Theoretical material
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Theoretical material

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английский язык +1
2 кл—11 кл
11.12.2020
Theoretical material
Theoretical material
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Theoretical material

# 1. General characteristics of the functional style of scientific and technical literature

There are five main styles in the language: artistic, official-business, journalistic, colloquial and everyday and scientific literature.

Scientific style is a functional style of speech serving the fields of science and education, technology and manufacturing. The scientific style is characterized by such properties as the logical sequence of presentation, accuracy, objectivity, evidence, generality and abstraction (abstraction), saturation with factual information. The main feature of the scientific style is the presence of terms.

A term is a word or phrase that accurately denotes a special concept used in science, technology, art (for example: theorem, tibia, chlorophyll, synecdochus).

The scientific style serves four communication spheres (self-scientific sphere, the sphere of education, the sphere of popularizing scientific knowledge and achievements, production and technical sphere), each of which forms a special sub-style of the scientific style. Each sub-style has its own sub-language (thematic-speech variety); each sub-style is realized through scientific works of different genres (varieties of texts).

A sublanguage is a collection of lexical, grammatical and stylistic means used in certain branches of science and technology (for example, the sublanguage of mechanics, the sublanguage of chemistry, the sublanguage of economics, etc.); a set of professional lexicophraseological means familiar to specialists (special terminology, terminological combinations, professional turns of speech, for example: in medicine - abscess, hypoxia, in physics - mass, photon, darkening matter; in chemistry - sulfonation, electrolysis, organoleptic properties).

A genre is a type of works in the scientific and technical literature characterized by specific stylistic features (for example, article genre, patent document genre, etc.).

 

# 2. Substyles and their genres

Actually a teaching sub-style. The specialist scientist addresses the scientific information to the specialist. The purpose of the style is to identify and describe new facts, patterns, discoveries (genres: dissertation, monograph, abstract, scientific article, scientific report, abstracts, scientific review, etc.). The texts of this subtype contain complex scientific information, as well as general scientific and highly specialized terms. Example: Microcline is a rock-forming mineral of the feldspar group of the subclass of frame silicates, which is a low-temperature form of potassium feldspar, (K1Na) [A15'13Oya]. It crystallizes in the triclinic system; magmatic in origin. Color - pink, brownish yellow, sometimes green (amazonite).

Scientific and educational substyle. The specialist directs the work to future specialists and students for the purpose of their training. Mandatory is a description "from general to specific", strict classification, introduction and use of terms (genres: textbook, dictionary, methodological guide, lecture, synopsis, abstract, oral answer, explanation). Example: “Botany is the science of plants. The name of this science comes from the Greek word "botane", which means "greenery, grass, plant". Botany studies the life of plants, their internal and external structure, the distribution of plants on the surface of the globe, the relationship of plants with the surrounding nature and with each other (V. Korchagina).

 Popular science sub-style. The specialist addresses information to non-specialists who do not have special knowledge in this area. The aim of the style is to familiarize oneself with the described phenomena and facts (genres: essay, book, popular science lecture or article, interviews of scientists, a note in a popular science magazine or newspaper, etc.). The use of numbers and technical terms is minimal (each of the terms is explained in detail). The style features: ease of reading, significant simplifications, consideration of particular phenomena without a general overview and classification. Example: The term "chemistry" appeared in the 4th century AD. in Greek. Perhaps (and most researchers are inclined to this), this word comes from "Kemi" - "Black country"; this is how Egypt was called in ancient times. Chemistry was created by people of an unusual fate - first alchemists, then doctors and pharmacists, and, finally, chemists proper. What attracts people to do chemistry? Probably a mysterious force in the substance. It can be both curative and terrible in its destructive effect. She can give warmth and light, but she can plunge into darkness and cold. Chemists are essentially gambling hunters for the unusual properties of new substances, trackers in the world of chemical reactions.

Scientific and technical background. The addressee is technical specialists. The goal is an accurate, specific and complete presentation of technical 12 information, the application of the achievements of fundamental science in practice (genres: 1. description of various technical devices, units and devices, 2. technical instructions and manuals, 3. description of technology and nature of production processes, 4. description of techniques


 

Theoretical material # 1. General characteristics of the functional style of scientific and technical literature

Theoretical material # 1. General characteristics of the functional style of scientific and technical literature

A sublanguage is a collection of lexical, grammatical and stylistic means used in certain branches of science and technology (for example, the sublanguage of mechanics,…

A sublanguage is a collection of lexical, grammatical and stylistic means used in certain branches of science and technology (for example, the sublanguage of mechanics,…

K1Na) [A15'13Oya]. It crystallizes in the triclinic system; magmatic in origin

K1Na) [A15'13Oya]. It crystallizes in the triclinic system; magmatic in origin

Example: The term "chemistry" appeared in the 4th century

Example: The term "chemistry" appeared in the 4th century
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