1) Subject, main content and objectives of
the discipline "Professional Russian (Kazakh) language".
2) Chemistry as a science. Research
subject and methods.
The expansion of international cooperation
in the economic, political, scientific and technical, cultural and educational
fields requires a modern graduate of a higher school to have an active command
of the Russian (Kazakh) language.
Knowledge of the Kazakh (Russian) language
allows you to implement such aspects of professional activity as modern
acquaintance with the latest technologies, discoveries and trends in the
development of science and technology, establishing professional contacts with
foreign partners. It provides an increase in the level of professional
The motivation for mastering the Russian
(Kazakh) language, first of all, is the professional need of a student
preparing to become a highly qualified specialist with knowledge of the Russian
(Kazakh) language. In this regard, one of the main features of this curriculum
at the university is its professionally oriented nature, reflected in the
educational goal and content of training.
In this aspect, the development of public
speech skills (message, report, discussion), the development of skills in
reading special literature in order to obtain information, acquaintance with
the basics of abstracting, annotating and translating literature in the
specialty, development of basic writing skills for preparing publications and
conducting correspondence are carried out. Teaching the language of the
specialty is conducted on a professionally oriented material.
Chemistry is the science of substances,
the laws of their transformations (physical and chemical properties) and
application. Currently, more than 100 thousand inorganic and more than 4
million organic compounds are known.
Chemical phenomena: some
substances turn into others that differ from the original in composition and
properties, while the composition of the atomic nuclei does not change.
Physical phenomena: the physical
state of substances changes (vaporization, melting, electrical conductivity,
the release of heat and light, malleability, etc.) or new substances are formed
with a change in the composition of atomic nuclei.
Topic: Technique of translation of
1) Rules for the compilation and use of an
individual dictionary of chemical terms.
2) Study of computer programs and the
ability to use them. Possibilities of using programs.
Key words: atom, molecule, ion, particle,
law of constancy of composition, law of conservation of mass of matter.
General scientific, general technical and
interdisciplinary terms are the words that can be used to describe and
characterize phenomena and processes in a variety of sciences; words that are
often transferred from common vocabulary and reinterpreted in a new way, with
concepts firmly assigned to them.
In scientific chemical texts, the most
commonly used general scientific terms are: system, method, structure, theory,
experiment, construction, analysis, temperature, energy, volume, mass, period,
There are also general technical terms.
These include words used to denote basic technical concepts: apparatus,
In polytechnic dictionaries, several
meanings are fixed for such terms. For example, chain: rifle (military),
caterpillar (technical), chain of atoms (chemical), electrical (physical), etc.
When a new terminological meaning arises,
there is a change in the information capacity of the term, which entails the
phenomenon of terminological polysemy (polyfunctionality). Polyfunctionality
makes it possible to use already existing national and international linguistic
resources to express new concepts.
In chemical terminology, the process of
consciously creatively constructing terms has been going on internationally for
Fragment "cryo" in translation
from Greek means ice, cold. Hence: cryolite is a cold stone (looks like ice);
crystals - ice, rock crystal. The word "hygro", translated from the
Greek meaning moisture, and the word "hydro", meaning water, are
fragments of modern words: hygroscopicity (moisture + observation);
hydrophobicity (water + fear), etc.
Deciphering some of the terms formed by
Greek words is at the same time the formulation of the corresponding concepts.
For example, the term "amorphous" can be divided into two parts -
"a" (negation) and "morph" (form, type). Hence, the term
"amorphous", i.e. shapeless, includes the concept of substances that
do not have a crystalline structure. Thus, when a teacher gives a translation
of Greek words into Russian, he, in fact, explains the meaning of the terms.
Another example. The term
"azeotropic" has three parts: "a" (negation),
"zeo" (boiling), "trope" (change). This term characterizes
a mixture of substances, during the distillation of which they do not separate
and a condensate of the same composition as the original solution is formed.
Topic: The main sections of "General
1) General laws of chemistry. The law of
conservation of mass and energy. The law of constancy of composition, isotopes.
2) The structure of the atom. Chemical
formulas and reaction equations. Types of chemical reactions. Kinetics of
3) Phase states of matter. Solutions,
solubility. Redox reactions. Electrolysis.
4) Entering vocabulary on the topic.
Compilation of a terminological dictionary. Reading text on the topic,
exercises to consolidate vocabulary. Answers to questions after the text.
Key words: Matter, atom, chemical element,
chemical bond, valence, molecule, substance, atomic and molecular masses, mol.
Atomic - molecular science.
1.All substances are made up of molecules.
A molecule is the smallest particle of a
substance that has its chemical properties. 2. Molecules are made of atoms.
An atom is the smallest particle of a
chemical element that retains all its chemical properties. Different atoms
correspond to different elements.
3. Molecules and atoms are in continuous
motion; there are forces of attraction and repulsion between them.
A chemical element is a type of atom
characterized by certain nuclear charges and the structure of the electron
shells. Currently, 117 elements are known: 89 of them are found in nature (on
Earth), the rest are obtained artificially. Atoms exist in a free state, in
compounds with atoms of the same or other elements, forming molecules. The
ability of atoms to interact with other atoms and form chemical compounds is
determined by its structure. Atoms consist of a positively charged nucleus and
negatively charged electrons moving around it, forming an electrically neutral
system that obeys the laws characteristic of microsystems.
The atomic nucleus is the central part of
the atom, consisting of Z protons and N neutrons, in which the bulk of the
atoms is concentrated.
The charge of the nucleus is positive,
equal in magnitude to the number of protons in the nucleus or electrons in a
neutral atom and coincides with the ordinal number of the element in the
periodic system. The sum of protons and neutrons of an atomic nucleus is called
the mass number A = Z + N.
Isotopes are chemical elements with the
same nuclear charges, but different mass numbers due to the different number of
neutrons in the nucleus.
Z Э 63
29 Cu and 65
29 Cu; 35
17 Cl and 37
A chemical formula is a conditional record
of the composition of a substance with the help of chemical signs (proposed in
1814 by J. Berzelius) and indices (the index is the number to the right below
the symbol. It indicates the number of atoms in a molecule). The chemical
formula shows which atoms of which elements and in what ratio are connected to
each other in a molecule.
Allotropy is the phenomenon of the
formation of several simple substances by a chemical element that differ in
structure and properties. Simple substances - molecules, consist of atoms of
the same element.
Complex substances - molecules, consist of
atoms of various chemical elements.
The international unit of atomic masses is
equal to 1/12 of the mass of the isotope 12C - the main isotope of natural
1 amu = 1/12 • m (12C) = 1.66057 • 10-24 g
Relative atomic mass (Ar) is a
dimensionless quantity equal to the ratio of the average mass of an atom of an
element (taking into account the percentage of isotopes in nature) to 1/12 of
the mass of a 12C atom.
The average absolute mass of an atom (m)
is equal to the relative atomic mass multiplied by amu.
Ar (Mg) = 24.312
m (Mg) = 24.312 * 1.66057 * 10-24 = 4.037
* 10-23 g
Relative molecular weight (Mr) is a
dimensionless value that shows how many times the mass of a molecule of a given
substance is more than 1/12 of the mass of a carbon atom 12C.
Mg = mg / (1/12 ma (12C))
mr is the mass of a molecule of a given
mа (12C) is the mass of a carbon atom 12C.
Mg = S Ag (e). The relative molecular
weight of a substance is equal to the sum of the relative atomic masses of all
elements, taking into account indices.
Mg (KAl (SO4) 2) = 1 • Ar (K) + 1 • Ar (Al)
+ 1 • 2 • Ar (S) + 2 • 4 • Ar (O) =
= 1 • 39 + 1 • 27 + 1 • 2 • 32 + 2 • 4 •
16 = 258
The absolute mass of a molecule is equal
to the relative molecular weight multiplied by amu. The number of atoms and
molecules in ordinary samples of substances is very large, therefore, when
characterizing the amount of a substance, a special unit of measurement is used
- the mole.
The amount of substance, mol. Means a
certain number of structural elements (molecules, atoms, ions). Denoted by n,
measured in mol. A mole is an amount of a substance containing as many
particles as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon.
Avogadro di Quareña number (NA).
The number of particles in 1 mol of any substance is the same and is equal to
6.02 x 1023. (Avogadro's constant has a dimension of mol-1). Example. How many
molecules are there in 6.4 g of sulfur?
The molecular weight of sulfur is 32 g /
mol. We determine the amount of g / mol of a substance in 6.4 g of sulfur: n
(s) = m (s) / M (s) = 6.4 g / 32 g / mol = 0.2 mol
Let us determine the number of structural
units (molecules) using
Lecture complex. Lecture 1.
Teaching the language of the specialty is conducted on a professionally oriented material
In scientific chemical texts, the most commonly used general scientific terms are: system, method, structure, theory, experiment, construction, analysis, temperature, energy, volume, mass, period, etc
Another example. The term "azeotropic" has three parts: "a" (negation), "zeo" (boiling), "trope" (change)
A chemical element is a type of atom characterized by certain nuclear charges and the structure of the electron shells
Cl and 37 17 Cl A chemical formula is a conditional record of the composition of a substance with the help of chemical signs (proposed…