The main sections of "General chemistry"
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The main sections of "General chemistry"

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The main sections of "General chemistry"
The main sections of "General chemistry"
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Lecture complex.

Lecture 1.

Topic: Introduction

Lecture plan:

1) Subject, main content and objectives of the discipline "Professional Russian (Kazakh) language".

2) Chemistry as a science. Research subject and methods.

Content.

The expansion of international cooperation in the economic, political, scientific and technical, cultural and educational fields requires a modern graduate of a higher school to have an active command of the Russian (Kazakh) language.

Knowledge of the Kazakh (Russian) language allows you to implement such aspects of professional activity as modern acquaintance with the latest technologies, discoveries and trends in the development of science and technology, establishing professional contacts with foreign partners. It provides an increase in the level of professional competence.

The motivation for mastering the Russian (Kazakh) language, first of all, is the professional need of a student preparing to become a highly qualified specialist with knowledge of the Russian (Kazakh) language. In this regard, one of the main features of this curriculum at the university is its professionally oriented nature, reflected in the educational goal and content of training.

In this aspect, the development of public speech skills (message, report, discussion), the development of skills in reading special literature in order to obtain information, acquaintance with the basics of abstracting, annotating and translating literature in the specialty, development of basic writing skills for preparing publications and conducting correspondence are carried out. Teaching the language of the specialty is conducted on a professionally oriented material.

Chemistry is the science of substances, the laws of their transformations (physical and chemical properties) and application. Currently, more than 100 thousand inorganic and more than 4 million organic compounds are known.

         Chemical phenomena: some substances turn into others that differ from the original in composition and properties, while the composition of the atomic nuclei does not change.

         Physical phenomena: the physical state of substances changes (vaporization, melting, electrical conductivity, the release of heat and light, malleability, etc.) or new substances are formed with a change in the composition of atomic nuclei.

 

Lecture 2-3.

Topic: Technique of translation of chemical texts

Lecture plan:

1) Rules for the compilation and use of an individual dictionary of chemical terms.

2) Study of computer programs and the ability to use them. Possibilities of using programs.

Key words: atom, molecule, ion, particle, law of constancy of composition, law of conservation of mass of matter.

Content

General scientific, general technical and interdisciplinary terms are the words that can be used to describe and characterize phenomena and processes in a variety of sciences; words that are often transferred from common vocabulary and reinterpreted in a new way, with concepts firmly assigned to them.

In scientific chemical texts, the most commonly used general scientific terms are: system, method, structure, theory, experiment, construction, analysis, temperature, energy, volume, mass, period, etc.

There are also general technical terms. These include words used to denote basic technical concepts: apparatus, machine, mechanism.

In polytechnic dictionaries, several meanings are fixed for such terms. For example, chain: rifle (military), caterpillar (technical), chain of atoms (chemical), electrical (physical), etc.

When a new terminological meaning arises, there is a change in the information capacity of the term, which entails the phenomenon of terminological polysemy (polyfunctionality). Polyfunctionality makes it possible to use already existing national and international linguistic resources to express new concepts.

In chemical terminology, the process of consciously creatively constructing terms has been going on internationally for several decades.

Fragment "cryo" in translation from Greek means ice, cold. Hence: cryolite is a cold stone (looks like ice); crystals - ice, rock crystal. The word "hygro", translated from the Greek meaning moisture, and the word "hydro", meaning water, are fragments of modern words: hygroscopicity (moisture + observation); hydrophobicity (water + fear), etc.

Deciphering some of the terms formed by Greek words is at the same time the formulation of the corresponding concepts. For example, the term "amorphous" can be divided into two parts - "a" (negation) and "morph" (form, type). Hence, the term "amorphous", i.e. shapeless, includes the concept of substances that do not have a crystalline structure. Thus, when a teacher gives a translation of Greek words into Russian, he, in fact, explains the meaning of the terms.

Another example. The term "azeotropic" has three parts: "a" (negation), "zeo" (boiling), "trope" (change). This term characterizes a mixture of substances, during the distillation of which they do not separate and a condensate of the same composition as the original solution is formed.

Lecture 4-5.

Topic: The main sections of "General chemistry"

Lecture plan:

1) General laws of chemistry. The law of conservation of mass and energy. The law of constancy of composition, isotopes.

2) The structure of the atom. Chemical formulas and reaction equations. Types of chemical reactions. Kinetics of chemical reactions.

3) Phase states of matter. Solutions, solubility. Redox reactions. Electrolysis.

4) Entering vocabulary on the topic. Compilation of a terminological dictionary. Reading text on the topic, exercises to consolidate vocabulary. Answers to questions after the text.

Key words: Matter, atom, chemical element, chemical bond, valence, molecule, substance, atomic and molecular masses, mol.

Content

Atomic - molecular science.

1.All substances are made up of molecules.

A molecule is the smallest particle of a substance that has its chemical properties. 2. Molecules are made of atoms.

An atom is the smallest particle of a chemical element that retains all its chemical properties. Different atoms correspond to different elements.

3. Molecules and atoms are in continuous motion; there are forces of attraction and repulsion between them.

A chemical element is a type of atom characterized by certain nuclear charges and the structure of the electron shells. Currently, 117 elements are known: 89 of them are found in nature (on Earth), the rest are obtained artificially. Atoms exist in a free state, in compounds with atoms of the same or other elements, forming molecules. The ability of atoms to interact with other atoms and form chemical compounds is determined by its structure. Atoms consist of a positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons moving around it, forming an electrically neutral system that obeys the laws characteristic of microsystems.

The atomic nucleus is the central part of the atom, consisting of Z protons and N neutrons, in which the bulk of the atoms is concentrated.

The charge of the nucleus is positive, equal in magnitude to the number of protons in the nucleus or electrons in a neutral atom and coincides with the ordinal number of the element in the periodic system. The sum of protons and neutrons of an atomic nucleus is called the mass number A = Z + N.

Isotopes are chemical elements with the same nuclear charges, but different mass numbers due to the different number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Massive

number

Charge

nucleus A

Z Э 63

29 Cu and 65

29 Cu; 35

17 Cl and 37

17 Cl

A chemical formula is a conditional record of the composition of a substance with the help of chemical signs (proposed in 1814 by J. Berzelius) and indices (the index is the number to the right below the symbol. It indicates the number of atoms in a molecule). The chemical formula shows which atoms of which elements and in what ratio are connected to each other in a molecule.

Allotropy is the phenomenon of the formation of several simple substances by a chemical element that differ in structure and properties. Simple substances - molecules, consist of atoms of the same element.

Complex substances - molecules, consist of atoms of various chemical elements.

The international unit of atomic masses is equal to 1/12 of the mass of the isotope 12C - the main isotope of natural carbon.

1 amu = 1/12 • m (12C) = 1.66057 • 10-24 g

Relative atomic mass (Ar) is a dimensionless quantity equal to the ratio of the average mass of an atom of an element (taking into account the percentage of isotopes in nature) to 1/12 of the mass of a 12C atom.

The average absolute mass of an atom (m) is equal to the relative atomic mass multiplied by amu.

Ar (Mg) = 24.312

m (Mg) = 24.312 * 1.66057 * 10-24 = 4.037 * 10-23 g

Relative molecular weight (Mr) is a dimensionless value that shows how many times the mass of a molecule of a given substance is more than 1/12 of the mass of a carbon atom 12C.

Mg = mg / (1/12 ma (12C))

mr is the mass of a molecule of a given substance;

mа (12C) is the mass of a carbon atom 12C.

Mg = S Ag (e). The relative molecular weight of a substance is equal to the sum of the relative atomic masses of all elements, taking into account indices.

Examples.

Mg (B2O3) = 2 • Ar (B) + 3 • Ar (O) = 2 • 11 + 3 • 16 = 70

Mg (KAl (SO4) 2) = 1 • Ar (K) + 1 • Ar (Al) + 1 • 2 • Ar (S) + 2 • 4 • Ar (O) =

= 1 • 39 + 1 • 27 + 1 • 2 • 32 + 2 • 4 • 16 = 258

The absolute mass of a molecule is equal to the relative molecular weight multiplied by amu. The number of atoms and molecules in ordinary samples of substances is very large, therefore, when characterizing the amount of a substance, a special unit of measurement is used - the mole.

The amount of substance, mol. Means a certain number of structural elements (molecules, atoms, ions). Denoted by n, measured in mol. A mole is an amount of a substance containing as many particles as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon.

Avogadro di Quareña number (NA). The number of particles in 1 mol of any substance is the same and is equal to 6.02 x 1023. (Avogadro's constant has a dimension of mol-1). Example. How many molecules are there in 6.4 g of sulfur?

The molecular weight of sulfur is 32 g / mol. We determine the amount of g / mol of a substance in 6.4 g of sulfur: n (s) = m (s) / M (s) = 6.4 g / 32 g / mol = 0.2 mol

Let us determine the number of structural units (molecules) using


 

Lecture complex. Lecture 1.

Lecture complex. Lecture 1.

Teaching the language of the specialty is conducted on a professionally oriented material

Teaching the language of the specialty is conducted on a professionally oriented material

In scientific chemical texts, the most commonly used general scientific terms are: system, method, structure, theory, experiment, construction, analysis, temperature, energy, volume, mass, period, etc

In scientific chemical texts, the most commonly used general scientific terms are: system, method, structure, theory, experiment, construction, analysis, temperature, energy, volume, mass, period, etc

Another example. The term "azeotropic" has three parts: "a" (negation), "zeo" (boiling), "trope" (change)

Another example. The term "azeotropic" has three parts: "a" (negation), "zeo" (boiling), "trope" (change)

A chemical element is a type of atom characterized by certain nuclear charges and the structure of the electron shells

A chemical element is a type of atom characterized by certain nuclear charges and the structure of the electron shells

Cl and 37 17 Cl A chemical formula is a conditional record of the composition of a substance with the help of chemical signs (proposed…

Cl and 37 17 Cl A chemical formula is a conditional record of the composition of a substance with the help of chemical signs (proposed…

C) is the mass of a carbon atom 12C

C) is the mass of a carbon atom 12C
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