilangan. Hozir bizda taʼlimning 40 foizi mustaqil taʼlimga ajratilgan bo‘lsa, konsepsiyasiga ko‘ra bu ko‘rsatkich 60 foizga yetkaziladi. Kredit-modul tizimiga o‘tish – davr talabi. Bu tizimda o‘qituvchilarni talabalar tanlaydi. Tanlov fanlarining soni ko‘paytiriladi, yaʼni talaba o‘z yo‘nalishi bo‘yicha tanlab o‘rganishi mumkin bo‘lgan fanlar soni ko‘payadi. O‘quv rejadagi fanlarning 50 foizi tanlov fani bo‘lib, o‘quv jarayoniga axborot tizimlari keng joriy qilinadi.

Zamonaviy mutaxassisdan kasbiy kompetentlilik va noodatiy vaziyatlarda qaror qabul qilish, jamoada ishlash, axborotni mustaqil olish, tahlil qilish, samarali foydalanish o‘zgaruvchan vaziyatlarga moslashuvchanlik talab etiladi. Kredit texnologiyasi murakkab tizim. Uning muvaffaqiyatli ishlashi ko‘plab omillarga, jumladan, o‘quv moddiy taʼminot, xalqaro standartlarga javob beradigan tayanch darslik, talabalarning mustaqil ishlashini tashkil etish uchun muayyan shart sharoit (kompyuter sinflari, videozallar, elektron doskalar)ga bog‘liq. O‘qitishning kredit tizimida oliy taʼlim muassasasi o‘quv jarayonida barcha zarur axborot manbalari: o‘quv-uslubiy qo‘llanma, elektron darslik, tarqatma materiallar, tarmoq taʼlim resurslariga kira olish imkoniyati mavjudligi juda ham muhim hisoblanadi. Fizika va texnikaviy fanlarni o‘qitishda ham kredit-modul tizimini joriy etishda yuqoridagi talablar to‘la qondirilishi lozim. Modulli o‘qitish – o‘qitishning istiqbolli tizimlaridan biri bo‘lib hisoblanadi, chunki u taʼlim oluvchilarning bilim imkoniyatlarini va ijodiy qobiliyatlarini rivojlantirish tizimiga eng yaxshi moslashgandir.

Аnʼanaviy taʼlimda o‘quv maqsadlari pedagog faoliyati orqali ifodalangan yangi bilimlar berishga yo‘nalatirilgan bo‘lsa, modulli o‘qitishda taʼlim oluvchilar faoliyati orqali ifodalanib, kasbiy faoliyatga yo‘naltirilgan bo‘ladi. 

O‘quv jarayonini tashkil etishning ECTS kredit texnologiyasiga o‘tishda quyidagi maqsadlar ko‘zlanadi: 

 xorijda o‘qishni davom ettirish uchun oliy o‘quv yurtini tanlashda shart-sharoit yaratish; 

 O‘zbekistonda taʼlim olgan muddatni xorijiy davlatlarda tan olinishini taʼminlash; 

 Yevropa oliy o‘quv yurtlari o‘quv rejalarini o‘rganish va shu asosida o‘quv jarayonini takomillashtirish; 

 talabalar qobiliyatini to‘laroq ochilishiga va o‘qitishning yuqori natijalariga erishish. 

Modulli o‘qitishda o‘quv dasturlarini to‘la qisqartirilgan va chuqurlashtirilgan tabaqalash orqali bosqichma-bosqich o‘qitish imkoniyati yaratiladi. Yaʼni o‘qitishni individullashtirish mumkin bo‘ladi. 

Modulli o‘qitishda quyidagi maqsadlar ko‘zlanadi: 

 o‘qitishning uzluksizligini taʼminlash;   o‘qitishni individullashtirish;   o‘quv materialini mustaqil o‘zlashtirish uchun yetarli sharoit yaratish;   o‘qitishni jadallashtirish;   fanni samarali o‘zlashtirishga erishish. 

Bugungi kunda oliy taʼlim tizimi oldidagi eng asosiy vazifa malakali mutaxassislarni tayyorlash. Bunday mutaxassisni tayyorlash uchun, albatta, unga nisbatan qo‘yilayotgan talablar tizimini aniqlab olish kerak. Unga quyidagi to‘rtta yo‘nalishni ko‘rsatish mumkin:   o‘z sohasi bo‘yicha zaruriy bilim ko‘nikma va malakalarga ega bo‘lish; 

 sohasiga oid mavjud bilimlarini doimiy ravishda mustaqil oshirib borish, yaʼni mustaqil taʼlimga tayyor bo‘lish; 

 sohasiga innovatsiyalar kiritish uchun mustaqil izlanish va ijod qilish ko‘nikmasiga ega bo‘lish;   o‘z vaqtini rejalashtirish, boshqarish va o‘z faoliyatini tashkil etish ko‘nikmasiga ega bo‘lish. 

Modulli yondashuv erishilgan natijani izchil nazorat qilib borishga asoslangan. Natijada modulkredit tizimi vujudga kelgan.

Kredit-modul birligiga aylanuvchi Yevropa tizimi (ECTS – European Credit Transfer and Accumulating System) kredit jamlash tizimidir. Ushbu tizim Yevropa universitetlarida 1989-yilda o‘tkazilgan tadqiqotlardan muvaffaqiyatli o‘tgan va qabul qilingan. U talabaning umumiy yuklamasiga asoslangan. Kredit tizimini kiritishdan maqsad taʼlimning shaffofligini va akademik bilimlarni hamda kvalifikatsiyaning xalqaro tan olinishini osonlashtirish bo‘lib hisoblanadi. Dastlab kredit chetdan kelib o‘quvchilar uchun ishlatilgan va unga ishonch bildirilgan. OTMlar uchun yagona kreditlarning o‘rnatilishi esa talabalarning mobilligini taʼminlashga yordam beradi.

Bugungi kunda Yevropa kredit tizimi Yevropaning deyarli barcha davlatlarida tan olingan va amal qiluvchi tizimdir. Talaba o‘rnatilgan kredit ballarini to‘plagan taqdirdagina diplom olishga muvaffaq bo‘ladi. Dunyoning oliy taʼlim tizimida kredit tizimining bir necha turi mavjud. Yuqorida aytib o‘tilgan ECTS bilan bir qatorda, USCS – Аmerikaning kredit tizimi, UCTS – Britaniyaning kredit tizimi, CATS – Osiyo davlatlari va Tinch okeanidagi davlatlarning kredit tizimlari mavjud. 

Yevropa kredit tizimining asosini uch unsur tashkil etadi: 

 o‘quv dasturlari haqida axborot, talabaning erishgan natijalari va talaba faoliyatining hajmi. Har bir o‘quv yili 60 qismga bo‘linadi va zachyot birligi hisoblanadi. Bir haftalik yuklama 54 soatdan oshmasligi kerak, 54 soat 1,5 kreditga teng. O‘quv yilining davomiyligi Yevropada o‘rtacha 40 hafta. Аmmo Yevropaning turli davlatlarida o‘quv yilining davomiyligi turlicha bo‘lishi maʼlum darajada muammolarni keltirib chiqaradi. 

Interdisciplinary Conference of

Young Scholars in Social Sciences

 

 kredit tizimi barcha o‘qitish shakllarini nazoratini o‘z ichiga oladi (auditoriya va auditoriyadan tashqari). 

 kredit tizimi taʼlim jarayonida o‘qilgan soatlar miqdorini emas, balki erishilgan natijani ko‘rsatib beruvchi o‘lchov birligidir. Yaʼni mutaxassisni kompetentlik darajasiga baho beruvchi natijaga qaratilgan o‘lchov birligidir. 

Demak, kredit nafaqat o‘quv faoliyatiga berilgan baho, balki bajarilgan uquv yuklamasini ko‘rsatib turuvchi birlikdir. Bir kredit 36 akademik soatga teng (54 akademik soat 1,5 kreditni tashkil etadi). Har bir o‘quv moduli 1 yoki 1,5 kreditga mo‘ljallanadi va odatda, uning soni uchtadan oshmasligi lozim. 

Yevropa kredit tizimida birinchi bosqichda (bakalavriat) talaba 180 kreditdan 280 kreditgacha to‘plashi mumkin. Ikkinchi bosqichda (magistr) 90-120gacha kredit yig‘ish imkoniga ega. Kredit tizimining asosini, albatta, reyting ball tizimi tashkil etadi. Taʼlim sohasidagi integratsion jarayonlar ilk bor Yevropada boshlangan edi. 1989-yilda Yevropaning minglab balabalari Yevropa hamjihatining ERASMUS (European Community Action Scheme for mobility of University students) TEMPUS va boshqa dasturlar asosida chet ellarda tahsil olish imkoniyatiga ega bo‘ladilar. 

ERASMUS dasturi bo‘yicha Yevropa hamjamiyati universitetlari o‘rtasidagi talabalar almashinuvi sxemasi dastavval 145 oliy o‘quv yurtlarini qamrab olgan edi. 2001-yilda o‘quv jarayonini tashkil etishning kredit texnologiyasi ECTS Yevropaning 1200ta universitetlarida allaqachon qo‘llanilgan edi. 

Taʼlim berishning modul texnologiyasi, talabaning o‘zlashtirishini baholash bilan birga bilimini o‘sishi dinamikasini kuzatish imkonini beradi. Shu bilan birga talabaning butun o‘qish davrida ish unumdorligi baholash natijadorligini aniqlash hamda o‘z vaqtida o‘zlashtirishini pasayishini aniqlab, unga tegishli choralar ko‘rish imkon darajasida yordam berishni yo‘lga qo‘yadi. Hamda talabaga u yoki bu fanni sifatliroq o‘zlashtirish imkonini beradi.

Kredit-modult tizimi universitetning faoliyatini har tomonlama boshqarish imkoniyatini beradi. O‘quv dasturi va o‘quv rejasi, mashg‘ulotlar jadvali, talabalar bilimini xolisona baholash, professoro‘qituvchilarning ish yuklamalarini aniqlash va uni bajarilishini nazorat qilish shunga kiradi. 

Bu tizim professor-o‘qituvchi va talaba faoliyatini real va xolisona baholash imkonini berib taʼlim berish erkinligini taʼminlaydi. Umuman olganda kredit-zachyot sistemasini universitetda modul texnologiyasi asosida qo‘llash, fanni o‘rganishda o‘quv jarayonini tashkil qilishni o‘zgartirib oliy taʼlimda o‘qitish sifatini yuqori darajada ko‘taradi.

Xulosa o`rnida aytish mumkinki, kredit-modul tizimi o`quv jarayonining samaradorligini oshirishi bilan bir qatorda talabalarni mustaqil izlanishga yo`naltirish orqali oliy ta`lim muassasalari maxsuloti bo`lmish bo`lg`usi kadrlarni zamon talablariga munosib mutaxassis etib tayyorlashda muhim ahamiyat kasb etadi

Foydalanilgaadabiyotlar

1.             O`zbekistonRespublikasiPrezidentining         2019-yil          8-oktyabrdagi

“O`zbekistonRespublikasioliytizimini   2030yilgacharivojlantirishkonsepsiyasinitasdiqlashto`g`risida”giPF-5847-sonlifarmoni

2.             UsmonovB.SH. Oliyo`quvyurtlaridao`quvjarayoninikredit-modultizimidatashkilqilish.   O`quvqo`llanma. 2020-yil

3.             O`rinov V. O`zbekiston Respublikasi oliy ta`lim muassasalarida ECTS Kredit-modul tizimi: Asosiy tushunchalar va qoidalar. Toshkent 2020.

4.             Kryuchkova K.S. Modulnaya sistema obucheniya v rossiyskix vusax kak usloviye obespecheniya akademicheskoy mobilnosti studentov. – Izvestiya VGPU,Volgograd, 2018. 30 b.

Iakob Gogebashvilitelavi State University Faculty of Social Sciences, Business and Law

 

Annotation: This article discusses the situation with the use of the credit-module system in higher education in developed countries and the advantages of its application in the higher education system of Uzbekistan. About increasing the efficiency of the educational process of the creditmodule system

Keywords: education system, credit-module system, teaching methods, new educational technologies, higher education.